Urban Landscape Monographs - Hamburg

Studienarbeit, 2005
39 Seiten, Note: 1,7



0. Preface

1. Introduction/ Background

a. Statistics ..

b. Natural landscape of the region

c. Geographic data

d.Social structure

e. Culture

f. Perception of urban open space

g. Conclusions

2. Structure of urban open structure

a. Introduction: Historical aspects of the city development

b. Urban development: The formation of the urban open structure

c. Open space pattern

d. The size of the urban open green spaces

e. The protected natural and semi-natural areas

f. Quality of the present green structure

g. Conclusions

3. Components of the urban open space system

a. Introduction: Simplified typology of the open space structure

b. Parks in metropolitan scale, in district area and in local neighbourhood

c. Squares

d. Playgrounds and sport facilities

e. Cemeteries

f. Streets

g. Private open spaces, The private domestic gardens

h. Industrial sites

i. External spaces associated with public buildings

j. Allotment gardens

k. Canal and river corridors

l. Lakes and other water bodies

m. Waterfronts

n. Trade fair sites

o. Urban forests and agriculture land

p. Pedestrian network

q. Network of cycle ways

r. Conclusions

4. Functions of the urban landscape

a. Introduction: Use of use of open spaces within urban landscape

b. Present activities

c. The open space of streams

d. The open space of defence works


5. Ecological issues

a. Introduction: What is presently recorded about ecology? By whom, and how?

b. The influence of natural features and factors on open space

c. Ecological networks

d. Habitat mapping

e. Open space and biodiversity

f. Climate

g. Circulation - transport routes

h. Climatic melioration

i. Hydrology

j. Organic waste and compound

k. Introduced species as pests

l. Soil

m. Conclusions

6. Human Issues

a. Introduction: Social characterises

b. Private gardens vs. lack of space

c. Social dwellings

d. Unemployment and use of open spaces

e. Crime and safety

f. Gender affecting open space use

g. Effects of climate on open space use

h. Smog

i. Cultural, social, economic, and political features and roles merging

with and shaping open space

j. Difficulties, especially in social development

k. Attractions

l. Conclusions

7. Open space planning, management and policies

a. Introduction: Landscape planning system and management

b. The Planning System: Political system - division of

responsibilities for open spaces and open space issues

c. Administrative systems

d. Models

e. Diagrams

f. Recent laws and policies on wilderness and open space

g. Formal design of the urban spaces

h. The involvement of non-governmental agencies and the

volunteer sector

i. Complex planning conditions

j. Planning terms of time

k. Local democracy and community involvement (Planning policies

based on public dialogue, participation, and information)

l. Coalitions and influence of actors m.Conclusions

URBAN LANDSCAPE MONOGRAPHS: Hamburg. Characteristics and Planning Approaches

8. The influence of the ecological goals on the planning, design, and management processes

a. Introduction: Planning instruments and strategies

b. Panning tools and approaches

c. Strategies and budgets

d. Current plans and projects

e. Conclusions

9. Role for a open space plan

a. Introduction: Role of landscape planning

b. The role of the character and functions of open space in land use/ landscape planning

c. The role of ecological and environmental functions of open space in land use/ landscape planning

d. Conclusions

10. Conclusions

11. References

0. Preface

This essay had been part of an international team of urban and landscape planners, who reserached the urban landscapes of their hometowns as part of the study project »European Landscapes and beyond...« at the Institute of Landscape Architecture at the Technical University of Vienna.

The surveys were carried out in Summer 2005. The work was accepted by Professor Jürgen Pietsch of Hamburg University of Technology.

1. Introduction/ Background

a. Statistics

The city and federal state of Hamburg is one of 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. The city is ruled by a democratic parliament of 121 members, the mayor, mayors office and ten public authorities. One of them is the board of urban development and environment. Hamburg has seven districts. Every authority has special departments for urban planning, green structure, social belongings, youth and health as well on state as on district level. Furthermore every district has its own parliament with 41 members each. Decisions can be made by the districts boards or the smaller municipal district board.

