Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Parameters of Students’ Work Readiness Assessment Scale Towards Technical Vocational Livelihood Work Immersion Program


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2020

16 Pages, Grade: 2


Excerpt

Table of contents

1. Introduction
1.1. Purpose of the Research
1.2. Hypotheses

2. Literature Review

3. Methodology
3.1. Summary of Research Process
3.2. Participants of the Study
3.3. Instruments
3.4. Data Analysis
3.5. Data Gathering Procedure

4. Results and Discussion

5. Conclusion

References

ABSTRACT

Work immersion is a required subject that is assimilated into the curriculum of the Senior High School. This program will engage students with a real-time work environment that will develop their competencies. This study verified the construct validity and reliability of the Work Readiness Assessment Scale (WRAS). A total of 237 Grade 12 Industrial Arts work immersion students from different Senior High Schools in the Division of Pampanga completed the WRAS. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to measure the work readiness towards the DepEd work immersion program indicated that a four-factor structure of the WRAS provided a good fit to the data. The fit indices generated the following value, GFI=0.643, / df=2.27, RMSEA=0.073, CFI=0.849, TLI=0.843, and NFI=0.759 that indicates an excellent fit to data observed. The measurement model has recommended value for the goodness-of-fit measurements. The study revealed that there is a statistically significant correlation between personal attitude and social skills; personal attitude and organizational awareness; social skills and organizational awareness; technical skills and organizational awareness; technical skills and social skills; and personal attitude and technical skills. Hence, there is a significant relationship among factors. The findings of this study demonstrated work readiness assessment scale consists of four-factors: personal attitude, technical skills, social skills, and organizational awareness are valid and reliable. The four-factor has AVE that ranges from 0.585 to 0.671 and the CR of each factor ranges from 0.955 to 0.968, which indicates that all estimates are above 0.5 and 0.7, thus, it makes the estimates significant. The results of descriptive statistics revealed that the grade 12 IA students were proficient and ready for work immersion .

KEYWORDS

Confirmatory factor analysis, , Technical Vocational Livelihood, work immersion, Work Readiness Assessment Scale.

1. Introduction

In 2013, through the Republic Act 10533 or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, the K to 12 program was implemented in the country. The addition of Senior High School in the curriculum of Philippine education believes to intensify the knowledge and skills of 21st century learners. Senior High School is the additional two years in basic education. The program offers different tracks such as Academic Track, Technical Vocational Livelihood Track, Sports Track, and Arts and Designs Track. These tracks ready the learners for life-long learning, development of middle-skills, employment, and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, the Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) track aid in increasing the competencies and competitiveness of the SHS graduates to the nation and global employment. One of the elements of the TVL track is the opportunities of acquiring National Certificate (NC) that can be utilized as another requirement in landing a job.

The Department of Education continuously alleviates the system by presenting innovations, approaches, and programs. One of these programs is the inclusion of the work immersion program in its curriculum. According to DepEd Order No. 30, s 2017, work immersion is a required subject that is being added in the curriculum, thus, it is a requirement for graduation. Moreover, the work immersion program engages the learners in a real-time work environment, and become familiarized with the work-related environment connected to their specialization for skills enhancement. Lastly, the program aims to (a) appreciate the importance and application of the school learning; (b) develop the technical knowledge and skills; (c) improve the communication skills and human relations; and (d) develop the good work habits, attitudes, appreciation, and respect for work.

Considering the aforementioned statements about work immersion, the researcher wanted to determine the relationship of the factors of students’ readiness assessment scale toward work immersion program in Technical Vocational Livelihood-Industrial Arts of the Department of Education.

1.1. Purpose of the Research

The main focus of the study is to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis of students’ readiness skills toward work immersion in Technical Vocational Livelihood-Industrial Arts of the Department of Education.

