Integration of Sustainability into Universities - Good Practices and Benchmarking for Integration

Diploma Thesis, 2004

86 Pages, Grade: 1,0



1 Introduction

2 Milestones, Declarations and Policies for Sustainability in Universities
2.1 The Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment
2.2 The Taillores Declaration
2.3 Agenda 21
2.4 The Kyoto Declaration
2.6 The Global Higher Education for Sustainability Partnership (GHESP)
2.7 The Lüneburg Declaration on Higher Education for Sustainable Development
2.8 The Ubuntu Declaration on Education and Science and Technology for Sustainable Future
2.9 The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Developments (DESD)

3 Sustainable Universities Responsibilities
3.1 Education
3.1.1 Kurt Lewin’s Ten Rules for Re-education
3.2 Research
3.3 Administration / Management
3.3.1 The Sustainability Task Force
3.3.2 Employment Equality and Integration Participation and Transparency Social Security
3.3.3 Environmental Concepts
3.4 The Role of Universities in Society
3.4.1 Universities Contribution to National and Regional Development
3.4.2 Indirect Role in Society
3.4.3 Direct/Active Role in Society

4 Good Practices of Sustainability at Universities
4.1 Sustainability in Education
4.1.1 Environmental System Sciences at the University of Graz
4.1.2 European Virtual Seminar on Sustainable Development
4.1.3 The Impact Matrix of Good Practices in Education
4.2 Sustainable Research
4.2.1 Ökoprofit© International – INTERREG III C
4.2.2 The Impact Matrix of Good Practices in Research
4.3 Sustainable Administration
4.3.1 Sustainability Task Force at the University of Florida at Gainesville, USA
4.3.2 The Impact Matrix of Good Practices in Sustainable Administration
4.4 Sustainable Role in Society
4.4.1 The Lüneburg Case
4.4.2 The Impact Matrix of Good Practices of Universities Role in Society
4.5 The University of Graz: Development of a Sustainability Process

5 Sustainability Benchmarking of Universities
5.1 The ESMU Benchmarking Concept
5.1.1 The Sustainability ESMU – COPERNICUS Benchmarking Concept

6 Final Consequences

Abbreviations and Acronyms

ANNEX I: The CRE- COPERNICUS University Charta for Sustainability

Annex II: Questionnaires of the ESMU – COPERNICUS University Benchmarking for Sustainability


Figure 1: Timeline of Milestones for Sustainability in Universities;

Figure 2: Members of Sustainability Task Force,

Figure 3: Position of universities within the region and their impact to the “outside”


Table 1: Chronology of declarations related to sustainability in higher education

Table 2: Enumeration of Signatures per Continent (June 2003); (ULSF, 2004);

Table 3: DESD Time plan from resolution until launch;

Table 4: Sustainability Impact Matrix of the universities key roles

Table 5: Impact Matrix of Good Practices in Education;

Table 6: Impact Matrix of Good Practices in Research;

Table 7: Impact Matrix of Good Practices in Sustainable Administration

Table 8: Facts and Numbers from the University of Lüneburg, Germany;

Table 9: Impact matrix of projects on sustainability of the University of Lüneburg;

Table 10: Sustainability Milestones of University of Graz

1 Introduction

The goal of this thesis is to offer readers scientific insight to international relations in Higher Education for Sustainable Development. At the same time, the thesis should be an introduction for students and stakeholders of universities how to integrate sustainability at universities.

Since the Stockholm Declaration in 1972, many declarations have been established. In the beginning, they specialized on environmental issues; today, relevant declarations concentrate on all three dimensions of sustainability. Raised questions are:

- What impact do declarations relating to Education for Sustainability have on universities and international policies?
- Why do universities sign charters, and what impact do charters have on universities?

Universities have responsibilities in education, research, their administration and an obligation to development and society. These responsibilities should be considered when finding ways for universities to contribute to sustainability.

- What responsibilities do universities have and what role do they play in society?
- How can universities contribute to a sustainable development within their realm and in society?

To respond to these demands and responsibilities, it is helpful to exchange experiences and knowledge with other universities. Therefore, good practices should be suitable and may demonstrate which policies would be best adopted.

- What are good practices for universities to integrate sustainability, what recommendations can be given?

A suitable way, to exchange knowledge, and good practices, is to benchmark the university with others. Benchmarking gives a better insight to the structure and circumstances of the university that has experiences in some field of sustainability integration.

