Impact of the Color Red on the Marketing of Consumer Goods

Bachelor Thesis, 2007

60 Pages, Grade: 1,0


Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction

2. Principles of Color Vision
2.1. Definition of Color
2.2. Physiological Process of Color Vision

3. Perception of Red
3.1. Introduction to Red
3.2. Physical Reactions to Red
3.3. Associations with Red
3.3.1. Generic Associations with Red
3.3.2. Associations with Specific Tones of Red
3.3.3. Ambivalent Associations
3.4. Influencing Factors

4. The Use of Red in the Marketing Mix
4.1. Marketing Mix and the 4 P’s
4.2. Product
4.2.1. Basic Considerations
4.2.2. Branding
4.2.3. Packaging
4.3. Price
4.4. Place
4.5. Promotion

5. Use of Red with Regard to Different Factors
5.1. Product-Related Factors
5.2. Personal Factors
5.2.1. Age
5.2.2. Gender
5.2.3. Socioeconomic Status
5.3. Cultural Factors

6. Red: The Corporate Color of Xerox - A Case Study

7. Implications and Further Research


List of Figures

Figure 1: Wavelength spectrum of human color vision

Figure 2: Creation of color vision through combination of cone receptor stimulation

Figure 3: Additive and subtractive color mixing

Figure 4: Athletes with red tricots had a higher chance of winning in all examined sports (All), in Boxing (Box), Taekwondo (TKD), Greek- Roman Wresting (G-R W) and Free Wresting (Free W) Style.

Figure 5: Carmine and cinnabar

Figure 6: Different perception of red depending on the surrounding colors

Figure 7: Components of the Marketing Mix

Figure 8: Coca-Cola logos for the drinks Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola zero and Coca-Cola light

Figure 9: Packaging of Jacobs coffee types ”Meisterröstung” and ”Krönung free”

Figure 10: Interior decoration of casinos

Figure 11: Sample advertisement of Media Markt in Germany

Figure 12: Different assocations of colors depending on the cultural background of the test persons

Figure 13: The elements of the corporate identity of Xerox, 1994

Figure 14: Similar logos of competing companies: Xerox, Canon, Ricoh and Sharp

List of Abbreviations

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1. Introduction

‘king of all colors’[1]

‘color of kings’[2]

Both citations describe the same object: the color red. Goethe, the famous German poet and writer was the first to define red in his work “Zur Farbenlehre”. To him, red exerts a unique effect of grace and esteem.[3] Red is also referred to as the ‘color of kings’2, which results from historical meanings and the fact that it used to be a very precious and scarce color. Only kings, their families and aris-tocratic citizens could afford the dye of which one gram was produced by killing approximately 10,000 special purple snails.[4]

In today’s world, Red can be seen almost everywhere: there are red road signs, fruits, alarm signals, roofs, flowers and backlights. Stars walk on the red carpet, soccer players see red cards for fouling and the Red Cross helps people in need. People “jump red lights”, “paint the town red” or “make somebody see red”. Thieves are “caught red-handed” while others “are a stickler for red tape”. And a company “in the red” needs to improve performance. Red is also popular in marketing and advertisement: Coca-Cola, Masterfoods, Henkel, Hennes & Mauritz, Toyota, Oracle, Marlboro, Pentax, Air Berlin and a lot of other com-panies use the color red in their logo. No wonder, as red has a signaling effect and does not fade in the background. Tests showed that red and orange draw the attention to an object more quickly than other colors. Marketing experts recognize this special attribute, which makes it worthwhile considering for marketing and advertising purposes.[5]

This thesis aims at examining the relevance of the color red as a tool in the marketing of consumer goods. It is subdivided into five chapters, of which the first two sections deal with the basics of color vision and the perception of red. Chapter two starts with a discussion of the nature of color and color vision as well as the relevant functions in the color vision process of the human brain. The following chapter addresses the topic of the perception of red by human beings. In this regard, physical reactions to as well as associations with red are of main interest.