Specifically, the study answered the following questions:

a. What is the extent of students’ readiness skills toward work immersion?
b. What is the relationship between the following constructs:

b.1. personal attitude and social skills
b.2. personal attitude and organizational awareness
b.3 social skills and organizational awareness
b.4. technical skills and organizational awareness
b.5. technical skills and social skills
b.6. personal attitude and technical skills

1.2. Hypotheses

a. The extent of students’ readiness skills toward work immersion is high
b. There is a significant relationship between constructs on work readiness assessment scale towards work immersion:

b.1. personal attitude and social skills
b.2. personal attitude and organizational awareness
b.3 social skills and organizational awareness
b.4. technical skills and organizational awareness
b.5. technical skills and social skills
b.6. personal attitude and technical skills

2. Literature Review

Work Immersion

K-12 curriculum was initiated by the Department of Education way back in the year 2011. This new education scheme in the Philippines is set to heighten the basic skills of learners, develop more citizens who are globally competent, and to make graduates ready for a lifelong learning and apply these learnings for future employment. Additionally, K-12 was implemented due to the fact that Philippines’ educational system is the only left country in Asia that has only 10-year basic education curriculum. With this, additional 2 years was added in the basic education after the 4 years in junior high school. This additional 2 years in the basic education is now called Senior High School.

One of the highlights of K-12 curriculum in the Philippines is the requirement to engage students to work immersion. Accordingly, the Department of Education (2017) defined work immersion as a course requirement for a Senior High School student where they undergo trainings and applications of what the students have learned in an industry that is directly related to the students’ chosen career in the postsecondary. The Department believes that through work-immersion, competencies of students are enhanced because they are exposed and engaged to a work-related environment focused in their field of specialization. As a matter of fact, the work immersion curriculum is designed to make students be enriched with practical and relevant skills in their chosen industry from the experts’ and workers’ guidance, value the application and significance of theories and principles they learned from the school, improve their technical knowledge and skills, enhance their communications and human relations skills, and cultivate better habits in work, attitudes, appreciation, and respect for work. With this intention of the Department of Education, they emphasized that work immersion will make students ready to face the challenges and demands of employment or in the higher education institutions if they want to pursue college studies.

In the report of Montemayor (2018), the DepEd Secretary Dr. Briones said that graduates of K-12 program under the tech-voc track and those who underwent trainings in manufacturing, commercial, and business industries are competent and prepared to take jobs after graduation. As an evidence, it was mentioned that DepEd recorded 28 percent of the student who graduated in technical vocational strand were immediately hired to land a job to the on the job training of students or work immersion in the Senior High School which is a required subject. For this reason, there is a need to sustain good tracks of work immersion program and to evaluate this, there must be a positive relationship between the parameters in the student’s readiness scale towards work immersion in which the current study would like to determine.

Students’ Readiness Toward Work Immersion

The theory of Readiness is based on the idea of development in the stages of biological and mental aspects of the student. For this reason, teachers should figure out what the students is ready for and innovate teaching methods and appropriate materials to cultivate better learning (Peel, 2017). However, in the research brief of Kinsey (2011), an alarming results was revealed in the AdvancED High School Exit Survey where they administered analysis of 5,500 responses from high school students. Accordingly, these students were asked to rate how they value their high school education from excellent to poor and the results revealed that 76 % of the students valued their high school education with a rating of poor to very poor. Contrastingly, the reports revealed also a remarkable note that in technical and vocational program, the students rated their value of their education higher than those students who took college preparation program or those who took general education. Notably, results showed fourteen percent of students from the technical/vocational education who rated their value of their education as excellent or good as compared to general education students (4.7%) and students under college preparation program (3.6%). Furthermore, the research continued to dig on the student preparedness using survey that rates the extent on how their respective school prepare them for the future. Results showed that there were greater than 60 percent of students rated a poor to very poor rating of their high school education. Students believed that their high school education failed to provide curriculum and classes that will challenge and prepare them for the future. Moreover, it was stressed by the same group of students felt that their school did not prepare them adequately for education or employment. Specifically, 3400 students of the 5500 felt that their school did a less job to prepare them for education after their high school life and the rest of the students felt that their employment preparation was not enough due to their school’s poor job in preparing them. Correspondingly, sixty percent of students responded a poor to very poor rating when they were asked to rate how their school developed their skills and ability in terms of making good decisions, solving problems, managing time, career awareness, working in teams, and employability. With these results, the Department of Education in the Philippines aimed to prepare students for future college education and employability through the work immersion program. The department assumes that students are well prepared as they take their immersion in partner industries.

