How to Measure Widows´ Emotional Adjustment and Life Satisfaction? Locus of Control, Fear of Death and Self-Efficacy as Predictors

The Case of Anambra State, Nigeria


Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2020

249 Pages, Grade: 4.5 of 5 (65%)


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTEN

DEDICATION.

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Review
2.2 Conceptual Review
2.3 Empirical Review
2.4 Summary of Review
2.5 Hypotheses

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Participants
3.2 Instruments
3.3 Procedures
3.4 Design/Statistics

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSIONS

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Summary
6.2 Conclusion
6.3 Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1
APPENDIX 2

DEDICATION

I dedicate the dissertation to Mrs Margret Azogbue Nwankwo (my grandmother), my wife, and my children.

ABSTRACT

The study was on locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life-satisfaction in Anambra State, Nigeria. The objectives were to examine whether these psychological variables could be used to improve widows’ emotional adjustment and life-satisfaction The three locus of control dimensions (internal locus, chance, and powerful others) and the two self-efficacy dimensions (general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy) were used to study locus of control and self-efficacy. Using cluster and purposive sampling methods, 887 participants/widows were selected from Anambra State, Nigeria. The participants had minimum educational level of senior secondary school, mean age of 52.2 years, mean number of 4 children and mean widowhood length of 8.5 years. Locus of control, fear of death, self-efficacy, emotional adjustment, and life satisfaction were measured on 5-point scale using locus of control scale, fear of death scale, self-efficacy scale, emotional adjustment measures, and satisfaction with life scale respectively. The study had cross-sectional design. The collected data which attained interval measurement were analyzed with hierarchical regression . The results showed that locus of control ( internal locus β = .16, p< .001), chance β = .19, p< .001, and powerful others β = .07, p = .040 dimensions), fear of death (β = .28, p< .001) , and self-efficacy ( general self-efficacy β = .24, p< .001, and social self-efficacy β = .07, p = .034 dimensions) were significant predictors of emotional adjustment of widows. Internal locus (β = .22, p< .001) and social self-efficacy (β = .10, p = .003) were also significant predictors of widows’ life satisfaction. Fear of death (β = .01, n.s.), chance (β = .03, n.s.) , powerful others (β = -.04, n.s.) , and general self-efficacy (β = .02, n.s.) did not predict widows’ life satisfaction. Finally, there was significant negative correlation between emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows (r = -.11, p < .001). Recommendations were made for widows to engage personal development that will equip them with skills that enhance general self-efficacy. Again, more studies need to be carried out in Igboland at large in order to know if similar results would be obtained. The implication of the study is that widows will achieve emotional adjustment and life satisfaction if they believe in their competence rather than societal sympathy.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Mean, standard deviations and number of participants

Table 2: Correlations among the study variables

Table 3: Hierarchical multiple regression of predictors of emotional adjustment

Table 4: Hierarchical multiple regression of predictors of life satisfaction

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Being a widow is stigmatizing (Parker, 2016) and carries with it social miseries (Chowdhury, Brahma, Mondal, & Biswas, 2016). Psychological conditions and experiences of many widows in many developing countries are appalling (Trivedi, Sareen, & Dhyani, 2009). The widows’ experiences could be associated with social and cultural practices relating to mourning. In Nigeria, especially among the Igbo people, the situation seems to be exacerbated (Idialu, 2012). These deplorable psychological conditions and experiences are ignored as inconsequential generational issues (Trivedi, Sareen, & Dhyani, 2009). These experiences could affect the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Yet, studies on widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction in Anambra State, Nigeria, seem scarce. More attention seems to be focused on the social and cultural practices of widowhood than widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. This created dearth of knowledge about widows’ psychological state, especially with the recent observation by Lissitsa and Chachashvili-Bolotin (2016) that young people experience life satisfaction more than older people.

Despite the inevitability of death, many widows still seem to be afraid of death, and have therefore failed to bolster important positive components and functionality of the self and healthy adjustment (Cozzolino, Blackie, & Meyes, 2015). Death of a husband is one of the life experiences that exposes a widow to what Okonkwo, Onuibe, Okoro, and Madu (2015) referred to as emotional exhaustion. Widows usually experience psychological challenges like social anxiety disorder (Wagner, Cecconello, Dalbos, & Peccin, 2014) and depression (Sasson, & Umberson, 2014). To cope with many of the psychological challenges, emotional adjustment and improved life satisfaction could be the behavioural systems that widows need while mourning their dead husbands.

Other behavioural systems that could assist the widows cope with spousal loss are the widows’ self-related characteristics. The current study focuses on investigating such self-related characteristics as locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction for widows. Widows in Igbo area of Nigeria are frequently subjected to cultural and social subjugations (Idialu, 2012), which may inhibit social practices that facilitate emotional adjustment, general well-being, positive affect, and life satisfaction (Huxhold, Miche, & Schuz, 2014). Social situations like these could impact on widows’ personal characteristics such as locus of control (explanatory life-style), fear of death, and self-efficacy which are necessary for emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. Hence, the current study is an effort to investigate locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

Studies have been conducted on widowhood, as well as social and cultural mourning practices concerning widows in Igbo area of Nigeria (Korieh, 1996). However, the psychological impacts of many of the social and cultural mourning practices on widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction are usually ignored (Korieh, 1996). There is dearth of knowledge on many psychological qualities that affect widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. A widow is a woman who survives her husband and has not remarried (Nnodim, Ike, & Ekumankama, 2013). The death of a woman’s husband is usually accompanied by a subsequent period of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction challenges. Expectedly, this is inevitable and is referred to as mourning (Howarth, 2011).