- How can benchmarking with other universities help and what method is suitable?

These fields and questions should be discussed and answered in this thesis.

This thesis is not a toolkit, handbook or description for integration of sustainability at universities. All universities have different structures, act in different cultures and are at different starting points.

2 Milestones, Declarations and Policies for Sustainability in Universities

Since the Stockholm Declaration in 1972, many declarations and policies have been established. Most of them are self commitments by universities to show the public their contribution to Sustainable Development. Main contents of declarations and policies are themes and indicators crucial to start and realize a process of sustainable development.

Table 1: Chronology of declarations related to sustainability in higher education

(Items written in bold are described in this paper)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: Timeline of Milestones for Sustainability in Universities;

2.1 The Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment

Sweden hosted the conference in response to severe damage of thousands of Swedish lakes by acid rain. The Stockholm Declaration was adopted following the conference on 16th of June 1972. Participants from 114 countries came to Stockholm for the UN Conference. Only one of the participants was an environmental minister, as most countries did not yet have environmental agencies. The delegates adopted 109 recommendations for government action and pushed to create the UN Environment Program.

“One of our prominent responsibilities in this conference is to issue an international declaration on the human environment; a document with no binding legislative imperatives, but – we hope - with moral authority, that will inspire in the hearts of men the desire to live in harmony with each other, and with their environment.”

– Professor Mostafa K. Tolba, Head of the Egyptian delegation to the Stockholm Conference, UNEP Executive Director 1975 – 93

The Stockholm Declaration was the first declaration that had a heavy influence on higher education in terms of ecology, especially the environmental impact of humanity. The declaration clearly had an human-centered focus, stating: Principle 1:

“Man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well being, and he bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations…” (UNESCO, 1972).

Principle 1, shows a parallelism to the definition of Sustainability from the Brundtland Report. The Stockholm Declaration contains a total of 24 principles. Most of them address the conservation of environment, environmental policy, and the role of countries, institutions, research and education. Principle 19 says:

”Education in environmental matters, for the younger generation, as well as adults, giving due consideration to the underprivileged, is essential in order to broaden the basis for an enlightened opinion and responsible conduct by individuals, enterprises and communities in protecting and improving the environment in its full human dimension” (UN, 1972, Stockholm).

Principle 19 clearly focuses on education saying that environmental education should be forced in elementary school as well as in higher education and life long learning programs. Principle 19 had a large influence on educational programs, despite bad ICT (Information and Communication Technology).

2.2 The Taillores Declaration

The Taillores Declaration was the first declaration, focused especially on higher education. It was written by university administrators committed to sustainability in higher education. These administrators called themselves “University Leaders for a Sustainable Future”. The Declaration was adopted at the Tufts University European Center, Taillores, France from 4 – 7. October, 1990.

“…The Taillores Declaration is a ten-point plan for incorporating sustainability and environmental literacy in teaching, research, operations and outreach at colleges and universities…” (ULSF, 2004).

Twenty-two presidents, rectors and vice-chancellors from universities all over the world met to discuss a common declaration about the role of universities in environmental management and sustainable development. The presidents were assisted by internationally honored experts in the fields of environment and sustainable behavior. After a keynote speech by Maurice Strong, Secretary General of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (to be held in June 1992 in Brazil), the conference participants developed a number of recommendations. The conference ended with a declaration of actions to be taken by the participants. As about the half of participants came from developing countries, topics like poverty and resource management had a special position in the discussions. The participants had the common idea of making a first step to engage universities in an environmentally sustainable future. After the conference, the participants invited their colleagues from other universities to sign the Taillores Declaration. By June 2003, three hundred universities from more than 40 countries signed the Taillores Declaration.

Table 2: Enumeration of Signatures per Continent (June 2003);

(ULSF, 2004)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

It is remarkable, that most of the signatures are by representatives from North and South America and fewer from Europe. Eighty-six of the signatures are from universities in the United States, fifty-five from Brazil, twenty-nine from Columbia and twenty-three universities from Canada. A reason for this may be that most European universities who signed a Self Commitment for Sustainability, signed the CRE COPERNICUS Charta (see 2.1.5 “The CRE-COPERNICUS Charta”).

2.3 Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations, governments and major groups in every area in which there is human impacts on the environment (UN, Division for Sustainable Development, 2003).

Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, is the result of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 3 - 14 June 1992. Agenda 21 was adopted by more than 178 governments. Primarily, the Agenda focuses on environmental sustainability: how awareness should be gained and environmental issues should influence human behavior. The Rio Conference had a huge impact on worldwide sustainability policies. Agenda 21 is used today as a reference document for many projects and developments concerning sustainability. The agenda is even used as certification for communities that focus projects and their development on sustainability criteria. Essentially concerned parties and individuals have the option to participate in the complete Agenda 21 developing process relating a “bottom up” process.

For example in Local Agenda 21 communities, the habitants and stakeholders work together on a concept for the future development of their commune. Regional Agenda 21 is similar. Alliances of communities focus sustainable development and Agenda 21 operations when companies orientate their social, environmental and economic policies on sustainable criteria. But not only communities, regions and companies follow the criteria of Agenda 21, schools, educational programs and of course universities see in Agenda 21 as an instrument to help them to raise awareness for sustainability among students. The Agenda helps the universities fulfill their self-commitment to sustainable development. Later in chapter 4.4.1 “The Lüneburg Case” examples show the case of the University of Lüneburg in Germany.

The Rio Summit in 1992 had subsequent conferences in the following 5 and 10 years. The first subsequent conference in 1997 was a review of the Earth Summit progress by the United Nations General Assembly meeting in special session. The Rio+5 conference resulted in a document, the “Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21”. In this program, the UN responds to the effects of globalization.

“Globalization presents new opportunities and challenges…” and “The impact of recent trends of globalization on developing countries has been uneven. … While continuing their efforts to achieve sustainable development and to attract new investments, these countries still require international assistance in their efforts directed towards sustainable development.”

This conference did not have as much of the impact as the first in Rio 1992. The conference reviewed what has happened in response to the original Rio Conference. The Rio+5 conference attempted to remind the world taking action in implementing Sustainability. Ten years after the Rio Conference, the United Nations organized the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Ubuntu Declaration was signed during this summit in order to address sustainability in higher education (see 2.1.7 The Ubuntu Declaration). To build new strategies towards an education for sustainability, the United Nations stated the 36th Article of Agenda 21:

36.3 Education, including formal education, public awareness and training should be recognized as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their fullest potential. Education is critical for achieving environmental and ethical awareness, values and attitudes, skills and behavior consistent with sustainable development and for effective public participation in decision-making. Both formal and non-formal educations are indispensable to changing people’s attitudes so that they have the capacity to assess and address their sustainable development concerns (Agenda 21, Chapter 36.3, UN, 1992).

The World Summit and the Agenda 21 lay the foundation for discussion and activities which integrate sustainability in universities. Many initiatives were founded because of the Agenda 21.

2.4 The Kyoto Declaration

Not to mistake with the Kyoto Protocol for Climate Change. The Kyoto Declaration shows the position of the International Association of Universities (IAU). The IAU adopted the declaration in 1993 at their yearly international conference in Kyoto. The declaration is based on the declarations emanating from conferences at Taillores, France, Hallifax in Canada and Swansea in Wales. With the Kyoto Declaration, the IAU wants to take further steps towards sustainable development in universities. The main goal of the declaration is to raise awareness among universities and students. The declaration is followed by a draft action plan for individual universities. This action plan is recommended for member universities of the IAU and gives universities ideas of how to integrate sustainability. The action plan has ten points which can be used in arbitrary order:

IAU Draft Action Plan for Individual Universities:

Each University, in its own action plan will strive:

1. to make an institutional commitment to the principle and practice of sustainable development within the academic milieu and to communicate that commitment to its students, its employees and to the public at large;
2. to promote sustainable consumption practices in its own operations;
3. to develop the capacities of its academic staff to teach environmental literacy;
4. to encourage among both staff and students an environmental perspective, whatever the field of study;
5. to utilize the intellectual resources of the university to build strong environmental education programs;
6. to encourage interdisciplinary and collaborative research programs related to sustainable development as part of the institution’s central mission and to overcome traditional barriers between discipline’s and departments;
7. to emphasize the ethical obligations of the immediate university community – current students, faculty and stuff – to understand and defeat the forces that lead to environmental degradation, North-South disparities and the inter-generational inequities; to work at ways that will help its academic community, and the graduates, friends and governments that support it, to accept these ethical obligations;
8. to promote interdisciplinary networks of environmental projects in both research and education;
9. to promote the mobility of staff and students as essential to the free trade of knowledge;
10. to forge partnerships with other sectors of society on transferring innovative and appropriate technologies that can benefit and enhance sustainable development practices.