The following three chapters analyze the effect that red has on marketing: in the forth chapter, the use of red in the marketing mix is examined by analyzing the application of red for each of the 4 P’s. Respectively, chapter four falls into four subheadings - namely Product, Price, Place and Promotion. In a more detailed way, chapter five deals with different factors which should be considered when applying red as a marketing tool. In fact, hardly any cases exist in which red can be used regardless of context or target group. As an example, the perception of red differs due to personal factors such as gender, age or cultural background. Among others, those factors affect the success of using red, which is why they need to be taken into account. The theoretical findings of this thesis set a basis for a case study provided in chapter six. It deals with the Xerox Corporation and its decision to exchange the corporate color blue with red in 1994. This part of the thesis aims at applying the theory on red to practical matters. Concluding, the last chapter summarizes the findings and gives further prospects on applying red in marketing.

2. Principles of Color Vision

2.1. Definition of Color

As it is the case with most abstract words, there is not just one universal defini-tion for color. Instead, it can be described and defined in different respects. In the context of this thesis, both a physical and psychological definition are espe-cially important: physically, color is defined as a ‘limited spectrum of wave-lengths of light’, ranging from 380 to 720 nanometers (nm).[6] Psychologists define color as a ‘special sense’.6

Referring back to the physical definition: light waves with other wave length than 380 - 720 nm belong to the electromagnetic spectrum as well. Even though human beings cannot actually see them, they can perceive their presence, e.g., radiant heating is noticed in form of warmth. The following discussion concen-trates on the visible spectrum of light (Figure 1).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: Wavelength spectrum of human color vision[7]

Waves with a rather short length of approximately 380 - 440 nm appear to be violet. Blue color is perceived at a wavelength of about 440 - 490 nm. With the extension of the length to 500 - 575 nm, people see green light, which turns into yellow at a wavelength of 575 - 590 nm. At the higher end of the spectrum, orange color is perceived subsequently until a wavelength of approximately 620nm. The hue with the longest waves of 620 - 700 nm and the least physical energy in the light spectrum is red.[8] Chapter 2.2 Physiological Process of Color Vision covers the processes inside the human brain in more detail.

The second definition refers to color as a sensation of the human mind. As valid for all other senses, such as acoustics or haptics, the color vision sensation helps individuals to cope with the surroundings. More precisely, humans and other species need color vision to discriminate objects against backgrounds, which is essential for their survival.[9] As an example, without color vision, people would realize fire or stop lights much later than they actually do, because it would not stand out from the back. This fact is especially important as 80% of all information inflow to the human brain result from visual impressions.[10]

Due to the fact that color surrounds people most of the time they open their eyes, it becomes obvious that colors have strong impact on the psyche of human beings.[11] Except for darkness and very early stages of childhood, where color vision is extremely limited, individuals see objects and also learn to judge their environment based partly on the color of an object.[12]

2.2. Physiological Process of Color Vision

The process of color vision can be subdivided into three parts, such as the sen-sation, perception and recognition of color.[13] At the very beginning of the pro-cess, light reaches the human eye. After having passed the lens, the light is directly focused on the retina. This light-sensitive layer contains two different types of sensors, rods and cones. Each retina has numerous amounts of both: approximately 6 million cones and 120 million of rods.[14] The cones are only activated in case of sufficient lightening, whereas the rods ensure vision even in an environment of low illumination. Yet, as the rods are all of the same nature, they do not have the ability to differentiate between colors. This is the reason why human beings do not perceive colors very well in the darkness.[15] Contras-ting, the cones differ in their sensitivity to light wavelengths. They are named S-, M-, or L-cones depending on whether they best absorb small, medium or large wavelengths. If short waves enter the eye, mainly S-cones, but also to a much smaller extent, M- and L-cones respond to the wave. Thus, for waves of all length in the visible spectrum, there is a combination of cone resonance (Figure2). This capability, earns human beings without any vision dysfunctions, such as color blindness[16] the denomination “trichromats”.[17]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2: Creation of color vision through combination of cone receptor stimulation[18]