Many mourning practices in Igbo area of Nigeria, with particular reference to Anambra State, could affect the emotional adjustment, general well-being, positive affect, and life satisfaction of widows. As widowhood carries with it depression (Sasson, & Umberson, 2014), subjecting widows to many obnoxious social and cultural practices during mourning is very likely to exacerbate the depressive conditions. During mourning in Anambra State, Nigeria, many widows are prevented from doing or compelled to do certain activities with total disregard to their emotional well-being and life satisfaction (Idialu, 2012; Korieh, 1996). Many of the activities seem to be perceived as integral part of mourning aimed at appeasing the spirit of the dead. Again, many of the mourning activities are aimed at achieving cleansing that pacifies the dead husband not to be vindictive on the wife. Still the justification for some of the mourning practices cannot be rationally explained.

Ironically, many of the social and cultural activities carried out during mourning are obnoxious cultural practices (Onyekuru, 2011) that are irrational, inhuman, malicious, and end up denying the widow her rights of dignity (Durojaye, 2013). Under these situations, mourning experiences may impact attritions on the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows. Yet, Idialu (2012) noted that many of these obnoxious social and cultural mourning practices persist and are strongly adhered to.

The obnoxious social and cultural mourning practices persist because the “umuada or umuokpu” are accused of hampering the fundamental rights of widows. They (“umuada or umuokpu”) are instrumental in forcing widows to observe many of the social and cultural mourning practices that negatively affect widows (Ojigho, 2011). The “umuada or umuokpu” are an association of matrilineal indigenous daughters or women in Igboland (Maduagwu, 2012). “Ada” means a daughter; and its other stretched meaning is the first daughter. “Umu” means children or group of children. “Umuada or umuokpu” therefore indicate groups of indigenous daughters of a particular community. Every woman is an “ada” (daughter) and belongs to “umuada or umuokpu”, especially in the event of her getting married. The “umuada or umuokpu” have a great political, social, and cultural power or influence in their patrilineal homes despite having been married outside the patrilineal homes. In some places in Igboland, the “umuada or umuokpu” is entrusted with the responsibility of handling matters that relate to the feminine gender. This strategically gives the “umuada or umuokpu” the leverage over matters concerning widows. Women are the victims of subjugation during mourning. Still in many communities in Anambra State, Nigeria, under the current study, some “umuada or umuokpu” participate in enforcing, and perpetrating social and cultural practices that could affect widows’ emotional state and life satisfaction during mourning. They also serve as agents for punishing other women and widows who do not comply with the stipulations of the social and cultural practices during mourning, which could endanger widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

Many factors seemed to affect widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Some of these factors include locus-of-control, fear of death, and self-efficacy. Yet, the impact of locus-of-control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning seems not to have been thoroughly examined. The widows’ psychological situations could arise partly from social or general self-efficacy (Flores, 2015), fear of death, and internal locus, chance, as well as powerful others dimensions of control, as well as partly from subjugation and social prohibitions that widows are subjected to during mourning (Idialu, 2012; Korieh, 1996). Locus of control is an individual’s inclination and belief that events in the person’s life is caused by the individual (a situation known as internal locus), or by circumstances beyond the individual’s control (a situation known as chance, or powerful others) (Rotter, 1966; Zimbardo, 1985). When individuals believe that they can control events that influence their lives, their decisions, and actions, such persons are motivated by the internal locus of control. On the other hand, individuals are motivated by chance and powerful others when they believe that their lives, decisions, and actions are controlled by circumstances, situations, fate, chance, social and other environmental factors which are beyond their management. Social and cultural practices during mourning are behaviours that are transmitted from generation to generation. Having subjected widows to numerous social and cultural practices during mourning for many years, many of them (the widows) could have come to accept the practices as integral parts of mourning system for the community which they (the widows) cannot change. Under such learned helplessness, the widows could easily give up hope as they internalize the attitudes that nothing could be done about their conditions during mourning.

Such internalized attitudes have been associated with widows’ personality conventions. Individuals who are conventional do not usually challenge generally held attitudes and perceptions (Kohlberg, 1976) such as social and cultural mourning practices for instance. This is because individuals that are more characterized by conventional personality exhibit poor cognitive performance (Bruce, Yelland, Almeida, Smith, & Robinson, 2014) which inhibits efforts to overcome challenges. Widows with internal locus of control seem to be more inclined toward stable personality, which enhance emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. This is unlike widows that are more described in terms of external locus of control. In the observations of Donovan, Jessor, and Costa (1991), conventional individuals are less proactive and are less likely to get involved in problem-solving behaviour. Since many of the obnoxious social and cultural practices required of widows during mourning have taken generational periods to get established, it therefore seems that radical campaign is required to get them abolished. It is likely that such a campaign will entail confrontation and getting into trouble with the extreme adherents to the social and cultural practices required of widows during mourning.

Though many factors are responsible for widows’ psychological experiences, the current study explores locus of control (internal locus, chance, and powerful others dimensions of control), fear of death, as well as social and general self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Locus of control is a continuum, as nobody is perfectly characterized by either internal locus, chance or powerful others. During mourning, widows’ maximum level of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction can be achieved by what April, Dharani, and Peters (2012) called “bi-local expectancy” control. It is a balanced locus of control expectancy that is characterized by a mix of internal locus, chance and powerful others. As a result, under sustained social, cognitive, perceptual and other behavioural intervention strategies, conventional widows may be convinced that many of the social and cultural practices required of widows during mourning are irrational, unreasonable, and need to be abolished. Social and other community based support systems are therefore required as reinforcement values that will aid in facilitating the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows.

