Factors associated with Chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of the women in Khaptad Channa Rural Municipality-05, Thakuri Community, Bajhang


Bachelor Thesis, 2019

60 Pages


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATE

DECLERATION

RECOMMENDATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF TABLE

LIST OF FIGURE

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER: I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background information
1.2 Statement of problems
1.3 Rationale of the Study
1.4 Objective
1.4.1 General objectives
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
1.5 Research question
1.6 Conceptual Framework

CHAPTER: II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Overview of literature review
2.2 Related literature
2.2.1 Thematic literature
2.2.2. Empirical literature

CHAPTER: III
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Design:
3.2 Study Area
3.3 Study Population
3.4 Inclusive criteria
3.5 Study duration:
3.6 Sampling technique:
3.7 Variable
1.8 Data collection technique
3.9 Sample size:
3.10 Data collection technique and tools:
3.11 Data analysis and data presentation
3.12 Pre testing
3.13 Validity and Reliability of the research
3.14 Ethical consideration
3.15 Limitations of the study
3.16 Operational definition

CHAPTER: IV
RESEARCH FINDING
4.1 Demographic characteristics of study participant:
4.2 Practices related chhaupadi Pratha
4.3 Factor associated with chhaupadi Pratha
4.4 Health impact due to chhaupadi Pratha
4.5 Perception towards chhaupadi Pratha
4.6 Finding from observation of chhaupadi Goth

CHAPTER: V

DISCUSSION

CHAPTER: VI
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendation

REFERENCES

ANNEX

CERTIFICATE

It is certified that this research entitled “factors associated with chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of women in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 (thakuri community) bajhang” is the bonfire work of Mr. Dhani Singh conducted under our guidance and supervision as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Public Health from National Academy of Medical Sciences of Purbanchal University.

Research report Approved By:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this research entitled “factors associated with chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of women in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 (thakuri community) bajhang" has been prepared by me under the close guidance and supervision of Mrs. Rama Devi Pahari as a guide in the partial fulfillment for the degree of bachelor in public health from National Academy for Medical Sciences of Purbanchal university.

...............

Dhani Singh

PU registration number: 091-6-2-01440-2015

Bachelor of Public Health

2015 Batch

Department of Public Health

National Academy force Medical Sciences (NAMS)

Old Baneshwor, Kathmandu.

RECOMMENDATION

This is recommended that the research entitled “factors associated with chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of women in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 (thakuri community) bajhang" has been carried out by Dhani Singh for the partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Public Health this original work has conducted under my supervision. I would like to recommend that keeping this research report for final evaluation.

..............

Rama Devi Pahari

Department of Nursing

National Academy for medical Sciences

Old Baneshwor, Kathmandu Nepal

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have taken efforts in this research report on "factors associated with chhaupadi pratha and its impact on health of women in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 thakuri community Bajhang". However, it would not have been possible to complete the field without the kind support and help of many individual and organization; I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

It is a genuine pleasure to express my deepest sense of thanks and gratitude to Mr. Ram Bahadur Shrestha, the respected principal of National Academy for Medical Sciences (NAMS) whose meticulous scrutiny scholarly advice encourages me to conduct this research.

I would like to express my gratitude to Mrs. Rama Devi Pahari, my supervisor, HOD of nursing faculty, NAMS College for excellent and overwhelming guidance, supervision and care as well as providing necessary information regarding this research practices and also for their inspiration and support for completing this research report.

I have highly indebted to Mrs. Vijayalaxmi Shrestha, the respected Head of Department of BPH program, National Academy for Medical Sciences (NAMS) for excellent and overwhelming guidance, care, as well as encourage to me coordinate during field practices. I owe deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Nikesh Khanal, for his constant advice and excellent support during this research.

I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Naina Bahadur Singh, (chief of swastya sakha Khaptad Channa Gaunpalika), Mr.Shivasankar Joshi, (in-charge of kalukheti health post), for providing necessary support and information regarding this research paper.

