Employee development through training programmes. Staff performance and retention in the Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos


Thesis (M.A.), 2019

85 Pages


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Operational Definitions

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Conceptual Issues in Manpower Development and Training
2.2 Operational Structure of the College
2.3 Overview of training and Development
2.4 Training and Development Policy: Training and training transfer
2.5 Employees Performance and Employee Retention
2.6 Perceived Effects of Employee Benefits on Employee Retention
2.7 Reasons for Training and Factors that Hinders Successful Training Programme
2.8 Training, Development and performance Relationship
2.9 Training and Development Method
2.10 Benefit of Training and its Evaluation
2.11 Summary of literature Reviews

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Validity of the Research Instrument
3.7 Reliability of the Research Instrument
3.8 Administration of instrument
3.9 Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONOF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Analysis of respondents Bio-data
4.2 Analysis of Respondent Response to Items in Section B
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses
4.4 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations

References

Appendix

DEDICATION

This research project is dedicated to God Almighty that made it possible for me, to complete this project and particularly to have seen me through my academic sojourn in this great University of Lagos. And also to the memory of my Late Father, Mr. Williams Oyiborume.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The writing and successful completion of this study made possible with the cooperation I received from different quarters. To God and all those people I owned appreciations.

My utmost acknowledgement goes the great men and women, Authors, speakers of whose work serve as the basis of this project.

To start with, my special and profound gratitude goes to my project supervisor, Dr. R.C Ojo who painstakingly took time, out of her tight schedule to read and point out errors in my draft and also her objective criticism and advices from time to time which help the idea to see the light of the day I will forever be indebted and grateful to her.

Profoundly, I express my heartfelt appreciation to my guardian (sister) Madam Adogbeji Tina for her motherly support both financially and morally because with God through her I am what I am today.

Also, I thank my programme coordinator Dr. (Mrs.) P. I. Ememe for her fruitful advice and support throughout my stay in University of Lagos. My appreciation also goes to my Head of Department Dr. (Mrs.) T. V. Bakare and all the Academic Staff of the Department of Adult Education in person of Dr. (Mrs.) Afonja, Dr. Anyikwa, Prof. (Mrs.) Obashoro, Prof. Supo Jegede, Dr. (Mrs.) M. N. Egenti, Dr. (Mrs.) Aitokhuehi, Dr. (Mrs.) Okebiorun, Dr. (Mrs.) Ojemogha, Dr. Sola Ige, and other lecturers in the Department of Adult Education and Faculty of Education at large for imparting me with so much from the beginning to the end of the programme as well as the entire students of the Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos. Also members of staff in Federal College of Education Technical (FCET) Akoka Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria deserves my appreciation.

My sincere and special appreciation goes to my dearly and supportive family members led by my Mum Mrs. Lucy Williams and my siblings Mr. Pious Williams Oyiborume, Funmilayo Williams, Abosede Williams Oyiborume, Mrs. Ufuoma Kehinde (Late), my lovely and wonderful niece Tijani Maria and my nephew Rabiu Micheal and my family friends Samuel Bolanle, Nomayo Oladipupo, Yahaya Micheal, Nureni Lukman, Osunrinade Damilola, Omonike Olowosoga, Salisu Dare, Ladege Tantola, Mrs Ojoluyi, Mrs Adeohun, Miss Ajayi Abiola who contributed immensely towards my Educational sojourn, at the University of Lagos.

I would also love to appreciate the love, support and encouragement that I have enjoyed and received from my friends, On that note, I say a very big thank you to, Majiyagbe Oyindamola, Coker Titilayo, Bashorun Yetunde, Ifeacho Blessing, Mrs Owo-Odusi, Mrs Odunuga, Mrs Oghri, Mrs Ojotirimi, Femi Kudabo, Finomo, Idris Lawal, Ibrahim Eniola, Ogunajo Damilola, Oladokun Basheerat, Ogunmade Tomiwa, Oshinowo Olawale, Ahinaje Taiwo, Adewunmi Tobi, Osunrinade Damilola, Tantoluwa Ladega, to mention but few.

Special thanks are due to all my “Adult Education University of Lagos Maters Class of 2019” led by Adewunmi Tobi and to all my colleagues at Idowu Primary School, Bariga led by Mrs Adebayo and Mrs Adeohun.