Apart from locus of control, fear of death could be another serious psychological behaviour that affects an individual’s entire adjustment system. Tsaliki (2008) identified that the development of fear of death can be traced to a person’s social and cultural background. This entails that an individual’s socialization system instills fear of death in the person. Fear of death arises from the belief that the spirit of the dead will return to haunt the living (Tsaliki, 2008). This fear becomes well pronounced when the relationship was unsavoury between the dead and the anxious individual. Exhibition of mourning behaviour and emotional adjustment of widows associated with grief, sorrow, mourning, and bereavement could be efforts aimed to appease the dead, and severe its relationship with the living. It has been found that unresolved adverse experiences like the death of a loved one diminishes an individual’s emotional adjustment tendency and life satisfaction (Croft, Dunn, & Quoidbach, 2014). This could be an inhibitor to life satisfaction experiences for widows. It is unknown whether a widow’s locus of control, and self-efficacy have some roles to play in maintaining life satisfaction in the absence of positive affect during adversity like death. It is again not known whether locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy play some roles in life satisfaction of a widow who is afflicted with the adversities of the death of her beloved husband. Bereavement could affect a widow to the extent that she will lose all sense of enthusiasm about life. This situation is also very likely to affect her emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

Consequently, there are two perspectives of fear of death. There is the necrophobia, which is an irrational fear of dead things, such as corpse, and things associated with death like coffin, mortuary, graves, or grave yard. The other perspective of fear of death is thanatophobia, which is the more specific fear of death. This involves the fear of dying, or being dead. Individuals who exhibit high fear of death arising from thanatophobia is highly preoccupied with death or dying that their personal and social functioning are negatively affected (Frtscher, 2014). The person’s emotional adjustment and life satisfaction could therefore be affected by fear of death. Social and cultural ceremonies being carried out in event of somebody’s death are aimed at coping with fear of death. The social and cultural ceremonies become misdirected and irrational when they are oppressive such as subjugating widows to social and cultural practices that adversely affect their (the widows) emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning.

Such oppressive and irrational social as well as cultural ceremonies prescribed for widows could be the basis for the development of fear of death. Fear of death becomes abnormal when it adversely affects an individual’s constructive living, adaptation, and life satisfaction. The abnormality may develop when an individual losses a loved one or friend, witnesses a person’s death, were forced to attend funeral as a child, or view frightening media (Heering, 2014). Coping with fear of death for widows involves emotional adjustment, while real death carries with it some actual behavioural exhibitions like grief, sorrow, bereavement, and mourning. Grief is the emotion of deep sorrow, sadness, and anxiety of having lost a loved one. Sorrow on the other hand is a mental suffering caused by loss of a loved one. Bereavement is a state of losing somebody to death. Mourning on one hand involves expression of sorrow for an individual who has died. Mourning is a behavioural expression to show regret that people have concerning death. In each case as it concerns a widow, her emotional adjustment and life satisfaction are affected. Many social and cultural practices, manner of attire, prohibitions, as well as rituals are being carried out as mourning behaviour in response to fear of death. Ironically, many of the practices during mourning could affect the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction more than the widowers.

Hence, one of the goals of the current study is to examine fear of death as a predictor of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows. This is the basis of the current study. Locus-of-control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life-satisfaction during mourning give the perception of gender specific treatment. Gender specific treatment, particularly for women, connotes socially and culturally defined set of prescriptions for behaviour reserved for women (widows).

Many of the social and cultural practices that subjugate widows during mourning seem to erode widows’ empowerment, emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. This could inhibit widows’ applications of self-efficacy in coping with the death of their husbands. Self-efficacy is the strength of an individual’s belief in his or her ability to accomplish a task and actualize a goal (Ormrod, 2006). Self-efficacy can be high or low. A widow who has high self-efficacy could persist on a task and succeed. This makes attainment of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction possible for the widows concerned. Such widow could easily develop coping ability that leads to goal accomplishment. The contrary is the case for a widow with low self-efficacy. The current study therefore considers it necessary to investigate self-efficacy as a predictor of widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. This is based on the perception that many of the social and cultural mourning practices prescribed for widows’ during mourning could pose challenges to widows’ self-efficacy, emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Widowhood period is a period of adversity which requires social support for a widow to cope with and adjust to it effectively (Nicklett, Heisler, Spencer, & Rosland, 2013). However, many of the subjugation and social prohibitions meted out to widows in the course of bereavement and mourning of their husband depict antithesis of support to a widow.

There are other impacts of self-efficacy on widows’ emotional health. A strong sense of self-efficacy can enrich a widow’s accomplishment and personal well-being. Self-efficacy is an important aspect of a widow’s motivation and behavior, just like a widow’s motivation, personal accomplishment, and well-being drive her self-efficacy (Flores, 2015). This is a situation when a widow believes in her capacity to succeed despite the distress of bereavement and mourning, pursue her goals, and persevere in the face of challenge, adversity, or setback (Flores, 2015) arising from the death of her husband. The study of these personal characteristics seems very necessary as widows need to resort to them to cope with bereavement and loss. Cultural practices that subjugate widows have failed to provide the social support that widows need to cope with bereavement and loss during mourning.

Some cultural practices and social prohibitions against widows during mourning could affect their (widows’) emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. This happens when some social and cultural practices do prevent windows from doing what they will voluntarily like to do, for instance going for religious activities, or visiting a neighbour. Other mourning social and cultural practices do compel or force widows to do what they will voluntarily not like to do, for instance drinking the water used to bath the late husband in order to prove they (widows) are not responsible for the late husbands’ death (Idialu, 2012). Widows are subjected to these mourning practices even though it has been established that such repugnant practices that prolong widows’ agony are very unhealthy as they exacerbate the widows’ coping ability with grief and bereavement (Sasson, & Umberson, 2014). This situation could limit widows’ emotional adjustment ability and life satisfaction.