(van Dam-Mieras; p. 243-244; 2002)

Those ten points should help universities make specific plans for integrating sustainability and fulfilling their obligations towards sustainable development. The consequences of the declaration are not measurable as the declaration has not been signed by any university. The Kyoto Declaration was endorsed by the member universities of the IAU and general conference of members who met in South Africa in August 2000.


The CRE-COPERNICUS University Charta for Sustainability was developed in autumn of 1993 in Barcelona by the Conference of European Rectors (CRE), now called as the European University Association (EUA). The CRE represents over 500 European universities in 36 countries and COPERNICUS CAMPUS, the University Network for Sustainability, which is in Dortmund, Germany. COPERNICUS stands for CO-operation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated Studies. The charter is focused on environmental education and networking in education and research.

As the COPERNICUS Charta lists the following principles of action:

- Institutional Commitment
- Environmental Ethics
- Education of university employees
- Programs in environmental education
- Interdisciplinarity
- Dissemination of Knowledge
- Networking
- Partnerships
- Continuing education programs
- Technology transfer

With those ten points, the Charta recommends each of those principals to signing universities. By September 2004 three hundred eighteen universities had signed the CRE-COPERNICUS Charta. Signing the Charta means that the universities have agreed to become a part of the COPERNICUS CAMPUS University Network for Sustainability. The Charta must be endorsed by university rectors in the name of their institution.

“Their signature will constitute a commitment to secure the support of their university, teachers and students alike, in adopting and implementing principles of sustainable development which are consistent with the Charta(COPERNICUS CAMPUS, 2004).

Of course, the university should not be restricted to those ten points but is invited to adapt activities to the local circumstances of the university. Further the organization asks the universities to express specific guidelines of sustainability and integrate these guidelines as a key element of their mission statement as a key element. Besides many university promotional projects, each year the organization plans a conference in which universities can exchange experiences and present their individual sustainability projects. Each year, this conference is held at one of the partner universities.

The universities commit to uphold the charta but they are not required to act. As a result, the seventh COPERNICUS Conference at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, from September 13-19, 2004, begins the “Design for COPERNICUS CAMPUS” Program.

“The Target of the COPERNICUS CAMPUS is to establish pioneering alliances of leading European universities ready to share experiences and develop together innovative approaches to sustainability in education, operations and outreach. The benefits of this partnership are clear: Universities enjoy access to a European co-operation platform in which new media and virtual space are part of the standard procedures of universities no single university could build up on its own.”(COPERNICUS CAMPUS, 2004)

To encourage co-operation between universities, COPERNICUS launches four “Homerooms”. These are workshops in which universities participate in different cooperative projects. The Homerooms also serve as a medium for universities to exchange experiences

Four Homerooms are planned:

1. E-Learning for sustainability

Besides the European Virtual Seminar, co-organized by COPERNICUS CAMPUS (chapter 4.1.2), participants inform each other about their results and experiences with various e-learning programs. Communication within this group will be only through virtual communication and not by physical meetings.

2. Students’ Activities

Students of oikos Graz have founded this Homeroom. The aim of the homeroom is to network student organizations and students interested in sustainability all over Europe. This homeroom will facilitate exchange experiences and joint projects are also planned. Further, a central project to start a sustainability library of students’ thesis and projects is planned. Two physical meetings a year are planed for co-ordination of the projects.

3. Sustainable Management

This Homeroom will allow communication about environmental management of universities and benchmarking (chapter 5). With the Students’ Activities Homeroom, this Homeroom will also organize common meetings.

4. Sustainable Research

This Homeroom develops a criteria catalogue for sustainable research. Physical meetings will be held about twice a year.

All Homerooms commenced at the seventh COPERNICUS Conference and are welcome to new members. Participation is free and offers the universities and students a fabulous opportunity to explore new ideas and “reinvent the wheel”.

