Table of contents
The Importance of the Topic
English as a global language
English as a Lingua Franca
The Future of English
This research paper reviews and discusses English as a global language, as we know that English language is one of the most spoken languages in the world. Language is said to be the mirror of mind, language is a part of communication. English language is part of the Indo-European languages family. English language is branch of the Germanic family. This article is divided into three main sections: a) The first section is Introduction then English as a global Language, b) English as a Lingua Franca, and c) The Future of English. English as a global language aroused interest for many scholars and learners. I strongly believe in the value of the English language because it is like an endless world which gives us great opportunities for international cooperation and communication. If you are a fluent English speaker you can benefit from it in everyday life. Nowadays many countries pay attention to the use of English Language as a global language, and it is required in every single country as an additional language or as the second language. So the main aim of this paper is to express English as a global language.
Key words: English as a Lingua Franca, Communication, Opportunity, Cooperation, Communication.
English is used by many people today and it is one of the most useful language than any language in the history of the world. English language is said to be a language of excellence. English language has a debatable number when it comes to the number of the speakers, but approximately estimates 380 million who use it as a first language, but it is used as a second language or additional language by more than a half billion people which use it for communication even why they do not share linguistic or cultural background, they use it as a second language. So the so called core English speakers are in minority because of the large number of English users and native speakers, because it is not determined how language is used internationally .English is a global language, English is heard in television used by many politicians in a global conference, and wherever you travel in a foreign country you will see signs and advertisements in this language. If you enter in a restaurant you see the menu in English, or wherever you go if you speak this powerful language you will not be alone, you will only benefit from this language of excellence. Even why English is not my mother tongue of course I am strongly motivated to learn and teach that to other students. People who know English Language are really successful, and we hope this language will put me in contact with different people from different cultures who use this language. As the world is in transition everyday English language is using new terms and forms. English language reflects many patterns of contact with other languages, and changed communication for the need of people, English is also used more than before, because it is used in technology as a leading edge also, scientific development, in management, art , literature, and so on. The reason why English language spread as a global language is because of two main historical events. The first historical event was the expansion of the British colonialism that resulted in the settlement of English language in many parts of the globe, and the second historical event is the 20th century of the US that were more important than Britain who ensured that language a culture for any costumer. As English develops complex relationships rapidly between communities, and speakers of the world, there should be arguments and positions related with pedagogies, policies, politics, and practices of English as a global language, even sociolinguistics and socio psychological complexities should be revised with new questions expanded.
This research aims to carry a corpus based study of English as a global language on different horizons. We know that English is probably the most important language in the world. My aim is to research its spread and its impact on the world in different periods and circumstances in relation with other factors, there will be subdivided sections but related with English in general.
This research is based on different aspects, such as its impact on other world languages, science, and education, its usage as a native language, first language, second language, and language of the web. We think that this topic is of great importance to do research and to go further through these specific aspects. Some of the research will try to predict its future trends on general aspect.
Some of research questions that will be analyzed in order to achieve this objectives are: Which group is larger- people who speak English as a first language or people who speak English as a second language? What was the world language 100 years ago? What are two reasons English has become a global language today? How much does the USA's superpower status complement British imperialism in making English the international language? What is the number of users of English as native speakers, first language speakers, and second language speakers? Britain was responsible for English becoming a global language. Was this an achievement? What is the future of English as a lingua franca? Which international language is easier to learn through English? What should be the next international language? Is English considered a cool language? Is English considered as a language of science? Is English threatened by the possible decline in the future?
The Importance of the Topic
The consideration of the issue mentioned above reveals the potential of the research, and We think that this is a very important topic to do research, and that is because of the great impact that English has had in its whole history.It is rightesously the most important language in the world because of its fantastic linguistic structures such as vocabulary, grammar, syntax, phonology and also other linguistic fields. It has become a vital mean of communication in all corners of the world. In the present day, it is the dominant language in the world because it is the language of science, education, media, economy, and many more fields.
We will mainly use qualitative and quantitative research methods by accessing corpus based data of the English as a global language, and English is rich in this aspect. We will collect all data analysis of the above mentioned research topic and questions in order to achieve the objectives of this research proposal.
We expect to get clear answers of the research questions asked in the section above in order to get the best possible information that would serve me to enrich my academic potential. It will cover some specific issues, which we deal with in our everyday situations when we talk about English as a globallanguage, its contribution in many life aspects, and its possible dominance for many centuries to come.