Hamburg had 1.7 million inhabitants in 2003.1 Almost 15% were (2003) of non German descendent.2 The immigration rate is nearly 9.000 per year.3 On one hand, Hamburg with its port always was a centre of commerce and nowadays even has a big amount of media industries and head offices of international companies.4

On the other side Hamburg has a rate of 11.3% of unemployment.5

Tourism is an important market segment; almost 3.0 million guests visited the city during the year 2003. The majority were from other parts of Germany, only 500.000 visitors came from international destinations.6 The seaport industry reached a peak level ever with 95.1% of international container cargo.7

Statistik data of Hamburg (Source: Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und SchleswigHolstein (Hg.); 2004)

b. Natural landscape of the region

Hamburg, as a city in the northern flatlands of Germany, has atypical

differences in ground levels (ca. 100 meters). This depends on ice-aged moraines north and south of the “River Elbe”. The riverbed with its corrosion formed steep banks. Most of the dwellings are on sandy and clayey soil. Erosion formed river beds e.g. the “Wandse” (see 3i.). The “Elbe valley” belongs to the estuary of the River Elbe.8

c. Geographic data

Hamburg is situated on the river Elbe in the north of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is stretched over a total of 755.3 km2 to all sides of the river. The water areas cover 8%.9 It is the second largest city of Germany behind the capital Berlin. The surface is mainly flat land but inside the whole area the ground level varies from -5 to 93 above sea level.10

The city boundery of Hamburg (Appelhans/ Schreiner; 2004)

For economic and cultural reasons, Hamburg is important for the whole northern part of Germany and the centre of the “Metropol Region Hamburg” (MRH) which is a planning compound and consists of the states of Hamburg, Schleswig/ Holstein and Lower Saxony. 3.5 million Inhabitants live in this region.

Metropolregion Hamburg (S. Schreiner)

The dwelling space for each person living inside the city area is 30 squaremeter which is, compared to other big cities worldwide, the highest value. 14% of the urban area is green and leisure space.

2485 bridges form the character of the inner city with a huge amount of river arms and waterfronts. While the inner city districts are densely populated the outskirts are formed by urban sprawl. Parks and water areas influence the city persistent.11

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

View of Hamburg (S. Schreiner)

d. Social structure

Hamburg has a high percentage on old and young people as well as on unemployment.

The Graphic below shows the age structure in Hamburg per 31.12.2003. There is a high amount of the group of 20 to 45 years old persons as well as elderly from 60 years on.

The single rate is with 45.5% higher than the amounts on married or widowed inhabitants.

The income determines the possibilities of participation on social life. The unemployment rate per 2003 is 11.2% in total. Divided into sex and ethnic groups, it shows an amount of 13% male, 9.2% female and 20.1% migrant’s unemployment.12

Age structure of Hamburg, 31.12.2003 (Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.); 2004, p.12)

2. Structure of urban open spaces

e. Culture

Hamburg as a western European town is widely influenced by its migrants from all over the world who settled during the last centuries. Most inhabitants are Lutherans, Moslems and Catholics. Religious groups with smaller number of followers (Jews, Freemasons, Russian Orthodox and Baptists) have communities.

The biggest groups of migrants are Turkish, people from the former Republic of Yugoslavia and Polish, which culminates in many shops, arts and restaurants of those cultures.

Hamburg has a lively cultural and art scene which is mainly situated, like all other main industries, in the city centre. There is the red-light district of St. Georg and St. Pauli, which attract many tourists.

Große Freiheit, St. Pauli (N. Zorn) Musical stages, clubs, bars and concert halls are mainly in the city centre. Every community district has its town hall, where groups for leisure activities meet. Furthermore there are public libraries, cinemas, youth clubs, etc.

f. Perception of urban open space

The perception of open space can vary from characteristics of sex, gender, age, social rank etc. Here can not be defined how this affects the perception of that structures in Hamburg because studies about this could not be found.

g. Conclusions

Social and landscape belongings in Hamburg are hardly influenced by the development of its economy and culture of inhabitants. The geographic situation as a river town in combination with the port plays an important role. As one of the major cities in Germany, Hamburg has to deal with various problems like other European cities: high rates of unemployment, migration, urban sprawl and demographic problems.

2. Structure of urban open spaces

a. Introduction: Historical aspects of the city development

The Early Period:

After backflow of melted snow and ice- due to moraine- ice during the ice age at the actual site of the river Elbe- the area were possible to cultivate. The earliest settlements originate from the 4th century a. D. During the 5th until the 6th century p. D. Saxons settled at the geest-hills at the bank where the rivers Elbe and Alster come together.