I thank all others whose names are too numerous to mention that have contributed in one way or the other in ensuring that my dream of becoming a masters graduate comes to reality. Words are not enough to adequately acknowledge you.

May God in His own spectacular ways reward you all!

Williams Stephen O.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine Manpower Training and Development, Staff Performance and Retention in Federal College of Education, Technical (FCET) Akoka Lagos State, Nigeria. The need for employee’s retention has encouraged the employers to pay attention towards Employee development through training in order to keep them motivated. Training with development as a function of human resource management is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. This study examine the manpower training and development and staff performance and retention and in Federal College of Education, Technical (F.C.E.T) Akoka Lagos. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and the study population comprised all the academic staff of the Federal College of Education, Technical (FCET) Lagos State. The sample size consisted of 150 respondents selected through the simple random sampling technique. The research instrument used for data collection was a set of structured questionnaire. Four research questions were raised and three research hypotheses were formulated for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages while inferential statistics of Chi-square (X2) was used to test all hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that training and development of staff in an organization is very paramount. Findings from the research revealed that there is significant relationship between the staff training programmes influence the skills, experience and quality of performance of staff in Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos. The study therefore, recommends that organization should prioritize training for their staffs. The study concluded that manpower training and development and staff performance and retention are extremely important to any organisation .

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The need for employee’s retention has encouraged the employers to pay attention towards Employee development through training in order to keep them motivated. Training with development as a function of human resource management is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. For the organization, training and development leads to improved profitability while cultivating more positive attitudes toward profit orientation. For the individuals, training and development improve job knowledge while also helping in identifying with the goals of the organization. Training and development can be defined as the planned learning experiences that teach employees how to perform current and future jobs.

Employee’s performance depends on various factors but the most important factor is training, which enhances the capabilities of employees (Raja, Furqan& Khan, 2011). Employees who have more on the job experience tends to perform better because there is an increase in the both their skills and competencies resulting from more on the job experience (Fakhar& Khan, 2008). Training also has impact on the return on investment since the organizational performance depends on employee performance because human resource capital of organization plays an important role in the growth and development of such organization. So to improve the organizational performance and the employee performance, training is given to the employee of the organization, whereas, employees’ development can be defined as a process where the employees with the support of the employer undergo various training programs to enhance their skills and acquire updated knowledge and learning (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart & Wright 2004). Consequently, employee development is a joint initiative of the employee as well as the employer to upgrade the existing skills and knowledge of the employee, thus competency is enriched by training and development.

According to Raja, Furqan and Muhammad (2011), training and development have become the most important factor in the business world today, because training increases the efficiency and the effectiveness of both employees and the organization. Training is a systematic restructuring of behaviour, attitude and skills through learning, education, instruction and planned experience. Training is designed to change or improve the behaviour of employees in the work place so as to stimulate efficiency. The cardinal purpose of training is to assist the organization achieves its short and long term objectives by adding value to its human capital. Training and development are not undertaken for the sake of training, but rather are designed to achieve some needs.

Noe (2005) describes development as a future oriented, volunteer activity of an employee to enhance his abilities and skills in long run. Development is the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objectives or requirements. Development is a volunteer of an employee to grow himself over a period of time. Development tends to be an initiative that is intentional and comes from the employee himself. Training and development describes the formal, ongoing efforts that are made within organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees through a variety of educational methods and programs. Training and development are simultaneously used but have different meaning. Training is short run process that is planned and systematic involving employees to obtain the technological and industrial knowledge and skill to perform specific tasks related to their job. The initiative for training comes from the managers to meet the present needs required for the job. Development is a long run process and the initiative comes from the employee voluntarily.

Armstrong, (2001) defines training as the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning, which occurs as a result of education, instructions and development and planned experience. Training is the process of equipping the workforce with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to tackle the job responsibilities. Staff development on the other hand is improvement of the employees ‘competences for future environmental demands and adaptability. Beardwell and Hidden (1994) consider training and development as a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experiences to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Corporations are offering a variety of training programs to meet their organizational needs. These include content on IT and systems, processes, procedures and business practices, industry-specific trainings, managerial or supervisory training, interpersonal skills, compliance, sales, executive development, basic skills, new employee orientation, customer service and quality. As Reynolds (2004) points out, training has a complementary role to play in accelerating learning. It should be reserved for situations that justify amore directed expected approach rather than viewing it as a comprehensive and all-pervasive people development solution. He also commented that the conventional training model has a tendency to emphasize subject –specific knowledge rather than trying to build core learning abilities.