English as a global language
English as a global language is spoken in many countries as a native or as a foreign or secondary language, in this sense we have English, Spanish, Hindi, Mandarin, and Arabic that are the most spoken languages in the world. Even if a language has a large number of speakers cannot be considered as a global language or a wide language of communication. In this case, we have English as a global language and is considered to be as an excellent language, because it is used among individuals from different countries and between individuals from the same country. So we can surely say that English in a local sense and as a global language can be a globallanguage. According to Crystal (1997) who states that a language achieves global status when developed as a special role and is recognized in every country, and this status can only be reached by making it an official language or by giving special priority to that language and by studying it as a foreign language or as a second language (There are seventy countries who hold special status with many other countries giving English priority and learning it as a foreign language). Crystal (1997) presumes that English is rapidly growing the role as a global language. He states that the inner countries of English as a native language have a number of speakers roughly 320-380 million. In the outer countries such as India and Singapore where English has a global role, they are the second language speakers of English with a number of speakers around 150-300 million, although in outer countries English is learned as a foreign language, the number of speakers is from 100-1000 million. There are 570 million people who have English as a native or as a native-command of English. According to Crystal who states that there is no other language spread over the world rapidly than English, by making it a global language. Anyway, the number of speakers cannot be a sufficient reason to call language as a global language. For instance, if this was the issue with far more native speakers than English is Mandarin, and English would be only a choice in the international exchanges. What does a global language mean? Smith (1976) was one of the first that defined the term International Language by stating that International Language is a communication between different nations with one another. English is the main foreign language taught in every school in Europe, Asia, South America and Africa. English is widely spoken in British Isles, United States, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and many other territories under United States of America and United Kingdom. English Language is an official language of India with a number over 1000 million (over billion) people. Also we have other places ruled by Britain who continue to use English in their schools and as their official language such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and many other nations. We have some other nations who continue to learn French as their second language because they were ruled by French. English has affected even these countries that were ruled by French. We have the case with the former Russian Soviet Union, and the dominant language was Russian, but by the break of the Soviet Union, The Asian Republic rapidly introduced English in their school as a foreign language or as a second language. Even in Russia itself, English is rapidly growing and becoming popular as a second language. We have Japan where English language is the most favorable or second language. English is the most favorable language of international commerce, outside the Europe. All this happened before one hundred years ago. The authority of English as the most preferable language began two hundred years ago with the colonization of North America, Asia, and Africa colonized by Britain. The expanding of maritime power by Industrial Revolution in Britain and the development of material wealth, progress in consequent power and research helped the spread of English and even Britain became a great empire. English in the 16th century was mainly spoken in England, southern Scotland, and it was spoken in small areas of Wales and Ireland. English today is spoken in one seven either as a native English or as a foreign language or as second language. English became as the dominant language in North America during the 17th century and the most rapid growth of English was during the 19th century.´Throughout Middle Ages education in Western Europe was in Latin language, the language of Diplomacy was French for four centuries, but even though today there is no language compared with English as a global language. This is simply because there are more people who speak Chinese rather than English as native language. Spanish also has a large number of native speakers but compared with English nor Spanish, nor Russian, nor Chinese, nor French cannot be compared even come to the level of English because of the spread and took place in the world. People learn English everywhere and they compare it to a passport for better career, better pay, benefits, advanced knowledge and for communication with different people from different nations mainly with the entire world. English is also learnt because of breadth literature and rich varieties, English also displaced French from the language of diplomacy.
English as a Lingua Franca
English as a lingua franca refers to communication in English between different speakers as a first language. Crystal (2003) states that every speaker in the world’s one/fourth speaker of the English as a native speaker. English as a lingua franca interacts among non-native speakers of English. What is different about English as a Lingua Franca is a common language used between persons who share a common culture or neither a common native tongue, and for this reason English is chosen as a foreign language of communication. English as a Lingua Franca is a phenomenon called English as a global Language. Some people welcomed and some declined this language. But despite this fact no one should deny that English functions as lingua franca in the world. English has become a Lingua Franca in fields like: politics, education, science, business, aviation,( and many others) because of the number of the speakers. English as a Lingua Franca is used in the Airspeak, for example, an Italian pilot contacts with ground control in English, Seaspeak also use English when communicating, and Scientific researchers are 95% in English language. Also half of the business round the world is done by using English language. We have popular music and American television who are dominated by English. Also international politicians use English in international agreements, we have our political leaders when they go to European countries they speak in English language, even if none of them are native English speakers. It is also important in distinguishing ELF (English as a Lingua Franca),from the use of English language from the pedagogic subject ELF(English as a foreign language).It can be presumed that the main aim of English as a Lingua Franca is to communicate with other non-native speakers whereas English as a Foreign Language is learnt in school, and takes the target of English speaker.
- Quote paper
- denis kastrati (Author), 2017, The Impact and Future of English as a Global Language, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/585241