A comparative approach to conjuncts in written and spoken English


Hausarbeit, 2005
19 Seiten, Note: 2,3

Leseprobe

Content

1. Aims and research questions

2. A brief overview on the properties of conjuncts
2.1. The semantics of conjuncts
2.2. Realisation of the conjuncts (syntactic realisation)
2.3. Comparison

3. Approach on conjuncts in written and spoken English
3.1. Listing, additive conjuncts
3.1.1. Furthermore in written English
3.1.2. Furthermore in spoken English
3.1.3. In addition in written English
3.1.4. In addition in spoken English
3.1.5. Moreover in written English
3.1.6. Moreover in spoken English
3.2. Inferential conjuncts
3.2.1. In that case in written English
3.2.2. In that case in spoken English
3.2.3. Then in written English
3.2.4. Then in spoken English

4. Conclusion

5. References

1. Aims and research questions

an identical spoken and written language would be practically intolerable. If we spoke as we write we should find no one to listen: and if we write as we speak we should find no one to read. The spoken and written language must not be too near together, as they must not be too far apart.

(T.S. Eliot)

Speech and writing have different features. I want to give only some aspects to make the difference clear[1]:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The last feature is the most important with regard to this examination. The paper explores different conjuncts concerning the usage in spoken and written English. I will in particular examine and consider the following aspects:

(1) How often is a certain conjunct used in written and spoken English? (Frequency)
(2) Are there any words or word-classes that appear often before a certain conjunct?
(3) Are there any words or word-classes that appear often after a certain conjunct?
(4) Is there any change in the position of a conjunct with regard to written and spoken English? (Word-order)

Hence, I will start the paper with a brief overview on the characteristics of conjuncts.

The aim of the paper is to analyse the variation of conjuncts in speech and writing to understand the differences in usage.

2. A brief overview on the properties of conjuncts

Conjuncts are adverbials that are used to link ideas or clauses in spoken discourse or written texts. They serve a connecter function by telling us “how the speaker or writer understand the semantic connection between two utterances, or parts of utterances. [ ] Conjuncts are not elements of the structure, but connectors of structure between”[2]:

- groups:

Lord Shaftesbury was a persuasive speaker and furthermore a great pioneer of social reform.

- clauses:

The students are o strike; nevertheless, the examination will not be cancelled.

- sentences:

He has been undergoing treatment for asthma since he was a boy. Consequently, he never went in for sports.

- paragraphs:

In addition to all this

First of all

In conclusion

The position of conjunctive adverbs is like that of other adverbs. They may appear:[3]

At the beginning He doesn’t like his job; however, he won’t leave until he finds another job.

With the verb He doesn’t like his job; he won’t leave, however, until he finds another job.

At the end He doesn’t like his job; he won’t leave until he finds another job, however. (Note that this final position is less desirable because the relationship intended by however is suspended too long)

2.1. The semantics of conjuncts

“Semantically, many different types of connection can be expressed”[4]. I want to list the main types:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.2. Realisation of the conjuncts (syntactic realisation)

Conjunctions are realised in different ways. Here, I name the various classes of units[5]:

(a) Closed-class adverbs: nevertheless, moreover
(b) Open-class adverbs: namely, consequently
(c) PrepGs: in other words, by the way
(d) AdjGs: last of all
(e) AdvGs: more accurately
(f) Finite clause: that is to say
(g) Non-finite clause: to sum up

2.3. Comparison of conjuncts, conjunctions, adjuncts and disjuncts and prepositional phrases

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Distinguishing between conjuncts and conjunctions is not difficult. In general, the position of a conjunction is fixed between the two units it is linking. However, a conjunct is more mobile and can stand in various positions.[12]

Consider:
However, a conjunct is more mobile
A conjunct, however, is more mobile
A conjunct is more mobile, however,

But:
However, a conjunct is more mobile and can stand in various positions.
And can stand in various positions, however, a conjunct is more mobile. !!!
However, a conjunct is more mobile, can stand in various positions and. !!!

[...]


[1] www.bbc.co.uk/education/asguru/english/07speechwriting/32characteristics/ind (08.11.2004)

[2] Downing/ Locke (1992:63.)

[3] examples from the grammar course at university WiSe 2003/04

[4] Greenbaum/ Quirck (1990: 185f.).

[5] Examples from Downing/ Locke (1992: 64).

[6] Grennbaum/ Quirk (1990: 262f.).

[7] Grennbaum/ Quirk (1990: 193f.).

[8] Brinton (2000: 193f.).

[9] Grennbaum/ Quirk (1990: 188f.).

[10] see chapter 2

[11] see Brinton (2000: 195.).

[12] http://www.ex.ac.uk/~damyhill/grammar/conjunction.htm 13.02.2005 18:44

Ende der Leseprobe aus 19 Seiten

Details

Titel
A comparative approach to conjuncts in written and spoken English
Hochschule
Universität Potsdam
Veranstaltung
Seminar: “Adverbs and Adverbial”
Note
2,3
Autor
Jahr
2005
Seiten
19
Katalognummer
V58453
ISBN (eBook)
9783638526425
ISBN (Buch)
9783638766302
Dateigröße
502 KB
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
English, Seminar, Adverbial”
Arbeit zitieren
Monique Schwertfeger (Autor), 2005, A comparative approach to conjuncts in written and spoken English, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/58453

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