Training and Development improves the workforce competence in order to create a competitive advantage and contribute to organizational success. Training and development is also a means for employers to address the employees ‘needs. By offering the training and development opportunities employers help employees develop their own competitive advantage and ensure long term employability, Jackson (2008). Development implies it is an ongoing process and that progress is made over time and this fits also with the emphasis on long life learning. According to Sue (2001), employee retention means keeping those members of staff that one wants to keep and not losing them to other organizations, for whatever reason but especially to competitors. In other words, an organization needs to have right people in right number with the right skills and abilities in the right place and at the right time. This happens when organizations plan and implement effective recruitment; selection, training, development and retaining of competent and high performing employees.

To Sue (2001), a motivated employee becomes satisfied, productive and in most cases remain with the organization for long. Therefore, in the retention of employees a major issue to consider is motivation. The ability of a company to succeed depends on the retention power of the company. Organizations that cannot retain their key employee also find it difficult to retain their major customers and therefore cannot make high profits. Many organizations strive to improve on how to retain their staffs because in ability to retain staffs decreases organizational productivity and increases cost of recruitment induction and training of placement employees (Brown, Gaia, and Martin, 2009; Hilmer and McRobert, 2004). It is for this reason that management practitioners in many organizations have become preoccupied with crafting sound employees retention strategies (Armstrong 2010).

Successful organizations realize that employee retention and talent management are integral to sustaining their leadership and growth in the market place smith (2004). In other words, attracting, hiring and keeping high caliber staff are the factors that make organizations manage talent and skills. It is always wiser and less expensive to retain existing employees that are of high caliber than to recruit in experienced staff in the name of cost saving. To Smith (2004), a wise employer learns how to attract and keep good employees and that money and benefits may bring employees through the front door, but poor working conditions and poor management skills drive them out through the back door. This happens due to faulty recruitment processes, poor management practices and other inefficiencies leading to low productivity and high turnover. Low turnover makes organizations more stable which pleases organizational stake holders Despite the importance of training and manpower development in employee productivity and organizational performance, training programs are not sufficiently supported by organizations in Nigeria (Obi-Anike & Ekwe, 2014). These organizations consider the money they will spend on their training programs as waste rather than investment. They fail to foresee the desirability of continuous training and development of their employees in order to promote the efficiency and effectiveness of their organizations. Those that attempt to conduct trainings for their employees do so in an ad- hoc and haphazard manner, and as such, training in those organizations is more or less unplanned and unsystematic. Although there are volume of empirical studies on the effect of training and development on employee’s productivity and organizational performance, the existing evidence suggests that research in this area is promising. In Nigeria however, majority of these studies were conducted outside the educational sector. Meanwhile, most of the challenges that had threatened the standard of teaching and learning in educational sector in Nigeria had been squarely blamed on inadequate manpower. In the light of these, it is essential to investigate why and how labour union can foster systematic and periodic training and development exercise for employees in an educational sector?

Teacher’s education has in the last few decades received attention in Nigeria. Such cognizance is not unconnected with the recognition by the Nigerian education planners that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. In order to produce quality and professionally qualified teachers for the Nigerian educational system, the Nigerian National Policy on Education (1998:3rd edition) holds that Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) as the minimum entry qualification into the teaching profession. Institutions designated to provide the required professional training for teachers at various levels is Colleges of Education, Faculties of Education, Institutes of Education, National Teachers Institute and Schools of Education.

Among these institutions is Federal College of Education Technical (F.C.E.T), AkokaYaba Lagos established in accordance with the National policy on Education with the objective to provide highly motivated conscientious, and efficient classroom teacher for all levels of our education, encourage spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers, help the teachers to fit into the social life of the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national goals, provide professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable the teachers to changing situations, enhance teacher commitment to teaching profession. (Senior Staff, Condition of Service Handbook).

To achieve these objectives, the college required skilled and other qualitative lectures and other supportive staff. This also could be achieved through an effective and consistence staff training and development policies and programmes. Although the college has various staff training policies and programmes these training programmes hardly have any significant effect on the skill and knowledge and retention of the staff of the college. It also seem that the issue of staff training and development is treated with levity and neglect and there is that misconception of the aim of staff training as it is seen as a tool or means for staff promotion rather than seeing it from an holistic angle as a tool for staff development, maintenance for greater performance and retention According to Sue (2001), employee retention means keeping those members of staff that one wants to keep and not losing them to other organizations, for whatever reason but especially to competitors. In other words, an organization needs to have right people in right number with the right skills and abilities in the right place and at the right time. This happens when organizations plan and implement effective recruitment; selection, training, development and retaining of competent and high performing employees.