The Middle Ages:

832 p.D. the first fortress and mound were built. Church, dwellings and market places were set up at the central spaces during the 10th century p.D. The Danish and Saxons fight against each other in order to establish their commercial and power sites in “Hammaburg”- how Hamburg was called at that time because of the castle with this name. At the mid of the 11th century p.D. Hamburg had had 800-900 inhabitants, half of them citizens, the other half clergymen.

The “Elbmarschen”, the dry lands beside the river, were diked with its south-western islands; side by side with the old bishop-town a new city was erected 1124 on the western part of the “Nikolaifleet” which had been given exemption from duty to trade and shipery on the lower Elbe part. Freedom of the city had been granted by “Kaiser Barbarossa” and thereupon two town halls had been built.

After the Danish annexed Hamburg for almost 30 years from 1201 on, a city wall with trenches and gates were established. Monasteries and hospitals sprung up until a fire destroyed everything in 1284. The development of the city reached a peak with joining the “Hanse”, the communitiy of merchants. As the most important harbour of the powerful Lübeck, Hamburg had been the emporium in traffic to the western and eastern countries. Smaller districts nearby were bought and Hamburg spread to all directions. At the end of the 14th century Hamburg had had 7.500 inhabitants.

The Baroque Period:

Hamburg had gotten the title of independence in 1510 with it understands directly to the “Kaiser” which is important for urban development. As consequence of religious wars in the Spanish Netherlands lots of Lutheranians, Jews and Calvinists had flown to Hamburg where religious liberty ruled. The number of inhabitants in that period ascended from 1550 until 1600 to 40.000 persons. The city got an intensive cultural and economical stimulation. The river was getting more important because of the merchants trades with worldwide customers. A lot of people were having work and dwelling near the harbour.

Signs of wealth were as well the complete renewal of the cities wall in 1616-1625 which at that time included the “Binnenalster” and the new town.

Because the Danish king supported the small town “Altona” against the power of Hamburg, its districts of St. Georg and St. Pauli, close to the border to Altona, were fortified. Through negotiations between the government of Hamburg and Denmark, the city received two islands inside the Elbe which were important to develop the harbour.

The classicism period:

The city got its whole independence and called itself “Freie Hansestadt”. Old buildings like churches were demolished.

When the French invaded Hamburg at the beginning of the 19th century, the fortress was consolidated by them. Furthermore, they destroyed districts outside the city wall to get a free zone of fire. With one exception all churches, magazines and stable were profaned.

Because of expulsions the number of citizens shrunk from almost 130.000 to 100.000 (1800). After 1819 and withdrawal of the French troops the citizens were busy with reconstruct their town. The fortifications were demolished and turned into parks.

The Industrialisation:

A big fire, which nearly destroyed the inner city, could not stop the

development of constructions: Parks for health reasons and the harbour sites were enlarged. For international trade the “Speicherstadt” with storehouses were constructed. A new town hall was opened 1897. The level of 1.0 million inhabitants reached Hamburg 1913. After World War I social-democratic Architects like Fritz Schumacher developed dwelling projects and open space concepts. Main aim was production of healthy environment for all classes. The “Stadtpark” was one of those projects. The green areas and corridors should structure the city and work as connecting lines towards the big green areas.13

The Nazi Period:

1938, an area of the former wall was created to garden park within an

exhibition event. The towns of “Wandsbek”, “Altona” and Harburg- Wilhelmsburg” and 28 villages were integrated by law in 1937. Afterwards Hamburg has 1.7 Million citizens. 1943 huge areas of the city- mainly industrial districts and the city centre- were destroyed by bombs.

Post War Period:

The Post War Period is characterised by reconstruction of dwellings, industry and open spaces. Most important still is the reconstruction plan from 1960 which defined the value of green space as areas for recreation, structure and climate function.14 International garden shows were held three times in Hamburg (1953, 1963 and 1973). For that, remained ruins were removed and the old wall areas were created into parks.15 The post war planning was strongly characterised by social and democratic aims in planning decisions. Modern urban designs and big areas of green or free space were planned in order to provide more “social space” and healthy conditions in a lively environment. Free urban space in those days had been seen as space for experiences. To force a regulated but sufficient provision on building land leys were changed or new made. The slogan “Hamburg- the green city” became true through planning and building more and more parks and leisure grounds.16 1965-1980s:

Beginning from the rivers “Alster” and “Wandse”, the planners of Hamburg developed an axial system of connected green space areas which lead to huge green recreation areas between the urban settlements. Furthermore two green rings, existing of parks, cemeteries, lakes and rivers were established. An environmental program was created in order to structure the urban landscape resources.17

Historical remains:

As one of the most important historical but also green area the

“Wallringpark” remains as the former border of the middle aged Hamburg. The old defence wall was first changed into park area in the 19th century but also was twice part of international garden shows in the 20th century. Nowadays these areas are some of the most attractive in the densely populated city centre.

The city park, established during the period of industrialisation for health reasons, is still one of the biggest green areas in Hamburg and provides leisure space. Because of the huge extensions and integration of other cities and villages and its surrounding Hamburg had to save open space inside its borders. With the regulations of urban space and historical, liberal ideals on planning Hamburg nowadays shows some important historic borders with green or water areas like the former free zone of fire, the city wall and trench as well as the harbours waterfronts and rivers inside the urban districts.

b. Urban development: The formation of the urban open space (See 2a.)

c. Open space pattern

Hamburg has two Greenbelts beneath a system of integrated green fingers and patches in an overall green network, which is called »Freiraumverbundsystem«.

The overall green space structure concept (“Freiraumverbundsystem”) is - as a model- based on the landscape program and “Flächennutzungsplan Hamburg”.

The Greenbelts are called “First and second green ring of Hamburg”.

While the “Green rings” are thematic development plans, the landscape

program as well as the “Flächennutzungsplan” describe general issues on landscape development and use. These are laws. 18

The general aim is to create a “Green red”, protect ecosystems and

provide recreation areas inside the urban structure. This green red

consists of huge park and smaller green and open space areas. Water areas are integrated in it as well.

The “Flächennutzungsplan” and a model for landscape development were developed in the 1970s. Parts of it were the two green rings and the axial free space concept which was created by Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s as an overall issue. During the 1980s the landscape program was created and later on the “Freiraumverbundsystem” (free space interconnecting network) which describes more precisely the green axes, the green rings and belts as well as their interconnections with district parks, play- and sport grounds, allotment gardens and cemeteries.19

The first green ring describes a circle in one kilometre distance from the town hall. It includes as green and other open spaces the following parks and water areas:

“The Wallanlagen”, “the river Elbe”, “the Alsterlake”.

The second green ring describes a circle in eight kilometres distance from the town hall and includes following open spaces:

“The Jenischpark”, “the Altona Cemetery”, “the Niendorfer Gehege”, “the Hamburg Stadtpark”, “the Ohlsdorf Cemetery”, “the Volkspark Öjendorf” and other smaller green spaces.


1 Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.) (2004: 7)

2 Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.) (2004: 32)

3 Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.) (2004: 17,280)

4 Zürcher Kantonalbank (Hg.)(o.J)

5 Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.) (2004: 108, 122)

6 Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.) (2004: 156)

7 Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.) (2004: 156, 162)

8 Ringenberg (1994: 16ff)

9 www.hamburg.de

10 Ringenberg (1994: 16)

11 www.hamburg.de

12 Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig- Holstein (Hg.) (2004)

13 Kellermann, Britta (2003: 1)

14 In the „Hamburger Aufbauplan“ of 1960 it is written: „Die Grünflächen müssen grundsätzlich unbebaut bleiben. Sie erfüllen ihre Aufgabe am besten, wenn sie als zusammenhängendes Grünflächennetz das gesamte Stadtgefüge durchziehen.“, quoted in: Kellermann, Britta (2003: 2)

15 Appelhans, Nadine/ Schreiner, Sarah (2004: 18 )

16 Kellermann, Britta (2003)

17 Kellermann, Britta (2003: 2ff)

18 Kellermann, Britta (2003: 1ff)

19 FHH (Hg.) (2002: 3))

Ende der Leseprobe aus 39 Seiten


Urban Landscape Monographs - Hamburg
Technische Universität Wien  (Institur für Landschaftsarchitektur)
Urban Landscapes
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Buch)
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Urban, Landscape, Monographs, Hamburg, Landscapes
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Sarah Schreiner (Autor), 2005, Urban Landscape Monographs - Hamburg, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/74005


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