This creation of color is called additive mixing, as a combination of three colors results in a specific shade. The same technique is used for TV screens. When the tiny red, blue and green picture elements shine in the same intensity, the result is white. Similarly, if the pixels shine in different intensities, other shades of hues are created. This technique is called the ‘confetti-effect’[19]. It enables individuals to differentiate approximately 150 different spectral hues in the visible spectrum.[20]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 3: Additive and subtractive color mixing[21]

Contrasting to the additive color mixing, the work principle of subtractive color blending bases on absorbing wave lengths (Figure 3). By mixing, parts of the visual spectrum are subtracted so that a less bright hue emerges. For example, blue and yellow paint mixed together absorb all other wavelengths of the spec-trum except for green. The blending of several colors results in black hue. This process and the results seem to be more familiar and logical to people as they experience it more consciously, for instance, when mixing paints.[22]

Following the process of color vision, the response of the cones on the retina to a specific wave length results in the conversion of a neural signal. This signal is transmitted to the cortex of the brain where it is processed and evaluated. In this phase, a lot of different factors, such as personal preference, experience and memory influence the cognition of the color.[23] Thus, individuals are capable of classifying and evaluating the condition of an object by its color, e.g. fruits. The human memory also helps to perceive objects in a colorful way despite darkness, when only the more sensitive rods are stimulated. Yet, memory supports vision to the extent that, for instance, grass appears to be light green even in twilight.[24] Summed up, light rays do not have an innate color but stimulate the perception of color by activating impulses in the eye, which are transmitted to and encoded in the brain.[25]

Even though the general characteristics of the different colors are similar in every brain and for all individuals without color disorders, shades can be perceived diversely by each human being. These small differences result from the variation of the composition of the human retina: sometimes, red cones dominate, while in other cases, there are more blue or green receptors. Still, the eye mostly manages to balance these differences so that the perceptions differ only slightly.[26] But in the same way that each individual has a unique fingerprint, the perception of the color shades is not totally identical.[27] Resulting, it is not possible to fully anticipate how other humans perceive colors and react to cer-tain shades. A hue which might seem very pleasant and suiting to one person, e.g. the marketer or designer, does not necessarily mean to attract other indivi-duals.[28] Additionally, a study of Verrelli and Tishkoff revealed that women probably perceive red and orange hues in a more differentiated way than men due to some genetic variance on the x-chromosomes.[29] The fact that there is no identical basis underlying human color vision makes discussions about color choice a difficult issue.

3. Perception of Red

3.1. Introduction to Red

Taking a look at the world’s flags as listed in the World Fact Book gives an insight in the immense presence of red in today’s world: 213 out of 258 flags, which equals 82.5%, include the color red in their design.[30] Obviously, the design of a country’s flag traces back to history. In former times, red was not only very precious, but also one of the colors that were light-fast, which is a very important feature for a flag.[31]

As another example of red in today’s life with link to the past, an examination of the Russian language shows that the word “krassnij” describes both adjectives “red” and “beautiful”.[32] Accordingly, “red” and “beautiful” are interchangeably connected for a nation of more than 140 million inhabitants.[33] Red seems to take on a special position not only in Russian, but also in other languages: as Braem states in his book “Macht der Farben”, red can be found among the 20 words used most in German language, while no other color ranks within the top 100. This is said to be true for other cultures and languages as well.[34]

Although very popular, red is not the favorite color for the majority of people, regardless of the nationality or belonging to ethnic groups. Instead, blue is the first choice for 35% or even more members of an ethnic group such as Black, White, Asian or Hispanic. While the third or forth highest percentage of Black, White and Hispanic people prefers red (percentages of 10 - 15%), only 3% of Asians do so. They also constitute the group with the highest percentage of people who least prefer red, which is 9%.[35] More information concerning the culture-related differences is given in chapter 5.3. Cultural Factors.