Although it is expensive to keep experienced and skilled workers, it is more expensive to let them go. Failing to retain them has serious financial implication to the organization. Keeping valuable employees is therefore a source of competitive advantage. In service delivery organizations, such as banks and other financial institutions, people tend to lose confidence in the organizations that cannot retain quality staff and so their integrity suffers.

Retaining good employees is critical to a firm’s long term success. By taking a proactive approach to developing an effective employee retention program, the anxiety of high turnover can be reduced. True employee retention takes time, effort and resources, but the rewards can prove valuable. One of the major drivers for investing in a retention program is the financial impact of recruiting and training valued employees (Abraham, 2007). Job dissatisfaction can be a cause for labor turnover. Labor turnover levels can be very high in organizations with poor working conditions, undesirable jobs, pay inequities and limited opportunities for advancement (Nzuve, 1997). There are two general categories of forces that operate in employee retention: engagement and coercion .Engagement occurs when an employee connects emotionally with his work, coercion occurs when forces outside the employee encourage either attachment to or disengagement from an employer. Good manager’s help people stay engaged; bad ones push them towards disengagement (Glen, 2007).

It is generally accepted that the quality of an organization human resources represents a critical factor for business success. One human resource challenge is how to attract, retain, motivate and develop individual talent and if that is not a challenge, consider the impact of a turbulent business environment presents, the difficulty of managing a diverse and ever changing legal climate and government regulation. As business grows it often increasingly necessary to attract and retain good employee (Carrell, 1995). Employee retention encompasses talent management which is the use of an integrated set of activities to ensure that the organization attracts, retains, motivates and develops the talented people it needs now and in the future. It is assumed that talent management is only concerned with key people – highfliers. For example (Smilansky, 2005) states that it is aimed at improving the caliber, availability and flexible utilization of exceptionally capable (high potential) employees who can have a disproportionate impact on business performance (Armstrong, 2006). Retention rate measures what is wanted rather than what is undesirable (Deane, 2004)

Statement of the Problem

Even though Federal College of Education Technical Akoka has been described as the foremost College of Education by its management and employees, it appears that it (FCET) does not currently have a staffing policy, training and development policy as well as a succession plan. Training and development is therefore more or less unplanned and unsystematic. It looks like the majority of the employees are not trained (orientation) upon appointment.

Thus, the question is, could there be anything wrong with the staff training and development policies and programmes in the college? What is the nature of manpower training and development policy and programs in the college? Are the programmes relevant to the needs of individual staff and the College as a whole? Furthermore, how effective are these manpower training programmes? And what are their impact on the skill, experience and performance of the staff as well as effective service delivery in the college?

It is therefore, pertinent to know that these problems could be of negative consequences and if they are not adequately addressed. Considering the important role and mandate of the College, (providing quantitative teachers for all levels of educational institution in the country), if those that are expected to train or produce teachers are not well trained and knowledgeable, there would definitely be a problem. Obviously the achievement of the objectives for which the College was established might be affected. As the popular adage says, “a blind man (person) cannot lead another blind man (person) the result is that both of them will fall into a ditch” With this backdrop, this study therefore set out to examine the manpower training and development and staff performance and retention and in Federal College of Education, Technical (F.C.E.T) Akoka Lagos.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the manpower training and development and staff performance and retention in Federal College of Education Technical, Akoka Lagos of this study include;

i. To staff training programmes influence the skills, experience and quality of performance of staff in Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos.
ii. To examine the training and development programme influence staff performance, retention and effective service delivery in Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos
iii. To establish whether there are organization issues contribute to the constraints of training and development in the Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos
iv. To investigate how training contribute to development needs of employees in Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the operations of this research work

i. How has staff training programmes influence the skills, experience and quality of performance of staff in Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos?
ii. In what ways has training and development programme influence staff performance, retention and effective service delivery in Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos?
iii. To what extent does organization issues contribute to the constraints of training and development in the Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos?
iv. To what extent has training contribute to development needs of employees in Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant relationship between the staff training programmes influence the skills, experience and quality of performance of staff in Federal College of Education (Technical) AkokaYaba Lagos