In order to assure quality preparation of students for future college education and employment, the Department of Education closely work hand in hand with the local governments and industry to collaborate in improving work immersion in the Senior High School. Accordingly, Coalitions for Change (2018) emphasized that there is a need to implement work immersion properly because it enhances competencies of students, it guides them to choose career wisely, and provides opportunities for employment right after Senior High School graduation.

To make students ready to face the challenges of work immersion since K-12 curriculum is still new in the Philippines, it is also imperative to explore how these students are trained before they are engaged into work immersion. Delving into how teacher’s practices are conducted towards the success of work immersion activity is necessary to assess readiness of students according to how they are trained. With this, the current study will determine the relationship on how teachers train their students according to their classroom practices with the students’ readiness skills towards the work immersion.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Deikhoff (1992) defined factor analysis as group of affiliated techniques where highly correlated variables that are grouped homogenously are examined. The word factors pertain to the groups of variables. Accordingly, underlying factors are determined and measured through the p set of original variables. Moreover, factor analysis is imperative in assessing significance tests of factor stability structure which is secured from a single sample or between the similarity of factor structure acquired from samples of two.

On the family of techniques in factor analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) belongs to this group. In fact, Jackson, Gillaspy, and Purc-Stephenson (2009) described CFA as a very important tool for researchers who seek for the validity of constructs such as development of scale, validation of constructs, or validation of model of measurement in applications of SEM. Additionally, they emphasized that definite hypothesis and highly complex ones can be specified and tested by researchers once these hypotheses that are under study is transformed into a model. Similarly, Brown and Moore (2013) stressed that confirmatory factor analysis deals with models of measurement between relationships of observed measures (test scores, test items, and ratings of behavioral observation) and the factors (latent variables). In this study, the four factors in Work Readiness Assessment Scale will be measure its relationship, reliability and validity.

3. Methodology

This study utilized quantitative approaches in collecting data to draw answers from the presented research problems The summary of full research process is presented in the table below.

3.1. Summary of Research Process

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3.2. Participants of the Study

Using purposive sampling, two hundred thirty-seven (237) participants were chosen from the twelfth grades of the Senior High School under TVL-Industrial Arts in the Division of Pampanga. The Industrial Arts class sections were conveniently selected that provide detailed information on the phenomenon that is being studied.

Table 1. Characteristics of the Sample of the Study

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 1 presents the demographic characteristics of the participants of the study. Out of 237 industrial arts work immersion students, 152 that represents 64.1% were male, while 85 that represents 35.9% were female.

Among the participants, 18 (7.6%) were Plumbing NCI/NCII, 31 (13.1%) were Automotive Servicing NCI/NCII, 173 (73.0%) were Electrical Installation and Maintenance NC II, 6 (2.5%) were Shielded Metal Arc Welding NC I/NCII, while Carpentry NCI/NCII have 9 (3.8%) in the study.

3.3. Instruments

Work Readiness Assessment Scale (WRAS) was used to assess the readiness of the Grade 12 TVL-Industrial Arts students on their work immersion. The tool was adopted from Cabrera (2018) that contains different parameters namely: personal attitude, technical skills, social skills, and organizational awareness. Respondents were asked the 60 items WRAS using a Four-point Likert Scale that ranges from 1 (needs improvement) to 4 (exemplary).