I would thankful to Mr. Balkesh Singh, Mr. youbraj Singh, Mrs. Mausami Singh, Mrs. Malati Singh, for providing support and help during data collection, and it is privilege to thank profusely to all the respondent for their excellent response and support.

It’s privilege to thank profusely to the administration and entire staff of NAMS, who provided all required support to complete the research paper.

Dhani Singh

BPH 11th Batch

2019

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4. 1 Demographic characteristic of 140 study participant

Table 4. 2 practice related to chhaupadi Pratha

Table 4. 3 Association between age group and chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 4 Association between Marital status and chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 5 Association between Family type and chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 6 Association between Educational Level and chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 7 Association between family primary occupation and chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 8 Association between family monthly income and chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 9 Psychological problems due chhaupadi Pratha

Table 4. 10 Physical problems among women's/ girls due chhaupadi Pratha

Table 4. 11 Skin problems due chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 12 Reproductive health problems due chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 13 Physical and social issues encounter during menstruation

Table 4. 14 Age wise reproductive health problems distribution due chhaupadi Pratha

Table 4. 15 Age wise skin problems distribution due chhaupadi Pratha

Table 4. 16 Age wise psychological problems due chhaupadi Pratha

Table 4. 17 Age wise physical problems distribution due chhaupadi Pratha

Table 4. 18 participant perception towards chhaupadi pratha

Table 4. 19 Finding from observation

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. 1 conceptual Framework

Figure 4. 1 Main seconders of chhaupadi pratha

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

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ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chhaupadi system is traditional practice in which women and girls are forbidden to touch anything and have to live in cowshed during menstruation. It is a widespread practice prevalent in Far West and some parts of Mid-West region of Nepal. In Far West it is prevalent mainly in Achham, Bajura, Bajhang, Doti, Baitadi, Dadheldhura, Darchula, Kanchanpur, and Kailali. Chhaupadi is a cultural and religious practice which has roots in the manifestation of the core concept of ‘purity’ (suddha, Chokho), versus ‘pollution’ (asuddha, Jutho) which is very prominent in Hindu religion and culture .

Objectives: The general objectives of the study were to assess the factor associated with the Chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of women of Thakuri community in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05, Bajhang.

Methodology: The data was collected from 140 reproductive age women's and girls’ using a self-administered survey in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 Thakuri community Bajhang. The data was collected by using an observation checklist. Descriptive statistics of the quantitative survey was presented.

Result: These studies found that all the participant was practices the taboos of untouchability, and the majority of the participant 89 (63.57%) accept the chhaupadi pratha. The study found that Headache (82.2%), Fever (74.8%) and diarrhea (40.7%) were major physical health problems. Depression (65.2) and irritation (66.7%) to be common psychological problems among menstruating women practicing Chhaupadi. Also, study found that reproductive health problems such as vaginal burning (64.1%) and painful vagina (53.1%) were significantly higher among women of menstrual age who practiced Chhaupadi. Scare (60.5%) and rashes (64.9%) are the major skin problems during menstruation practicing chhaupadi pratha and also conclude educational status, family type, family occupation, respondent occupation, and family monthly income was the factor that are associated with chhaupadi pratha at thakuri community Bajhang.

Conclusion: The various factor such as educational status, family type, family occupation, respondent occupation and family monthly income contribute for practice chhaupadi pratha. The health problems from chhaupadi pratha was physical, mental, skin and reproductive health problems among reproductive age women due to chhaupadi pratha.

Key words: Factors, Chhaupdi pratha, Health impact, Health

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background information

In most parts of the developed world, women assume that their menstrual periods will remain a part of their private lives and cannot affect their ability to figure, attend school or otherwise contribute to society. this is often not the case in Nepal, where women are considered "unclean" and “impure” during the menstrual period prevented from collaborating in many normal aspects of their lives. Even during this modern-day female would be sent to spend the duration of their monthly menstruation isolated in an unsanitary hut, this is often a typical and accepted ritualistic practice for girls in Nepal (1).