H1: There is significant relationship between training and development programme influence staff performance, retention and effective service delivery in Federal College of Education (Technical) AkokaYaba Lagos

H0: There is no significant relationship between organization issues contribute to the constraints of training and development in the Federal College of Education (Technical) AkokaYaba Lagos

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study is basically on the manpower training and development and staff performance and retention in Federal College of Education Technical, AkokaYaba, Lagos State. The study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of manpower training and development in Federal College of Education Technical (FCET), Akoka. This was done in view to assess its effects on the skill, knowledge, performance and staff retention. This research work is delimited to Federal College of Education (Technical) FCET, Akoka Lagos because of its centrality to the target of this work. Not only that Federal College of education Technical Akoka is a federal institution and as such, all other states of the federation is represented in the college. Therefore, data generated will be sufficient enough to form opinion about manpower training and development programmes and staff performance and retention in federal colleges of education in Nigeria

1.7 Significance of the Study

The issue of manpower training and development has become a major agenda in public personnel Administration. The reason for this is not for-fetched; more public organizations are faced with a lot of challenges which requires specialist and professionals to handle. In many higher educational institutions in the country, those challenges have become night mire and management of these institutions had spent sleepless night on how to catch-up with the global wave or changes sweeping across institutions in the world.

Considering the global change in science and technology, the Nigerian policy on education have witness constant transformations. School curriculum and course contents are constantly being changed or amended to reflect the reality on ground. This invariably brought about the importance of re-defining the manpower training and development policies and programs, so that staff of these institution will be able acquire new skills, knowledge and experience to cope with these changes. This will also enhanced their ability to impact this knowledge into their students. Thus, the importance of undertaken a study of manpower The findings in this study will also help the government, the college management and management of other higher institutions in policy making as regards manpower training and development. The study is an academic requirement, as such, it would be of use and benefit to researchers (as individual, group and to organization). It will also serve as a reference point for studies, for both under graduate and post-graduate students who wish to carryout similar study training and development in Federal College of Education, Zaria is imperative.

1.8 Operational Definitions

The following operational definitions of concepts are given for explicitness and a thorough and unambiguous understanding of the central concepts in this study;

Manpower: This implied the total number of pensionable employees of Federal College of Education, Zaria .

Manpower Training and Development: In this study, manpower training and development implied the organization and co-ordination of knowledge, skills, experiences and attitude of the staff of F.C.E.T in view of making them perfect or professional in their various schedule or duty.

Manpower Training and development objectives: This can be define as those results that the training hopes to achieve

Staff Performance: The job related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed

Manpower Training: Training is the process by which members of organizations are thought to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities they need to perform effectively the job at hand. Training is directed at the present job.

Manpower Development: is a process that seeks to optimize an organization's usage of its human resources. It requires an integrated approach that addresses multidimensional aspects of employees, ranging from enhancing technical and interpersonal skills to creative thinking and leadership

Staff Retention: This refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees. Employee retention can be represented by a simple statistic (for example, a retention rate of 80% usually indicates that an organization kept 80% of its employees in a given period).

Manpower Needs: This implied those shortfalls or deficiency identified at individuals staff level, schools or the college as a whole which the training programme

Job Performance: in this work implied staff increased exhibition of skill and experience by staff of the college on their various schedules and duties

Service Delivery: This implied the way or rate at which the staff of the college performance their formal duties. It implied both increased in Job performance and attitude to work and attending to worked to the customer. The major customers of the academic staff are the student. Service delivery can be measure through their quality of teaching, evaluating students and their relationships with them. A good teacher is not an impostor or terror. It is one that is willing to serve his students as any time.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This chapter presents the review of related literature on Manpower Training and Development on Staff Performance and Retention in Federal College of Education, Technical (FCET) Akoka, Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria. The chapter is discussed under the following sub-headings: Conceptual Issues in Manpower Development and Training, Operational Structure of the College, Overview of training and Development, Training and Development Policy: Training and training transfer, Employees Performance and Employee Retention, Perceived Effects of Employee Benefits on Employee Retention, Reasons for Training and Factors that Hinders Successful Training Programme, Training, Development and performance Relationship, Training and Development Method, Benefit of Training and its Evaluation and Summary of Literature Review According to Sue (2001), employee retention means keeping those members of staff that one wants to keep and not losing them to other organizations, for whatever reason but especially to competitors. In other words, an organization needs to have right people in right number with the right skills and abilities in the right place and at the right time. This happens when organizations plan and implement effective recruitment; selection, training, development and retaining of competent and high performing employees.