In some communities of Anambra State, Nigeria, there have been confrontations arising from belief systems (between Christians and the natives) for and against the practices of social and cultural prohibitions during mourning. In most cases, the widow is a Christian, which is a prima facie indication of rejecting obnoxious cultural practices. Yet, many widows who are also Christians help to perpetuate many of the repugnant social and cultural practices against their fellow Christian widows (Korieh, 1996). This absence of emotional and social supports, even from fellow faithful, further makes the experience and position of widows more helpless during mourning. This in turn could jeopardize widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning

Notwistanding the widows’ belief systems and faith, many widows, especially in the rural communities, are not well educated, are not economically self-independent, and unquestionably submissive to the social and cultural environmental prescriptions. These situations affect the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction in relation to bereavement. Life satisfaction is an individual’s cognitive and judgmental aspect of well-being as understood from the person’s evaluation of how life corresponds with expectations as it concerns the individual’s perceived standard (Schafer, Mustillo, & Ferraro, 2013). Life satisfaction involves a person’s perception of his or her life and the trend the future is taking. For a widow, life satisfaction is a manifestation of her state of happiness and well-being, as reflected in the her self-concept and self-perceived ability to cope with problems in living. These problems could arise from the loss of her husband, mourning practices, and widowhood experiences during mourning as being considered in the current study. This makes life satisfaction for widows an attitudinal disposition of their life in general rather than subjective current feeling. Such variables as economic status, educational level, general life experiences, and the environment could be significant influencing factors to life satisfaction for widows during mourning. Locus of control has also been associated as a factor influencing life satisfaction (April, Dharani, & Peters, 2012). The current study is therefore necessary as it investigates locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning, amidst the numerous social and cultural practices that could be inhibitors to widows’ healthy self-concept development.

Furthermore, life satisfaction is not the only psychological state that is affected by locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy. Emotional adjustment is the other psychological state. Emotional adjustment is also known as personal adjustment or psychological adjustment. It is essentially the human ability to maintain emotional stability or equilibrium during adversity. Cognitive processes such as objective perception, adjusting to reality, and adaptation are very significant in enhancing emotional adjustment during mourning for widows. Widows’ ability to maintain emotional control and imbibe effective coping systems during mourning facilitates their emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. This is an attribute of mental health which widows need during mourning. Inability to develop mental health through emotional adjustment and life satisfaction can lead to psychopathology and mental problems (Kring, & Sloan, 2010).

This is why some emotional adjustment and life satisfaction challenges which widows usually face during mourning could manifest in form of physical and psychological problems such as pain, gastro-intestinal and medical problems, insomnia, as well as neurological and circulatory problems, depression, anxiety, and loneliness (Kowalski, & Bondmass, 2008). It goes to show that the challenges facing widows are numerous. The death of a woman’s husband is a big stress and problem in living. Widows experience much social and cultural subjugation which end up escalating the widows’ problems in living (Szasz, 1974). These traumatic and horrendous experiences could predispose widows to undisclosed psychological and emotional breakdown. Hence, coping capability, social and emotional adjustment seem inevitable for widows especially during mourning.

Again, the impacts of locus of control on widows’ emotional adjustment can be felt in the contemporary society. The Igbo contemporary society seems to be systematically characterized by more individualistic orientation than collectivist orientation. The traditional social empathy and support that widows used to receive seems to be gradually fading away. Even when the relics of the empathy and social support are given to the widow, particularly by the supportive family members to help her adjust to the new life, she still has to face many challenges of widowhood. Unlike the widower who normally seems not to exhibit outward emotion of confusion and expression of loss, grief and sorrows during mourning, the widow easily expresses feelings and actions that could depict confusion and loss of control of the situation due to the death of her husband. This behaviour could affect the widow’s emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Interestingly, when faced with adversity, women usually search for strategies to increase the feeling of control, as well as maintain balance between loss of control and search for control (Ockhuijsen, van den Hoogen, Boivin, Macklon, & de Boer, 2014).

Unfortunately, the search for coping strategies seems not easy for widows. The stress associated with the death of a widow’s husband and the accompanying mourning practices could induce anxiety and fear of the unknown. This oftentimes makes emotional adjustment and life satisfaction for the widow difficult. The fear of the unknown could result from social collapse, and feeling of emptiness created by the absence of the supportive relationship (Likert, 1961) of the deceased husband. The death of a husband and the widow’s mourning of her late husband could have many adverse effects on the widow’s ability to achieve emotional adjustment as well as attain general well-being. Those propagating obnoxious mourning practices which subjugate widows may not truly care about the widows’ emotional adjustment for coping with the death of their husbands, as well as the widows’ attainment of life satisfaction of the widows. As a result widows could be exposed to numerous psychological and physical challenges.

Some of the psychological and physical challenges widows do experience during mourning may include back-pain, muscles cramp, vomiting, lump throat, blurred vision, critical and mockery comments from others, abdominal emptiness, tiredness, motivational syndrome, tenor voice, day-night-rhythms, feeling of separation from the deceased husband, losing touch with reality hallucinations, denial of the husband’s death, feelings of guilt, debility, heightened hostility towards other people and restlessness, physical distress, depression, and existential tension (Kowalski, & Bondmass, 2008). It has even been found that many of these challenges do last for as long as five year (Kowalski, & Bondmass, 2008).

Apart from an individual’s moral conscience toward the widows, there seems to be no functioning formal and established system in Anambra State, Nigeria, to intervene and ameliorate the unpleasant social and cultural mourning practices that worsen widows’ grieving and mourning experiences. There is absence or ineffective and dwindling social and cultural (institutional) mechanisms for assisting widows (Nnodim, Ike, & Ekumankama, 2013). The need to adjust to bereavement makes it very imperative to assist widows through their personal characteristics. The personal characteristics of interest and focus of the current study are the widows’ locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy.

Essentially, it has been found that there is a complex relationship between personal characteristics and coping strategies, emotional adjustment, life satisfaction, as well as general well being (Picken, 2012) of widows during mourning. The application of personal characteristics in coping with bereavement is affected by the fact that many widows in Igbo land are exposed to a lot of difficulties which include financial, social, physical, sexual, and emotional adjustment as well as life satisfaction problems (Nnodim, Ike, & Ekumankama, 2013). Widowhood experiences could induce cognitive state and behavior characteristics, which require effective management of widows’ personal, social, and psychological adjustment systems (Akinlabi, 2013). The assistance the biological and extended families used to give widows seems no longer spontaneous as it used to be due to general social and economic hardship prevailing in the society. The support systems from clubs, associations or civil societies also seem very scanty and unstable. Hence, moral empathy may be the relic of support left for widows.