Chhaupadi and other sorts of discrimination during the menstruation may be a serious right violation affecting females in rural areas in Far West Nepal districts. While the govt. has outlawed the practice, it's struggled to show policies and action plans into practice. per the practice, women are considered ‘impure’ during their menstruation period and are banished from their family home and compelled to measure in a very cow shed or a Chhaupadi shed for the duration of their period each month, usually 5-7 days. During this era, they're denied access to nutritious food products like dairy products including milk also as green vegetables, forbidden from making physical contact with other members of the household, community or assets like cattle and trees, bereft of access to basic sanitation and not allowed to the touch taps or public water supplies. Occasion.ally, women have access to a chosen pump outdoors or a stream within the village which they will use to wash and wash their clothes. The Chhaupadi sheds are very basic, small outbuildings with no doors. This leaves women liable to various illnesses also as animal attacks from snakes, poisonous insects and sexual violence. Chhaupadi may be a cultural and non secular practice which has roots within the manifestation of the core concept of ‘purity’ (suddha, Chokho), versus ‘pollution’ (asuddha, Jutho) which is extremely prominent in Hindu religion and culture (2).

Chhaupadi system is traditional practice during which women and girls are forbidden to the touch anything and must board cowshed during menstruation. it's a widespread practice prevalent in Far West and a few parts of Mid-West region of Nepal. In Far West it's prevalent mainly in Achham, Bajura, Bajang, Doti, Baitadi, Dadheldhura, Darchula, Kanchanpur, and Kailali and in Mid-West it's prevalent in Kalikot, Jumla, Humla, Mugu, Dailekh Jajarkot, and Surkhet Districts. In these areas, family and society don't treat menstruation as natural phenomena (3).

In many areas of Nepal, particularly undeveloped mountainous regions, women are considered impure when menstruating. For per week each month these women become untouchable. they have to eat their meals separately, make no physical contact with others or with water sources (I was forbidden to the touch the tap), and must have intercourse little or no bedding. In some areas, women are expected to sleep outside in a very tiny hut called a Goth until they're clean again. this practice is named chhaupadi, derived from two Hindu words: chhau (4).

Chhaupadi is that the way of life for therefore many ladies in Nepal. Young girls are expected to fulfil their natural role as a mother, yet the very organic process that permits this miracle of motherhood is condemned as shameful and dirty. When daughters get older to be ashamed of their own nature. Girls practicing Chhaupadi will stop attending school each month during this point of non-public isolation, therefore sustaining the inequality in education and therefore the stigma surrounding periods. this is often due partially to poor access to and knowledge about products like sanitary pads. there's a general lack of education on menstrual hygiene in Nepal, which may be a direct result of persistent traditional beliefs and practices (4).

Menstruating women are prohibited from participating in normal family and community life, including entering the kitchen, using common toilets and eating common food. Women are required to remain aloof from temples and other holy places and are restricted from collaborating in community activities. Menstruating women and girls are compelled to remain in chhau goths, which are generally unhygienic places without proper light and ventilation or protection from the weather. Most chhau goths don't have sanitation facilities, like toilets or running water. Hence, the practice of chhaupadi may invalidate the ‘open defecation free’ (ODF) status per some communities, because it requires women to return to open defecation during their manse. (5).

Women face various discriminatory practices within the context of chhaupadi. The tradition is that ladies cannot enter inside houses, kitchens and temples. They also can’t touch other persons, cattle, green vegetables and plants, or fruits. Similarly, women practicing chhaupadi cannot milk buffalos or cows, and don't seem to be allowed to drink milk or eat milk products. Generally, Generally, women stay in very separate hut or cattle shed for five days during menstruation (3).