To Sue (2001), a motivated employee becomes satisfied, productive and in most cases remain with the organization for long. Therefore, in the retention of employees a major issue to consider is motivation. The ability of a company to succeed depends on the retention power of the company. Organizations that cannot retain their key employee also find it difficult to retain their major customers and therefore cannot make high profits. Many organizations strive to improve on how to retain their staffs because in ability to retain staffs decreases organizational productivity and increases cost of recruitment induction and training of placement employees (Brown, Gaia, and Martin, 2009; Hilmerand McRobert, 2004). It is for this reason that management practitioners in many organizations have become preoccupied with crafting sound employees retention strategies (Armstrong 2010).

Although it is expensive to keep experienced and skilled workers, it is more expensive to let them go. Failing to retain them has serious financial implication to the organization. Keeping valuable employees is therefore a source of competitive advantage. In service delivery organizations, such as banks and other financial institutions, people tend to lose confidence in the organizations that cannot retain quality staff and so their integrity suffers. Successful organizations realize that employee retention and talent management are integral to sustaining their leadership and growth in the market place smith (2004). In other words, attracting, hiring and keeping high calibre staff are the factors that make organizations manage talent and skills. It is always wiser and less expensive to retain existing employees that are of high calibre than to recruit in experienced staff in the name of cost saving. To Smith (2004), a wise employer learns how to attract and keep good employees and that money and benefits may bring employees through the front door, but poor working conditions and poor management skills drive them out through the back door. This happens due to faulty recruitment processes, poor management practices and other inefficiencies leading to low productivity and high turnover. Low turnover makes organizations more stable which pleases organizational stake holders.

2.1 Conceptual Issues in Manpower Development and Training

Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization. Therefore, training can be put in a contact relevant to school administrators. However, knowledge is the ability, the skill, the understanding, the information, which every individual requires acquiring in order to be able to function effectively and perform efficiently.

Human resources, are the most valuable assets of any organization, with the machines, materials and even the money, nothing gets done without man-power. Abiodun (1999) submitted that: Training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside organization. Adeniyi (1995) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore, provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge. In appreciation of this fact, organization like educational institution, conduct final training and development programmes for the different levels of their manpower.

According to the concept of human development income is clearly only one option that people would like to have, albeit an important one. Development must therefore be more than just the expansion of income and wealth. (HDR 1990) since administering involves the creation and maintenance of an environment for performance, working closely or in isolation towards the accomplishment of common goals, it is obvious that administrators cannot be successful without well skilled and well trained people. The importance of incorporating training into organizational or institutional roles the staffing of these roles and the entire process of direction and leading people must be premises on knowledge and skills.

The need for improved productivity in organization has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. However, the need for organizations to embark on staff development programme for employees has become obvious. Absence of these programme often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. Oribabor (2000) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth, also Isyaku (2000) postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one.

Onah (2003) in his study on the nature of Staff training and development and the reason for the low interest in them in Nigeria Universities and to know how this short coming affects the morale of all categories of staff; He observed that Nigerian Universities have been consistently chided for using more than 80 per cent of their fiscal allocations for settling wage bills to the detriment of their primary objectives. To him, with this trend, in the universities, the problem becomes more apparent. He however advise, that for these universities to function optimally and for them to realize the goal for which they were established, the staff must be trained and developed for adaptation to the ever changing environments of the universities, which according to him is lacking. This assertion speaks voluminous about the problem of this study.

Diji (2003) undertake study of the nature and effectiveness of staff training and development in NuhuBamalli polytechnic, Zaria. He observed that even-do, there is a training policy in the institution right from its inception, and its implementation has been half hazardly pursued. According to him due to the nearness of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria to the school, some staff has succeeded in arguably some form of training without depending on the institution for anything. Many staff of the institution according to him proceeds on these studies without the prior knowledge and approval of the institution. As such, they are not under a bond and can therefore leave the institution for other jobs opportunities after the training program. Due to this deficient in the training policy, the institution has continued to witness high Labour turnover among the academic and the non - academic staff. He concluded that these problems might not be tackled unless manpower training and development is given a sizeable attention by the institution.