This seems to make it very challenging for widows to make the necessary emotional and other psychological adjustments. A lot of widows depended on their husbands while they (the husbands) were alive. After their husband's death, a lot of widows seem to suffer from financial challenges. Many of the widows could still be mentally and emotionally attached to their deceased husbands. This could hamper the widows’ ability to achieve emotional and other psychological adjustments that enhance life satisfaction of the widows. The reality that the widows are alone to face the economic pressure and other daily challenges is enough emotional stress that requires emotional adjustment of widows (Akinlabi, 2013).

However, it has been observed that effective emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows depend on certain personality and social factors such as age, religious inclination, socio-economic status of the widow and her level of educational attainment (Nnodim, Ike, & Ekumankama, 2013). The implication of this observation by Nnodim, Ike, and Ekumankama, (2013) is that many widows who are disadvantaged on these criteria may not likely achieve effective emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. The criteria of Nnodim, Ike, and Ekumankama, (2013) did not include the impact of psychological variables such as locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy on widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. This has necessitated the current study which aimed at investigating locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction among widows during mourning. The problems of achieving emotional adjustment and life satisfaction for widows seem to be among the major psychological challenges, social changes, and life experiences that a woman, such as widows under consideration, can face (Hatch, 2000). Poor emotional adjustment and low life satisfaction among widows could predict problems to the widows, her family and the society at large.

Mourning period for widows could be characterized by constant feelings of loneliness, feeling of a lack of a dependable attachment partner, increased mortality risk, and perception of emptiness in social contact with others (Guiaux, 2010). Emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows are continuous process that starts during mourning and could continue for the rest of the widows’ life. The process therefore involves the widows’ entire cognitive, emotional, and personal relationships, as they all have implications for the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. As a process that starts during mourning and could span throughout the widows’ rest of life, the roles that locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy play in the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction need to be given empirical examinations. That is basically the goal of the current study.

Emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows seem multifaceted and dynamic. This is because widows experience a wide range of personal and social challenges that interact based on the resources at the disposal of the widows. Basically, widows with adequate financial resources and other relevant social security may have facilitated emotional adjustment and life satisfaction (Guiaux, 2010). Widows are often confronted not only with the loss of their husbands, but also with a new role and social attribute as a widow. They (the widows) therefore have to re-establish adjustment strategies and ways of socializing with significant others. This could make the new role easier in ways that enhance the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Usually, widows require well articulated intervention mechanisms to enhance their emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. This justifies the rationale for studying their (widows’) locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy, so as to find out the contributions of these variables to the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows during mourning. The current study is very important because widowhood seems more prevalent for women than men. This is because they (women) generally seem to live longer and may marry older men (Akinlabi, 2013).

Even in ordinary conversation and social relations, it seems that women themselves, in most cases, expect to be widows. However, many women seem not to make the necessary preparations for widowhood and mourning period. This could be as result cultural perception that will stigmatize them as preparing for the death of their husbands. In some cases, the women (widows) who more or less made the necessary preparations for widowhood may be labelled as having killed their husbands, so as to take over their husbands’ wealth and other motives they (the widows) have prepared for. Hence, the social and cultural perceptions that widows find themselves in could make their emotional adjustment and attainment of life satisfaction during mourning rather difficult to achieve. The social and cultural perceptions of the feminine gender affect her dispositions to explore self-help opportunities (Kamau, Kimani, & Wamue-Ngare, 2014). This could be typical of many widows as well as widowhood experiences. Such social and cultural perceptions of the feminine gender have impact on widows’ locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy. Consequently, the situation could also affect the widows’ emotional adjustment necessary for coping with death, as well as fitting into the social and cultural expectations of being a widow.

Basically, poor self-management of widowhood experiences could impact negatively on the widows’ life satisfaction. The relevance of the current study cannot therefore be overemphasized, as the study is geared toward exploring the impacts of locus of control, fear of death and self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. Widowhood is a significant life event and life circle that establishes new life structure and identity. It has been noted that Anambra State, Nigeria, is among the worst societies that do not care about the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of their widows (Agunwa, 2011). Widowhood period must therefore be given full personality and developmental attention. Mourning periods for widows require full emotional adjustment systems and enhanced life satisfaction. This has necessitated the current study on widows’ locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. It is a contribution toward healthy and psychological management of widowhood.

Widowhood and mourning period need to be seen as stages in the life cycle. This will help a lot in achieving emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows. Most widows with children rarely remarry unlike the widowers. In the individualistic societies, widows could perceive their personality and other internal characteristics as attributes necessary for achieving emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning (Bremmer, & Bosch, 1995). However, such attributions may not be made for widows in Anambra State, Nigeria, where social, cultural and other external perceptions seem to produce societal behaviour which influences widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

Irrespective of the cultural orientation, the challenge of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction for widows could reflect in the words of Zebrack, Corbett, Embry, Aguilar, Meeske, Hayes-Lattin, Block, Zeman, and Cole (2014) that widowhood carries with it psychological distress which needs to be addressed so as to restore their (widows’) mental health and healthy living. Widows’ extent of locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy are among those behavioural characteristics that could affect widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction in the collectivistic society of Anambra State, Nigeria. Studying and understanding these behavioural characteristics justify the current study.

Invariably, mourning observances could account for most of the health problems, poor emotional adjustment, and behaviour challenges that hamper life satisfaction for widows during mourning (Akinlabi, 2013). Widowhood and mourning periods are characterized by a lot of rituals and practices that contribute toward prolonged mourning observances. It seems that many widows who were happily married do experience phantom feelings of the presence of the dead husbands, hearing the voices and sounds of the dead husbands, or being touched by the dead husbands; as well as other hallucination and delusion extrasensory perceptions with the dead which often do last for several years after the death of their marital spouse (Shear, Frank, Fog, Cherry, & Reynolds, 2001). These feelings could make it rather difficult for widows to achieve effective emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning, and even several years after mourning their dead husbands. The existence of such phantom feelings, hallucination, and delusion, as well as extrasensory perceptions could be attributed to the widows’ locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy. The current study aims at investigating these personal variables, as it concerns how widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction are achieved.