1.2 Statement of problems

According to custom, women shouldn't lean milk or ghee while they're menstruating, but should only eat flatbread with salt. This deprives them of nutritious food during their periods. the ladies must survive on a diet of dry foods, salt, and rice. they can't use warm blankets, and are allowed only a tiny low rug. they're barred from consuming milk, yogurt, butter, meat, and other nutritious foods. they're also restricted from visiting school or performing their daily functions like taking a shower, forced to remain within the barbaric conditions of the shed. Access to water taps and wells is additionally limited. Chhaupadi women can only.

Bathe or wash clothes during a “chhaupadi dhara”- a separate well, stream or small rivulet nears the village. With such a robust societal stigma attached, the impact of chhaupadi on the health of Nepali women is traumatic to mention the smallest amount five days a month, the ladies are confined to a dark, dirty room without nutritious food in sufficient quantity. As women don't seem to be allowed within the house during menstruation, they often engage in harder, manual labour outdoors as a result, including digging, collecting firewood and grasses and farm labor. These conditions take their toll on women's health and make them more liable to various health problems, including diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory diseases. The reason behind Chhaupadi tradition there's many cases of girls raped, killed by wild animals, bitten by snakes or dead of cold during their stay within the chhaupadi Goth Chhaupadi women face both physical and mental hardship. As mentioned, women are often relegated to chhaupadi Goth or cattle sheds where they stay in very basic, unhygienic and exposed conditions.

1.3 Rationale of the Study

Lots of studies are conducted among the sector of chhaupadi Pratha basically concerning with diseases and psychological state, sociopolitical issues. But there's not found any study about chhaupadi Pratha with associated consider Thakuri Community which is a remarkable issue for Public Health. it's a hidden issue.

The study is going to be conducted among the people of Thakuri society, Bajhang. there's not a study about the Chhaupadi system and its impacts on health of women and their experience within the sector of health of the women/girls of Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 Bajhang.

Chhaupadi is that the very interesting and hidden issues still existent within the study. its own process and practices. It should be shown this issue within the world, because there's no more literature found about chhaupadi Pratha from academic field but few empirical literatures are found. Among these literature about chhaupadi only few literatures are available therefore, during this relation, the requirement of more researches and studies. As these purpose study aims to access the local perspective of chhaupadi and their perception. it'll be very helpful to researchers, development organizations and organization involved in health research.

1.4 Objective

1.4.1 General objectives

- To assess the factor associated with the Chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of women of Thakuri community in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05, Bajhang.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

- To determine the factor that are associated with Chhaupadi Pratha.
- To determine the women’s/girls perception towards chhaupadi system
- To assess health impact due to chhaupadi Pratha to reproductive age women and girls.

1.5 Research question

What is the factor that are associated with chhaupadi Pratha?

What are the health impact to women due to Chaupadi pratha?

1.6 Conceptual Framework

The conceptual model shapes the research by recognizing the key element of the research. Which will make the study easier in the interpretation of the findings for the case of research in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05, Bajhang. The conceptual framework of this study is given below.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1. 1 conceptual Framework

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Overview of literature review

A literature review is simply a summary of what existing scholarship knows about a particular topic. It is always based on secondary sources, that is, what other people have already written on the subject; it is not concerned about discovering new knowledge or information. As such, it is a prelude to further research, a digest of scholarly opinion. A literature review should focus only on the relevant academic literature: popular or non-academic sources may be brought in occasionally to illustrate a point, but the central interest is always on the data collected or the theories put together by recognized experts in the field. A literature review will try to look at as much of this existing research as possible. It will review major scholarly books in the relevant area, but will also take a keen interest in journal articles, which in many subjects give more up-to date material (6).