2.6 The Global Higher Education for Sustainability Partnership (GHESP)

In 2000, three non-governmental organizations active in the field of higher education (ULSF, IAU and COPERNICUS CAMPUS) and UNESCO agreed to join forces. They signed a first Memorandum of Understanding, to collaborate and undertake joint actions in the area of higher education and sustainable development. The partnership was formed as a result of the Work Programme of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), as a follow-up to the World Conference on Higher Education, 1998, and as preparation for the WSSD 2002 in Johannesburg. In 2002, during the WSSD, the GHESP was reaffirmed as a Type II Partnership.

The four partners of GHESP all promote Sustainability for Higher Education; yet each work in different areas or geographic regions:

- COPERNICUS CAMPUS is responsible for the COPERNICUS University Charter for Sustainable Development currently signed by 318 universities from 37 European countries;
- ULSF serves as the secretariat for 300 signatories of the Taillores Declaration in over 40 countries (mainly North and South Africa), and promotes education for sustainability based on the Earth Charter;
- IAU providers a global Forum for co-operation and a clearing house for information among more than 650 member universities and institutions of higher education which have formally adopted the Kyoto Declaration on Sustainable Development;
- UNESCO is the task manager for the implementation of Chapter 36 of the Agenda 21 and for the international work program on education for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, as well as the convener of the World Conference on Higher Education in 1998. Both have called for the renewal of higher education to address the complex societal challenges of the 21st century. UNESCO is the lead agency promoting the United Nations Decade on Education for Sustainable Development.

The chair of the GHESP rotates between partners. From September 2002 to September 2003 the IAU held the chair. COPERNICUS – CAMPUS took over the chair in September 2003. The partners agree that higher education must play a central role within the overall process of achieving sustainable development. The objectives of the partnership are to:

1. Promote better understanding, and more effective implementation of strategies for the incorporation of sustainable development in universities and other higher education institutions, beginning with over 1000 signatories to the charters an d declarations sponsored by the partner organizations. Emphasis is put on the need for interdisciplinary approaches to teaching and research;
2. Undertake a global review and assessment of progress in making sustainability central to curriculum, research, outreach, and operations in institutions of higher education. In so doing, assist UNECO in its role within the UN system with respect to education for sustainable development;
3. Identify, share and disseminate widely, via internet, in print, through seminars and other values, effective strategies, models and good practices for promoting Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD);
4. Make recommendations on HESD based on the partnership’s research and review and in consultation with key stakeholders from North and South, including business governments, other UN bodies such as the United Nations University (UNU), as well as other relevant non governmental organizations;
5. Demonstrate that it is possible top form a partnership of non-governmental organizations working closely with the UN system to develop and implement a joint action plan addressed to achieve common goals; and analyse this experience as an international demonstration project.

(GHESP, 2004)

The GHESP Partners adopted the Lüneburg Declaration, a Milestone and goal of the WSSD 2002 in Johannesburg.

2.7 The Lüneburg Declaration on Higher Education for Sustainable Development

From October, 8-10, 2001, COPERNICUS CAMPUS and the University of Lüneburg jointly organized the conference “Higher Education for Sustainability: Toward the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio +10)” at the University of Lüneburg in Germany. The conference was sponsored by the GHESP. On the last day of the conference, the GHESP partners adopted the “Lüneburg Declaration on Higher Education for Sustainable Development”. It was the first joint policy statement of GHESP addressed to the WSSD. Seven main points describe the intention of the partners:

1. The partners remember to the recommendations and results of in the past adopted Declarations and Charters:

a. The UNCED: Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 (1992);
b. The International Work programme on Education, Public Awareness and Training for Sustainability adopted by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (1996);
c. The International Conference on Environment and Society (Thessaloniki, 1997);
d. World Conference on Higher Education (Paris, 1998)
e. World Conference on Science (Budapest, 1999);
f. World Education Forum (Education for All) (Dakar, 2002);

2. Developing the network of three academic partner organizations (COPERNICUS, IAU, ULSF) with over 1000 colleges and universities which have signed their declarations

3. The Lüneburg Declaration lists a number of recommendations for educations institutions for integrating sustainability.

4. The declaration calls on governments to ensure the implementation of education as an essential point for the WSSD and in the further international program of work.

5. The declaration calls on the UN to achieve sustainable development as described in Agenda 21 Chapter 36 and to make education a discussion topic during the WSSD.