Usually, the challenge of attaining emotional adjustment and life satisfaction could be greater with widows who were highly dependent on their husbands during their life time than with those who were less dependent (Carr, James, Ronald Randalph, John, & Camille, 2000). For those widows who were highly dependent on their husbands when they (the husbands) were alive, adjustments are therefore required in many perspectives, such as adjustments involving emotional responses, social and cultural adjustments, financial adjustment, as well as adjustment in family dynamics. Every adjustment to be made by the widows is connected in one way or the other to the widow’s emotional adjustment. Even though emotional adjustment is within the widow as an internal system, yet it (emotional adjustment) seems to be out of the reach of many widows. Widows’ locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy are therefore investigated as factors that could predict widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

Often, a widow’s perception of the death of her husband as arising from negligence could induce fear of death that the dead husband may be vindictive on the living member of the family. Loss of husband, according to Holmes and Rahe (1967), is one of the most stressful changes that can occur in woman’s life, as it involves the loss of a fundamental relationship, and significant other. The stress and emotional adjustment required to cope with the loss of a husband seems to depend on the length of the marriage and quality of the marriage during the life time of the husband. Anger and guilt are also strong elements of the grief and bereavement. Anger arises when the widow feels that the husband’s death was due to negligence or did not occur as a result of natural causes, or that the husband has failed to plan for the future of the family (Akinlabi, 2013). Similarly, it has been found that irrational beliefs, length of conflict during marriage, divorce, time since separation, as well as desire of contact with the spouse, are factors that can affect the emotional adjustment (Eguileta, 2007) of widows. However, no mention was made of locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of emotional adjustment for widows. There is the need to fill this missing gap. This seems to justify the current study that investigates locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction among widows.

Absence of supportive environment to share the widows’ emotions, as well as poor social adjustment seem to militate against effective emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows. The death of a husband carries with it the loss of a life companion and source of emotional support. The quality of marriage between the widow and the late husband significantly affect the extent of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction that the widow can achieve during mourning (Smith, Baron, & Grove, 2014). By implications, other relationships and life systems of the widow could be altered. Widows seem to be socially and culturally isolated and in some cases stigmatized. This could make widows feel lonely during the mourning period for their late husbands. Many widows are worse off when they do not have male child, or the male child has not come of age to shoulder and protect the family. The widow therefore assumes the role of maintaining and nurturing the family, as well as coping with social and cultural pressures. These challenges therefore seem to make it very uneasy for widows to achieve emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. The current study which investigates locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction in during mourning seems very crucial.

Again, the death of a husband could entail a drastic reduction in the widow’s social contact. Widows are more likely than widowers to shy away from having close and intimate relationship during mourning that could cushion the adverse effects of loneliness and isolation. The death of a woman’s husband undoubtedly has tremendous physical and emotional effects on the widow (Smith, Baron, & Grove, 2014). Again, more widows than widowers are likely to regress to poverty state in the event of the death of the marital spouse (Akinlabi, 2013). Managing and coping with widowhood, especially for the widows in Anambra State, Nigeria, during mourning and even thereafter, therefore require effective emotional adjustment and improved life satisfaction of the widows. One of the steps toward achieving the goals is to understand how personal characteristics such as locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy predict emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows during mourning. Such understanding could help in assisting the widows cope with the challenge of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning in particular, and the entire life stage of widowhood.

In some cases, the intensity, nature or circumstances surrounding the husband’s death make mourning for the widow a complicated experience (Simon, Wall, Keshaviah, Dryman, LeBlanc, & Shear, 2011). The process of working through grief and mourning are characterized by four behavioural phenomena or challenges according to Worden (2009). The first challenge is accepting the reality of the husband’s death. Few days after the husband’s death, the prevailing emotions for the widow are confusion and bewilderment, coupled with denial that the husband has passed on forever. It is usually difficult for the widow to accept that the death is real and cannot be changed. This is a serious emotional adjustment problem and life satisfaction challenge that has called for the current research.

Other behavioural challenges associated with mourning according to Worden (2009) are working through emotions and its associated pains of feeling, expressing and talking about the death of the husband and the grief arising from it. Hence, widows could face the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction challenges of coping and adjusting to changes of the situation. There is also the challenge of the new reality that their husbands are no more to provide succour for them (widows). The widow previously lived with the husband daily in which they had and shared mutual responsibilities. The death of the husband suddenly reverses the marital and life experiences, thereby increasing pressure and demands of sole responsibility on the woman. This is the period that they need so much psychological systems that enhance social support, emotional adjustment, and improve life satisfaction. The current study is of the view that locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy could be among such psychological systems that could predict emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows. This has necissitaed the present study bearing in mind the earlier findings that effective psychological systems help to restore positive dispositions, self-esteem, and other self-capacity for emotional adjustment and life satisfaction (well-being) (Groot, & Kollen, 2013).

The final behavioural challenge that widows usually face as identified by Worden (2009) is being able to emotionally relocating the death and absence of the husband, so as to continue to carry on with life. Widows need to accept the reality that their husbands will not return to life again. Hence, there is the need to redirect more affection and love to the children, re-strategize goals and future ambitions. Failure to complete these steps increases the risk of suffering from poor emotional adjustment, hampered life satisfaction and complicated general well-being, as well as complicated grief and mourning (Villacieros, Serrano, Bermejo, & Carabias, 2014). A widow’s ability to carry on with life after the death of her husband could depend so much on the extent of her locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy.