2.2 Related literature

2.2.1 Thematic literature

The qualitative research on "chhaupadi Pratha: women condition and suffering" was conducted in Duni VDC Aacham. The main aim of this research is to determine the social problems in women health. The data was collected by using focus group discussion and in-depth interview. These research shows that in Duni "Chhaupadi" in Duni VDC Achham is practiced in which women are kept in a small shed during menstruation period. Chhaupadi system limits women's capability to live a safe, healthy, and educated life forbidding women from anything to touch during their menstruation period. Women are considered as impure during the period of menstruation. It is a violation of women's human rights. It restricts women's human development such as capabilities to be survived, to be well nourished, capability to be safe, educated capabilities to get health facilities, and longer life, capability to be free from social servitude and superstitions (7).

The qualitative study on "Chhaupadi in Nepal: Towards a Harm Reduction Strategy" conducted in three district Aacham, Kailali and Bajura. The data was collected by using focus group discussion, in-depth interview, organizational interview and observation. This research shows that the goal of eliminating chhaupadi needs to be preceded by the de-stigmatization of menstruation as a physiological process. This will only happen once we start informing people what menstruation actually is. Any strategy for harm reduction must take into account both the fears of the local people and their right to practice their own religion. It is also important to keep in mind that more restrictions seem to be are imposed by the community than by the families. This presents a window of opportunity for chhaupadi harm reduction efforts as individual families are evidently moving towards change by loosening restrictions within the households. It is useful to keep in mind that in championing the rights of some, we do not want to infringe on the rights of others who believe in the system and want to continue it. We must respect religion, but advocate for its transformation to forms that respect all persons (5).

The united nation field bulletin on "chhaupadi in far west" shows that most women follow all the norms of the system. However, some women residing near the district headquarters have started to drink milk and eat milk products. The number of girls attending school during menstruation has significantly increased recently. At the same time, even educated women still hesitate to visit temples or prepare food in case they may anger the Gods or Goddesses and bring misfortune. A female NGO worker in Dadeldhura reported that it’s very difficult to convince the older generation to abandon Chhaupadi. Neighbors are said to put pressure on the woman or her family when they do not follow the system (3).

The article on "Chhaupadi: The affliction of menses in Nepal" shows that The element offer involved with the practice, along with pressure from the community, are big parts of why the women continue to put themselves through Chhaupadi. Crop failure, death and disease, and water shortages have been blamed on women not strictly following the rules of the practice. Families believe that misfortune will be brought on them by the gods if a menstruating woman is allowed in the home or any religious places. In the eyes of many in remote villages of western Nepal, ignoring Chhaupadi would bring ruin to everyone. Old beliefs die hard, even when rape and underage pregnancy are the tragic consequences (4).

Chhaupadi practice, which is characterized by banishment of women during menstruation from their usual residence due to supposed impurity, is in existence in the mid- and far-western regions of Nepal. It has been criticized for violation of basic human rights of women and also for its associated physical and mental health impacts. Despite having been outlawed, it continues to exist due to illiteracy, superstitious beliefs, gender disparity and community endorsement of the practice. It is necessary to increase the ongoing social awareness among affected Nepali communities about the natural character of menstruating and the harmful practice of Chhaupadi in order to eliminate this violence against women while also addressing the community’s concerns (8).

Chhaupadi is a practice where girls/women are not allowed to enter inside the house, touch water and milk for 4 to 7 days during their menstruation period. They must stay in a hut outside, identified as a chhaupadi house. a mixed method study (Quan+Qual), was conducted to find out the practice of school going female adolescents regarding chhaupadi practice in Doti district of Far-western region of Nepal. The findings also revealed that chhaupadi ritual has been practiced by the people despite of the fact that it has serious effect in the health of the female. Also, it has threatened the security of the women, sometimes resulting brutal consequences like rape and death of the women. The study concluded that beside all other factors responsible for continuation of chhaupadi ritual, there is a strong superstitious belief that various miss happenings will occur due to violation of chhaupadi ritual. Therefore, it is necessary to increase awareness by lunching awareness programs and should be emphasized in school curriculum as well (9).