The last area of the concepts of manpower training and development to be discussed is training needs. Training needs are basically any short fall in employee performance or potential performance which can be remedy by appropriate training (Cole, 2002). There are many ways of overcoming deficiencies in human performance at work, and training is only one of them. It is important to recognize this fact, since sometimes trainee staff are asked to meet needs which ought to be dealt with in some other ways, such as improving or replacing machinery or simplifying procedures.

2.2 Operational Structure of the College

NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR COLLEGES OF EDUCATION

The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) was established by decree 3 of April 1989 as an agency to supervise all aspects of non- degree teacher education and teacher professionalism in Nigeria. The enabling decree was later amended by decree NO 12 of 1st January 1993.

Functions

The Decree establishing the NCCE mandates it among other functions;

1. Make recommendation on the National Policy necessary for the development of education and training of teachers
2. Lay down minimum standard for all program of teacher education and accredit their certificates and other academic awards.
3. Approve guidelines setting out criteria for accreditation of all colleges of education in Nigeria.
4. Determine the qualified teacher needs of the country for the purpose of planning training facilities and in particular, prepare periodic master plan for the balance coordinated development of colleges of education
5. Advise on, and take steps to harmonize entry requirements.
6. Consider any matter pertaining to teacher education as may be referred to it from time to time by the minister.
7. Enquire into and advise the federal government of financial needs of the college and receive block grant from the government and allocate to the colleges based on approved formula.
8. Collate analysis and publish information relating to teacher education in the country.
9. Undertake periodic reviews or terms and conditions or service of personnel in the college of Education and make recommendation there on to the government
10. Make recommendation on the development of pre-vocational technical, agricultural, business and Home Economics education in primary and secondary schools and advice as necessary, facilities for them, the course requirement, and the relative contribution of government and industry, and as well as how to ensure that our women take full part in these.
11. Recommendation to the visitors of the college that a visitation is made to the college as and when it considers it necessary.

The College Governing Council

The governance of the college and the direction of its affairs is vested in the governing council; the college having referred to as ‘’ The Council’’ subject to provision of the decree, the council shall approve.

- The plan of activities of the college
- The programme of studies, courses, and research to be undertaken by the college.
- The annual estimates of the college.
- The investment plans of the college.

Membership of the council

The council of the college shall Consist of a chairman to be appointed by the president, commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and the following other members, that is;

a. A representative of the Federal Ministry of Education.
b. A representative of the University, to whom the college is affiliated for the purpose of moderation.
c. A representative of the alumni association of the college.
d. Three persons appointed on individual merit on a nationwide basis who should have wide experience of service in the public or private sector.
e. Two representatives of National Council of Women.
f. A representative of the National Council of Colleges of Education
g. The Provost of the college.
h. The Registrar who shall be the Secretary of the council.

Power of the council.

For the purpose of carrying out the functions of the college, the council shall have power to;

- Hold examinations and grant diplomas, professional certificates and other distinction to the universities to which the college is affiliated for moderation to persons who have pursued a course of study approved by the council and who have satisfied such other requirements as the council may prescribe.
- Demand and receive from any student or other person attending the college for the purpose of instruction such fees as the council may, with the prior approval of the Minister from the time determine.
- Holds public lectures and undertake printing, publishing and book selling.
- Make gifts for any charitable purpose
- Hold examination in Education for qualified teachers.
- Provide amenities for and make such other provision for the welfare of the staff of the college
- Invest the fund of the college in securities specified by law or in such other securities in Nigeria as may be approved by the minister.
- Borrow money within Nigeria in such manner and upon such security as the minister may from time to time authorize.
- Enter into such contracts, as may be necessary or expedient for carrying into effect the objectives of the college.
- Recruit staff of the right caliber and determine the character structure of such staff.
- Establish and maintain such schools and other teaching units within the college or extra mural department as the council may from time to time decide.
- Provide such courses of instruction both alone in or in association with such universities and other institutions whether in Nigeria or as the council may determine.
- Institute and award fellowships, medal, prizes and other titles.
- Mount exhibitions and displays design to foster an appreciation of trends. In and the scope and requirement of education.
- Erect, provide, equip and maintain such educational, recreational and residential facilities as the college may require.
- Create lecturer ships, and other academic posts and offices and to make appointment thereto.
- Encourage and make provision for research in the college
- Do such acts and things whether or not incidental to the foregoing powers as may advance the objectives of the college

The power of the council to establish further schools within the college shall be exercisable by order and not otherwise.