The first parameter measures the attitude towards work denotes good characteristics (such as self-view, positive outlook, willingness, motivation, punctuality, focus, respect, and team player) of the immersion students to their work immersion. The second parameter is the technical skill that measures the skills, competency, and initiative of the students. While the third parameter, social skills measures the students’ communication skill in dealing with customers and with partner industry supervisors. The last parameter is the organizational awareness that deals with the students’ awareness of the industry’s standards, rules, duties, and responsibilities.

3.4. Data Analysis

A two-step analysis was employed in this study. First, a descriptive statistics were used to present all the variables to measure the extent of students readiness skills. These preliminary analyses examined whether the basic characteristics of the current data such as means, standard deviations, percentage, skewness, and kurtosis are acceptable for further analyses. Moreover, the examination of reliability coefficients and relationships of factors are also included. The purpose of examining estimates of internal consistency from the sample was to determine if the measures that were used have acceptable reliability levels. Bivariate relationship between the factors of work readiness assessment scale was conducted to determine how each variable associate itself with other variables.

The second analysis is Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to verify the WRAS instrument by using Analysis of a Moment Structure (AMOS version 23). The main purpose of running CFA is to examine the relationships between observed measures and latent variables (Brown & Moore, 2013; Yu, 2018). The goal of latent variable measurement models is to establish the number and nature of factors that account for the variation and covariation among the set of indicators (Brown & Moore, 2013). To estimate and confirm how related the identify construct of the study, the goodness of fit for measuring the strength of relationship was examined. The fit indices include X[2], P-value, RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation), TLI (Tucker Lewis Index), NFI (Norm Fit Index), and CFI (Comparative Fit Index). According to Hair et al. (2003) as cited by Tajudeen, Isiaka, Olalere &. Thomas (2015), GFI, NFI, and CFI are best if above 0.90. The recommended value for RMSEA is between 0.03 and 0.08 (Hooper et al., 2008; Tajudeen, Isiaka, Olalere, & Thomas, 2015; Yusof, Mustapha, Mohamad, & Bunian, 2012)

3.5. Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher sought the permission of the authors of the survey questionnaire. Also, a letter of request was given to the Schools Division Superintendent. The researcher facilitated the survey using the research instrument to the respective respondents. The statistical treatment analysis using the descriptive statistics and confirmatory factor analysis was done to organize and interpret the results of the study.

4. Results and Discussion

Descriptive Statistics

Table 2.Means, Standard Deviations, Skewness, and Kurtosis for the Work Readiness Assessment Scale (WRAS) items

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1.00-1.75=Needs Improvement; 1.76-2.50=Developing; 2.51-3.25=Proficient; 3.26-4.00=Exemplary

Table 2 shows the means, standard deviations, skewness, and kurtosis values for the 60 items on the Work Readiness Assessment Scale (WRAS). Item means indicated a moderate ceiling effect. The table presents the work readiness in terms of personal attitude, technical skills, social skills, and organizational awareness. The industrial arts work immersion students rated their readiness as 1-needs improvement; 2-developing; 3-proficient; and 4-exemplary. The study revealed that generally, the participants were “proficient” in work readiness assessment scale with an overall weighted average of 2.676. Particularly, each construct denotes proficiency, for instance, personal attitude with weighted mean of 2.650, technical skills with 2.631, social skills with 2.719, and organizational skills with weighted mean of 2.702.

[...]

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Details

Title
Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Parameters of Students’ Work Readiness Assessment Scale Towards Technical Vocational Livelihood Work Immersion Program
College
Philippine Normal University
Grade
2
Author
Year
2020
Pages
16
Catalog Number
V541494
ISBN (eBook)
9783346155894
ISBN (Book)
9783346155900
Language
English
Tags
analysis, vocational, towards, technical, students’, scale, readiness, program, parameters, livelihood, immersion, factor, confirmatory, assessment, work
Quote paper
Nepthalie Gonzales (Author), 2020, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Parameters of Students’ Work Readiness Assessment Scale Towards Technical Vocational Livelihood Work Immersion Program, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/541494

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