2.2.2. Empirical literature

Menstrual exile, also known as Chhaupadi, is a tradition of “untouchability” in far-western Nepal. Based on the observational cross-sectional study was conducted with 107 sample size in two school of Aacham district far western Nepal. Study shows that the majority of the girls (n = 77, 72%) practiced exile, or Chhaupadi, during their menstruation, including 3 (4%) exiled to traditional Chhau sheds, 63 (82%) to livestock sheds, and 11 (14%) to courtyards outside their home. The remaining girls (n = 30, 28%) stayed inside the house, yet practiced some form of menstrual taboos. Of the 77 observed living spaces where the girls stayed during exile, only 30% (n = 23) had a toilet facility. Most exiled girls (97.4%) were restricted from eating dairy products. Participants reported having various psychological problems, including loneliness and difficulty sleeping while practicing Chhaupadi. Three of the girls were physically abused; nine were bitten by a snake. Notably high proportions of the living spaces lacked ventilation/windows (n = 20, 26%), electricity (n = 29, 38%), toilets (n = 54, 70%) and a warm blanket and mattress for sleeping (n = 29, 38%) (10).

The observational cross-sectional study on "chhaupadi Pratha and education among girls" was conducted in three district (Mugu, kalikot and Jumla) by Action work Nepal. The total sample size from three district is 661. these study shows that there were altogether 233 participants (37.8%) who do not attend school during menstruation (including school left, never attended and absent during menstruation). Nearly 20% do not attend school because of health problem during menstruation and 19% responded that they felt uneasy to go, where 16% remained absent cause of shyness on those days. And still 15% have to stay in separate place strictly in those days so they remain at home, and in the same way other 5% were not allowed by parents to attend school (11).

According to Radha Paudel, head of the grassroots organization Action Works Nepal (AWON), as many as 95% of girls and women in Nepal’s mid- and far-reaching western regions practice Chhaupadi, with the great majority of them banished to cowsheds. Yet Nepalese women all over the country – even Nepalese women abroad still practice the tradition to varying degrees. Chhaupadi has been linked to a host of psychological and physical illnesses. that 77% of girls and women felt humiliated during their periods, and two-thirds reported feeling lonely and scared when staying in cowsheds (12).

Chhaupadi culture in Nepal is that threat wherein menstruating women have to live outside of the home in a shed-like dwelling. The study aims to determine the factors of reproductive health problems related to Chhaupadi. A cross-sectional study was performed with women of menstrual age (N = 672) in Kailali and Bardia districts of Nepal. Data were collected with stratified sampling. Results reveal that one fifth (21%) of households used Chhaupadi. Condition of livelihood, water facility, and access during menstruation and precisely the Chhaupadi stay was associated (P < .001) with the reproductive health problems of women. The study concludes that Chhaupadi is a major threat for women’s health. (13).

Awareness about reproductive health, inclusive of menstruation hygiene, is generally lacking in adolescent girls because of sociocultural barricades in which they grow up. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1,160 college-going adolescent girls aged 15–19 years. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS, version 19. The study showed a response rate of 91.63%. Around 24.7% participants were aware about menstruation before menarche, 48% showed dysmenorrhea, and mothers were the main source of information. More than half of the students showed certain beliefs regarding menstruation and were also following restrictions. Overall, 78.9% of adolescent girls preferred sanitary pad as menstrual absorbent, while 25.6% of the girls were using both cloth and sanitary pad (14)

The quantitative and quantitative observational cross-sectional study on "Abolition of Chhaupadi in the Far and Mid-Western Region of Nepal Baseline Report" was conducted in Aacham district. The total sample size of the study is 367. The data should be collected thorough FGD, observation, in-depth interview and key informant interview. This study shows that. The most prevalent discrimination is related to the access to water since 48.9% stated to be only allowed to bath or wash clothes in the Chhaupadi Dhara and therefore are not allowed to touch water taps. The second most prevalent discrimination is the access to same quantity and variety of food since 37.9% of the girls and women were not allow eating the same variety of food, mainly milk and milky products. The participation in community/family level cultural and religious activities is another relevant discrimination since 32.6% of the respondents reported not being allowed to participate. Last but not least, 19% of them have slept in a hut or Chhaupadi, 14.1% have not being allowed to talk to males, only 11.4% stated not being allowed to read/write or touch books while. School attendance is one of the less prevalent discriminations (2).