Managing the locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy of widows is very relevant not only to reduce the pain associated with the death, grief, and mourning, but also to achieve an optimal level of well-being (Villacieros, et al, 2014; Worden, 2009), which arise from enhanced emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Well-being is a perspective of life satisfaction, and vice versa. Enhanced emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows could be viewed from both the hedonic well-being and eudaimonia qualities. Hedonic well-being involves positive feelings and emotional adjustment associated with being satisfied with life and pleasure. However, eudaimonia well-being involves optimal functioning on both the individual and social levels, so as to realize one’s own potential (Keyes, & Annas, 2009). Eudaimonia is a Greek word anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, and is commonly translated as happiness or welfare. "Human flourishing" has been proposed as a more accurate translation to reflect psychological well-being, which is what the widows could need during mourning.

In order to facilitate the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction, there is the need to promote their (the widows’) self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, mastery of one's environment (self-efficacy), having a purpose in life anchored on internal locus of control, and experiencing personal growth (Ryff, & Singer, 2008). Self-acceptance is one of the main qualities of life satisfaction. Widows need to feel good about themselves during mourning, even though the death of their husband could be an impediment to this. A widow’s having a positive attitude toward herself and making a positive assessment of her situation are fundamental characteristics of positive psychological functioning that enhances the widow’s emotional adjustment and life satisfaction (Keyes, Ryff, & Shmotkin, 2002).

It is obvious that the death of a widow’s husband has taken away from her a person she used to maintain an intimate (and possibly a) positive relationships with. During mourning, a widow is limited on the close and loving relationships she maintains with others. Widows need friends whom they can trust and with whom they can work with toward achieving emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. The ability to inculcate social competence, which is a component of self-efficacy, is a fundamental attribute of life satisfaction or well-being, as well as the mental health that enhances emotional adjustment (Ryff, 1989; Villacieros, Serrano, Bermejo, & Carabias, 2014). It is therefore one of the aims of the current study to investigate self-efficacy as a predictor of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction among widows.

Again, a widow’s locus of control (Bahrainian, &Yari, 2014) and self-efficacy (Shen, 2008) are very important in winning social support for the widow during mourning. Such social supports are integral part of psychological well-being, and positive relationships that facilitate emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows (Ryff, & Keyes, 1995; Worden, 1997) during mourning. Thus, the social and other psychological supports a widow experiences during mourning is very importance in the early stages of mourning for they (social and other psychological supports) help tremendously in softening and cushioning the impact of the death of the widows’ husbands (Villacieros, Serrano, Bermejo, & Carabias, 2014). Psychological supports, as could be stimulated by locus of control and self-efficacy, are also very crucial in the widows’ final stages of mourning as they (psychological supports) enhance the widows’ improvement and recovery from the mourning (Lobb, Kristjanson, Aoun, Monterosso, Halkett, & Davies, 2010; Mancini, Prati, & Bonanno, 2011; Stroebe, Zech, Stroebe, & Abakoumkin, 2005).

Just like many other psychological health, widows’ emotional adjustment as could be enhanced through social support is derivable from the number of people available to contact in case of need, as well as the degree of trust and satisfaction with those individuals (Sarason, & Sarason, 2009). Emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows could be worsened by what is referred to as negative social support (Villacieros, Serrano, Bermejo, & Carabias, 2014). It is the number of people with the attitude of making the widow angry or upset as represented in the number of people expected to show true and genuine assistance, empathy or sympathy, but who failed to do so (Burke, Neimeyer, & McDevitt-Murphy, 2010; Groot, & Kollen, 2013). Widows are subjected to obnoxious and inhuman treatments by the significant others such as the “umuada” (who are fellow women of the widows), and some kindred members (Idialu, 2012; Korieh, 1996), which give explicit manifestations of negative social support. Under this situation, the widows’ locus of control, and self-efficacy seems important in coping with the social and cultural practices that threaten the widows’ effective emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

Consequently, emotional adjustment, life satisfaction and other symptoms of grief and mourning for widows can be improved upon by improving the characteristics of the social support (Burke, Neimeyer, & McDevitt-Murphy, 2010; Groot, & Kollen, 2013; Murphy, Johnson, Chung, & Beaton, 2003; Somhlaba, & Wait, 2008; Vanderwerker, & Prigerson, 2003). Emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows during mourning could be affected by the time at which social support is given during the mourning process, the type of support and the source of support (Bankoff, 1983). These include improving the widows’ locus of control, particularly the internal locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy. Even the nature of death of a widow’s husband influences her fear of death, and consequently her emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning (Burke, Neimeyer, & McDevitt-Murphy, 2010; Riley, LaMontagne, Hepworth, & Murphy, 2007).

Other corraletes of widowhood that could affect widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction could be associated with the perception of the situation. This involves perception of the nature of psychological support as regards whether it is positive or negative (Kristensen, Weisaeth, & Heir, 2010). Basically, negative perception leads to complicated grief (Burke et al., 2010), which could jeopardize the widows’ chances of achieving emotional adjustment and life satisfaction during mourning. A higher state of grief, poor emotional adjustment, and low psychological well-being, as depicted in widows’ life satisfaction have been linked to a lower perception of psychological support (Kristensen et al., 2010; Ott, 2003).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Widows do experience numerous social and cultural prohibitions and subjugations during mourning based on belief systems (Idialu, 2012; Korieh, 1996). Numerous social and cultural practices, most of them obnoxious, seem to be given very high priority that the widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction are rarely considered (Idialu, 2012; Korieh, 1996). Dearth of empirical psychological knowledge therefore seems to exist on widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Factors such as locus of control, fear of death and self-efficacy have not been considered as possible predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Consequently, empirical studies are needed on locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as some of the likely predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. These needs and the gap created by dearth of knowledge in these areas are the reasons for the current study.

Widowhood is an event of life. Widows are significant group of the population and society, as well as members of the family. The feminine gender is affected more adversely by widowhood than the masculine gender (Akinlabi, 2013; Nnolim, Ike, & Ekumankama, 2013). This is why effective management of psychological states such as locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy for the feminine gender are most needed during the widowhood and mourning life circle for the widows, as it could help in facilitating their (widows’) emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Yet in Igboland, widows have experienced perennial subjugation under social as well as cultural practices and prohibitions by significant others that should have facilitated emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of the widows (Korieh, 1996). This makes it very compelling for researches, such as the current study, to be committed to investigate the psychological variables that could predict emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows. The variables of interest in the current study are locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction among widows.