The Academic Board

The academic board of the College shall consist of the following members.

- The Provost of the college who shall be the chairman.
- All Heads of academic department.
- The college Librarian.
- Not more than two members of the academic staff other than
- Heads of Department to be appointed by the council and.
- The Registrar of the college to serve as the secretary of the board.

Functions of the Academic Board.

The academic board shall be responsible for:

- The direction and management of the academic matters of the college including the regulation of admission of students, the award of certificates, scholarships, prizes and other academic distributions
- Discharging any other functions, which the council may from time to time delegate to it.
- Making periodic on such academic matters to the councils as the council may from time to time.
- Prescribing and modifying from time to time entry requirement into the college.
- Amending from time to time academic programmes of the college
- Initiating and approving any other relevant programmes to improve the quality of teachers and standard of education in the college
- Awarding any certificate other than degrees in education or Nigerian certificate in Education to students who qualify for such awards.
- To expel any student for misconduct or to withdraw a student on academic ground.
- To deal with the general discipline of the student of expulsion for misconduct or withdrawal on academic performance.
- Making periodic reports on such academic matter to the council as the council may from time to time direct.

Schools in the college

Academically, the college is organized into schools, each headed by a Dean. The schools are made up of a number of departments of related subjects. The affairs of the departments are managed and handled by the Heads of department, co-coordinating lecturers, supporting staff and students activities.

The College is made up of five schools, they include; School Of Science Education, School of Technical Education, School of Business Education, School of Vocational Education, School of Education School Of Science Education has the following departments, integrated science /Biology Department, Integrated science /chemistry Department, Integrated science /physics Department, Computer-Mathematics Department, Computer-physics department, Computer -chemistry Department. School of Technical Education has the following departments, Electrical-Electronics Technology Department, Building Technology Department, Metalwork Technology (mechanical) Department, Automobile Technology Department, and Woodwork Technology Department. School of Business Education has the following departments, Accounting Education Department, Office Technology Management Education (OTME). School Of Vocational Education has the following departments, Fine and Applied Art Department, Agricultural Science Department, Home Economics Department, School of Education has just only one department which is Primary Education Department.

The Provost is both the administrative and academic heads college. The Deputy Provost stands in for the Provost in his absence. Below is the graphic representation of the college structure

College committees

The administration of the college is through committee system. The Provost is the chairman of all committee of the college, ably represented by officers appointed by the college management committee. The following are some committee existing in the college.

1. Management committee
2. Academic board committee
3. Staff appointment, promotion and disciplinary committee
4. Students welfare and disciplinary committee
5. Social harassment committee
6. Sexual harassment committee
7. Security Committee
8. Examination malpractice investigation committee
9. Academic Planning committee
10. Students advisory committee
11. Library Committee

2.3 Overview of training and Development

Armstrong, (2001) defines training as the formal and systematic modification of behaviour through learning, which occurs as a result of education, instructions and development and planned experience. Training is the process of equipping the workforce with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to tackle the job responsibilities. Staff development on the other hand is improvement of the employees ‘competences for future environmental demands and adaptability. Beardwell and Hidden (1994) consider training and development as a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experiences to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Corporations are offering a variety of training programs to meet their organizational needs. These include content on IT and systems, processes, procedures and business practices, industry-specific trainings, managerial or supervisory training, interpersonal skills, compliance, sales, executive development, basic skills, new employee orientation, customer service and quality. As Reynolds (2004) points out, training has a complementary role to play in accelerating learning. It should be reserved for situations that justify amore directed expected approach rather than viewing it as a comprehensive and all-pervasive people development solution. He also commented that the conventional training model has a tendency to emphasize subject –specific knowledge rather than trying to build core learning abilities.

[...]

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Details

Title
Employee development through training programmes. Staff performance and retention in the Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos
College
University of Lagos
Course
EDUCATION IN MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING
Author
Year
2019
Pages
85
Catalog Number
V540723
ISBN (eBook)
9783346208521
ISBN (Book)
9783346208538
Language
English
Tags
akoka, college, education, employee, federal, lagos, staff, technical, yaba
Quote paper
Stephen Oyiborume (Author), 2019, Employee development through training programmes. Staff performance and retention in the Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/540723

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