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional Study was conducted to assess the factor associated with chaupadi pratha and its impact on health of women in Thakuri community, Bajhang. Only quantities data was included in the study.

3.2 Study Area: The study was conducted in Khaptad Channa rural municipality 05, (Thakuri community) Bajhang,

3.3 Study Population: All the women's/girls of reproductive age (15-49) years in Khaptad Channa rural municipality 05, (Thakuri community) Bajhang.

3.4 Inclusive criteria: All the women's/girls of reproductive age (15-49) years will be includes in research process as a research respondent. Those who were not interested was excluded from the study.

3.5 Study duration: The study duration of these study was 6 months.

3.6 Sampling technique:

The study was carried out by using purposive sampling for district and Gaunpalika selection. The participant of the study has selected by using simple random sampling (lottery method). All the reproductive age women's/girls are listed, call sampling frame. Make a lottery for each participant name from sampling frame and put into the bucket, choose manually one by one all the required participant from the bucket and listed. Chosen participant from bucket was the respondent for this research.

3.7 Variable

Dependent variable: Factor associated with chhaupadi pratha and its impact on health of women was the dependent variable.

Independent variable: Chhaupadi pratha was affected by various factor namely sociodemographic variable (age, education, family size, respondent occupation, marital status) and socio-economic variable (family income, respondent income).

1.8 Data collection technique

First take a consent from respondent by making effective rapport building. Then, collect the data through one to one interview by using the semi-structural questionnaire. And recorded carefully.

3.9 Sample size:

The probability sample has been calculated from (https://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm) with 95% confidence level, 5.1% confidence interval, margin of error 5% and population proportion 0.5 base on reproductive age (15-49) years women's/girls in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 (thakuri community) Bajhang. The total reproductive age women's/girls in Khaptad Channa rural municipality-05 (Thakuri community) Bajhang is 225(Swastya sakha Khaptad Channa rural municipality). After using this all information in selected site, the calculated sample size is 140.

Z statistic of confidence (Z): 95% (i.e. 1.96)

Margin of error (d): 8% = 5%

Expected prevalence or proportion=50%

By formula:

Sample size (n) = (z[2]pq)/d[2]

= 1.96[2]*[0.5*0.5] / 0.05[2]

Total Sample Size (n) = 384

Population Known (N) = 225

Required sample size = n / [1+ (n/N)]

= 384 / [1+ (384/225)]

= 140

After using this all information in selected site, the calculated sample size is 140.

3.10 Data collection technique and tools: Structure questionnaire was developed according to the objective after literature review, discussion with supervisor and teacher. Data was collected by using self-administrated questionnaire and observation checklist.

3.11 Data analysis and data presentation: The data was analysis by useng IBM SPSS version 23 software and data was present by using graph, bar diagram, pie chart and table.

3.12 Pre testing

The questionnaire was pre-tested in similar population Thakuri community Matuwa Bajhang prior to interview. Following the pre-testing, the questions that are of personal nature, not concerned with the respondent’s professional life was excluded from the questionnaire and the technical words related to be simplified in are order to make them understand and comfortable to answer the questions before finalizing the questionnaire.

3.13 Validity and Reliability of the research

- Preparation of research proposal was done in close guidance of the research supervisor.
- Adequate literature review was done to ensure accuracy of information and validity of tools.
- The set of questionnaire was developed based on NDHS survey with necessary modifications in local context.
- Pre-testing was done in similar community and necessary correction will be made.