The current study seems peculiar in the sense that it is localized in Anambra State, Nigeria, where belief systems and attributions are the predominant factors that could influence cognition of death and behaviour associated with death. The current study is relevant as locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy anchor on belief systems, perception, and attribution that could predict emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. Exhibiting more external locus of control orientation or internal locus of control could influence the emotional appraisal and adjustment, as well as life satisfaction.

The overwhelming perception of death and the perceived vindictive power of ghost could induce anxiety that compels widows to observe operational and appeasement mourning dictated for them. Hence, emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of widows during mourning could be attributed to fear of death. Widows’ self-efficacy seems important in their ability to resist many of the social and cultural practices that subjugate them (widows), which could adversely affect their (widows’) emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. In the current study, investigations are to be carried out on the likely interface among locus of control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as predictors of emotional adjustment and life satisfaction among widows.

Either the husband or the wife can be bereaved and experience widowhood. Ironically, widows are subjugated, while widowers are freer to make personal decisions on what affects them (Malik, 2013). Even women under the auspices “umuada/umuokpu” (native or indigenous-born women of every kindred) have been identified as perpetrators of social and cultural maltreatments against widows, their fellow women (Ojigho, 2011). Fellow widows who experienced social and cultural maltreatments also propagate the practices on other widows.

Surprisingly, many traditional decisions and legislation makers like the traditional rulers, chiefs, and kindred heads have maintained silent attitudes or have made nonchallant and ineffective actions on the numerous social and cultural maltreatments against widows in Anambra State, Nigeria (Korieh, 1996). This gives room for conspiracy interpretations of the silent or ineffective actions to stop widows’ subjugation. The knowledge derived from the current study could help empower widows in ways that they will be able to cope with widowhood, relate with others, as well as lead constructive life bearing in mind their new identity (widowhood). This study is therefore necessary in order to examine impacts of locus-of-control, fear of death, and self-efficacy as factors that could predict widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions were addressed by the study.

1. a. What degree of prediction does internal locus as a dimension of locus of control have on widows’ emotional adjustment?

b. How is chance as a dimension of locus of control a predictor of emotional adjustment of widows?
c. To what extent does powerful others as a dimension of locus of control predict widows’ emotional adjustment?

2. How is fear of death predictive of widows’ emotional adjustment?

3. a. In what way does general self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy predictive of widows’ emotional adjustment?

b. How is social self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy predictive of widows’ emotional adjustment?

4. a. To what extent does internal locus as a dimension of locus of control predictive of life satisfaction of widows?

b. In what way does chance as a dimension of locus of control a predictor of widows’ life satisfaction?
c. How is powerful others as a dimension of locus of control a predictor of widows’ life satisfaction?

5. What predictive power does fear of death have on widows’ life satisfaction?

6. a. What predictive power does general self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy have on widows’ life satisfaction?

b. To what extent does social self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy predict widows’ life satisfaction?

7. What is the nature of relationship existing between widows’ emotional adjustment and their life satisfaction?

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study was very important on the following justifications: The study was relevant as it revealed the degree of prediction internal locus as a dimension of locus of control have on widows’ emotional adjustment. The study examined chance as a dimension of locus of control and the extent it could predict emotional adjustment of widows. Again, the study brought into focus the extent that powerful others as a dimension of locus of control could predict widows’ emotional adjustment. The study brought into focus the predictive impact of fear of death on widows’ emotional adjustment. Similarly, the study highlighted the relevance of general self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy in predicting widows’ emotional adjustment. The study revealed the relevance of social self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy in predicting widows’ emotional adjustment.

Furthermore, the study brought into focus the nature of prediction that could be inferred from internal locus as a dimension of locus of control about life satisfaction of widows. It was revealed in the study the nature of prediction that chance as a dimension of locus of control had on widows’ life satisfaction. The study revealed the nature of prediction that powerful others as a dimension of locus of control had on widows’ life satisfaction. In the same vein, the study revealed the extent that fear of death could predict widows’ life satisfaction. Again, the study revealed the extent the general self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy could predict widows’ life satisfaction. It was brought into focus in the study the extent social self-efficacy as a dimension of self-efficacy could predict widows’ life satisfaction. The study would be a theoretical and knowledge-base exposition of the relationship between widows’ emotional adjustment and life satisfaction.

1.5 Objectives of the Study

The study pursued the following objectives:

a. Examine whether internal locus as a dimension of locus of control would statistically be a significant predictor of widows’ emotional adjustment.

Investigate whether chance as a dimension of locus of control would statistically be a significant predictor of emotional adjustment of widows. Explore whether powerful others as a dimension of locus of control would statistically be a significant predictor of widows’ emotional adjustment.

[...]

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Details

Title
How to Measure Widows´ Emotional Adjustment and Life Satisfaction? Locus of Control, Fear of Death and Self-Efficacy as Predictors
Subtitle
The Case of Anambra State, Nigeria
College
Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University  (Department of Psycholog)
Course
Social Psychology
Grade
4.5 of 5 (65%)
Author
Year
2020
Pages
249
Catalog Number
V540087
ISBN (eBook)
9783346168153
Language
English
Notes
I humbly appreciate the wonderful supervision of my PhD supervisor, Professor Ernest Ike Onyishi.
Tags
adjustment, state, self-efficacy, satisfaction, predictors, nigeria, measure, locus, life, fear, emotional, death, control, case, anambra, widows´
Quote paper
Okechukwu Dominic Nwankwo (Author), 2020, How to Measure Widows´ Emotional Adjustment and Life Satisfaction? Locus of Control, Fear of Death and Self-Efficacy as Predictors, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/540087

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