6. The Declaration asks the UNESCO and other parts of the UN system to support these efforts concerning the WSSD.

7. The EUA-COPERNICUS, the IAU and ULSF commit to fulfilling setgoals within the following five years. Some of those setgoals are:

a. Create a global learning environment for HESD.
b. Promote the implementation of the Taillores, Kyoto and the COPERNICUS declarations.
c. Produce an action oriented toolkit which includes implementation strategies, an inventory of available resources and good practices.
d. Develop Regional Centers of excellence and organize effective networking among them.

The declaration focuses mainly on the WSSD in Johannesburg, 2002. There, the declaration had an influence on the Ubuntu Declaration. These influences are described in chapter 2.8, “The Ubuntu Declaration”.

Three points of the Lüneburg Declaration are innovative:

- It is a declaration adopted by four organizations, three academic (COPERNICUS; ULSF, IAU) and one intergovernmental (UNESCO) institution. It is obvious that the main strength of the declaration is the network of the four partners and their common goal of integrating sustainability into higher education. With over 1000 signatories of academic institutions, the Lüneburg Declaration can conceptualize their common goals.
- The declaration makes concrete recommendations to institutions of the United Nations for the WSSD in Johannesburg and shows the importance of education in this historical meeting.
- The academic partners of the GHESP commit to certain goals which they should achieve within the short timeframe of five years. This shows that the partners must act now and should immediately start certain projects such as the action oriented Toolkit.

2.8 The Ubuntu Declaration on Education and Science and Technology for Sustainable Future

“The Ubuntu Declaration is named for an area designated “Ubuntu Village” at the WSSD. “Ubuntu” derives from “ubu” which means creation, and “ntu” which means creator. Ubuntu has seven main prionciples: umoja (unity), kujichagulia (self-determination), ujima (collective work and responsibility), ujamu (corporate economics), nia (purpose), kuumba (creative) and imani (faith)” (ULSF, 2004).

The Ubuntu Declaration was signed September, 1, 2002 during the WSSD in Johannesburg at Ubuntu Village, South Africa. Eleven of the world’s foremost global educational organizations and scientific academies were the signatories. Organizations and institutions which developed and supported the declaration are: United Nations University; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, International Association of Universities, Third World Academy of Sciences, African Academy of Science, Science Council of Asia, International Council of Science, World Federation of Engineering Organizations, COPERNICUS CAMPUS, Global Higher Education for Sustainability Partnership and the University Leaders for a Sustainable Future.

Central goals of the Declarations are:

- Curriculum Development
- North-South Networking
- Strategic educational planning and policy making and
- Capacity building in scientific research and learning

(UNESCO, 2004)

In three chapters, the Declaration calls…:

- …for an initiative to strengthen science and technology education for sustainable development
- The Declaration recognizes the Earth Charter which is taught at all levels and sectors of education. The Lüneburg Declaration calls for the importance of universities’ role in society and their role of mobilizing science and technology as described in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21.
- …on Governments of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Post-Summit agenda
- Educators are to be designated as stakeholders in the WSSD process.
- …on educators, Government and all relevant stakeholders
- Programs and curricula of schools and universities are to be reviewed in order to better address the challenges and opportunities of sustainable development.
- Especially in developing countries, young people are to be motivated to become teachers. It will be a main challenge in the coming years to offset the high outflows of experienced teachers reaching retirement age or leaving the profession.
- Networking, knowledge and experience exchange should be forced between educational institutions to bridge gaps between inequalities in knowledge.

The Ubuntu Declaration is particularly special because it brings together so many organizations and stakeholders from the North and the South. It follows the Millennium Declaration, promoting exchange between industrial and developing countries. The declaration is quite general as it is focused on education for sustainability in general and not on higher education or primary education. What makes the declaration strong is that eleven international organizations have signed it. The signatories of the declaration concluded “to work towards a new global learning space on education and sustainability that promotes co-operation and exchange between institutions at all levels and in all sectors of education around the world” (de Rebello, 2003, p.6).


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Integration of Sustainability into Universities - Good Practices and Benchmarking for Integration
University of Graz  (Institut für Geographie und Raumforschung)
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Die Arbeit wurde mit Sehr Gut beurteilt und erhielt 2005 vom Studienfach Umweltsystemwissenschaften der Universität Graz den Preis für "Ausgezeichnete Diplomarbeiten".
Integration, Sustainability, Universities, Good, Practices, Benchmarking, Integration
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Mag. Clemens Mader (Author), 2004, Integration of Sustainability into Universities - Good Practices and Benchmarking for Integration, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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