3.14 Ethical consideration

- Verbal informed consent was taken from the participant before collecting the information.
- Participants were assured that confidentiality and privacy would be maintained.
- Participants were assured that the collected information will be only for study purpose.
- The bio-ethical research principles was adopted during the research and its publication.
- Ethical approval letter was taken from NHRC before conduction of research.
- Approval letter was taken from college before conduction of research.

3.15 Limitations of the study

- The research findings cannot be generalized as the research area has been taken purposively.
- The study was also limited in terms of time and resources.

3.16 Operational definition

1. Literate: literate means simply able to read and write. Only the women's /girls who write her name is consider as a literate women or girls.
2. Chhau Goth: The tiny house constructed near the living house where women and girls are expected to stay and sleep during menstruation period. Mostly in mid and far western development region chhau Goth are constructed.
3. Cow shed: The farm building where cattle are kept. In bajhang some women's/girls during means period are stay and sleep in cow shed.
4. Chhaupadi: The women or girls during menstruation period consider to be a chhaupadi. in another words name of menstruated women and girls during menstruation period all chhaupadi.
5. Menstruation period: in this study menstruation period means 5 days offer menstruation begin. Normally in village area women's are kept 5 days in chhau Goth.
6. Dhami: Dhami is commonly used to refer to “oracles” or “spirit mediums, they are also called a traditional doctor.
7 Chhaupadi Pratha: Menstrual exile, also known as Chhaupadi, is a tradition of “untouchability” in far-western Nepal. Forbidden from touching other people and objects, women and girls are required to live away from the community, typically in a livestock shed, during menstruation.
8. Accept Chhaupadi Pratha: Women and girls live in cow sheds or outside their homes (chhau Goth) during menses are consider to accept chhaupadi pratha in this research.

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDING

4.1 Demographic characteristics of study participant:

The mean age of the participant is 29.30 years with standard deviation 9.32 years. The age ranging from the 15-48 years. Most of the participant was married and belonging from joint family. Majority of participant were illiterate and from the family involved in agriculture. Majority of the respondent family earn less than five thousand per month.

Table 4. 1 Demographic characteristic of 140 study participant

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.2 Practices related chhaupadi Pratha

Majority of the participant in thakuri community (63.57%) was accept the chhaupadi Pratha and remaining participant lived inside the house but yet practices the menstrual taboos. Among the participant accept the chhaupadi pratha 93.3 % participant was lived chhau Goth and 6.7% lived in cow Goth. Most of the participant were eat a food outside the house 67.9% and remaining 31.4% were eat food inside the house. Majority of the participant used to eat usual food (92.9%) during menstruation and remaining 7.1% did not used to eat usual food during menstruation.

Majority of the participant were restricted from the consuming dairy product during menstruation. During menstruation period participant used different material, half of the participant used sanitary pad. After using materials, they used to dispose the materials, majority of respondent used to burn 36.2% after used the materials, 32.9% participant said that they wash and used again same materials during menstruation period. In the thakuri community majority of participant said that they used to toilet (65%) during menstruation and remaining 35% used to jungle as a toilet during menstruation.

Table 4. 2 practice related to chhaupadi Pratha

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

[...]

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Details

Title
Factors associated with Chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of the women in Khaptad Channa Rural Municipality-05, Thakuri Community, Bajhang
Course
Bachelor in Public Health
Author
Year
2019
Pages
60
Catalog Number
V539654
ISBN (eBook)
9783346141316
ISBN (Book)
9783346141323
Language
English
Keywords
factors, community, thakuri, municipality-05, rural, channa, khaptad, pratha, chhaupadi, bajhang
Quote paper
Dhani Singh (Author), 2019, Factors associated with Chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of the women in Khaptad Channa Rural Municipality-05, Thakuri Community, Bajhang, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/539654

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Title: Factors associated with Chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on health of the women in Khaptad Channa Rural Municipality-05, Thakuri Community, Bajhang



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