3.2. Physical Reactions to Red

The perception of the color red has different effects on the physical condition of the human body. First of all, just by being aware of red, the production of adrenaline increases. Resulting, other physiological processes accelerate, such as blood pressure and heart beat. Additionally, the lid movement and breathing frequency ascend.[36] Consequential, as the body requires additional energy to perform these activities, according to Theroux, the metabolism increases by 13.4%.[37] Furthermore, red light lowers the rationality.[38] Moreover, rooms are perceived warmer when painted in red or orange. In an experiment, people felt cold in an orange-painted room only at 2 degrees, while they perceived a blue-green-colored room to be cold at 15 degrees already.[39] Even though there are differences between red and orange, a similar, yet not as strong, effect can be expected for red color as well. Beer supports this theory by mentioning that red painted walls make individuals perceive the room to be warmer.[40] This know-ledge can be valuable when considering wall color or lightening for shops, rooms or other locations. Chapter 4.4. Place will deal with this topic in greater detail.

Even though Beer explains all the above findings to be verifiable, it needs to be questioned in which timeframe those alterations happen. Is having a short glance at a red flower enough to boost the metabolism or do these effects only occur if focusing a certain time on the colored object? Braem gives further infor-mation by explaining that the human nervous system ‘Sympaticus’[41] causes the physiological reactions in case of excitement or danger. Those states of mind occur when seeing red, which again might be traced back to subconscious feelings. Continuatively, Braem points at the fact that these arousing reactions do not last endlessly. Once the brain has evaluated the situation not to be dan-gerous, “Parasympaticus” induces that body reactions normalize again.[42]

There are other examples which demonstrate the impact red exerts. In an experiment, red light impacted on the test persons stimulating their power by almost 20%.[43] Furthermore, a study of Hill and Barton during the Olympic Games in 2004 examined the success of athletes in combatant sports, such as boxing or wrestling, depending on whether wearing red or blue outfits. Even though the tricots are randomly distributed to the participants, Hill and Barton detected a significant higher chance of winning when wearing a red outfit. The more equal other factors, the higher the chance to win due to a red shirt. More precisely, the bigger the gap in capabilities between the rivals, the less the color affects the final outcome. Strengths, tactics and abilities outplay the tricot color. However, if both competitors are fairly equal, the rate for success lied at 60% for athletes wearing red compared to 40% for those wearing blue (Figure 4 b). With regard to fair sports competition, persons in charge should take these results on color effects into account.[44]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 4: Athletes with red tricots had a higher chance of winning in all examined sports (All), in Boxing (Box), Taekwondo (TKD), Greek- Roman Wresting (G-R W) and Free Wresting (Free W) Style.44

The stimulating effect of red does not only influence human behavior, but also other species. After horse-racing, the horses did not calm down as quickly in red stalls than the ones standing within blue-painted walls. Probably resulting from their state, the excited animals needed to cope with a lot more flies in the red environment, whereas hardly any fly whirred in the blue stalls.[45]

As a summary of the results of different experiments, the human body responses to the color red to a greater extent than laymen would assume. These reactions do not interfere with personal preferences or taste. Instead, they occur subconsciously.

3.3. Associations with Red

Associations describe one or several linkages between different thoughts of which one induced another.[46] Without any doubt, those relations refer to per-sonal emotions and can differ depending on one’s experiences and opinions. Hence, there are no universal associations for one object. This is true also for the color red.[47] Yet, it is worthwhile examining what kind of thoughts the major-ity of individuals associate with red. From those results, marketers can draw conclusions as to whether the associations favor the product or not. As it is hardly possible to meet everybody’s thoughts, this thesis focuses on prevalent associations as mentioned and discussed in literature published in Germany, the USA and UK.

At this point, it is important to mention that red should be understood as a generic term including many different shades and hues. Just as the expression fruit comprises a variety of different types, e.g. apple, banana or pear, red stands for a range of colors from bluish-red to red-orange hues. The two most extreme hues are carmine and cinnabar, which border to blue respectively yellow and orange (Figure 5).[48]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 5: Carmine and cinnabar[49]

3.3.1. Generic Associations with Red

Starting with the feelings and associations individuals perceive for the generic red color, the majority lists fire, blood and life.[50] Fire signalizes danger and thus causes higher attention and activity. Most of the people who see red also have competition, heat, optimism, violence and hate in mind.51 Red symbolizes not only love, but also stands for sensuality, passion and sex, as can be seen from the name of so-called red light districts. Furthermore, red is connected to power, aggressiveness and activity, all of which are typical masculine associations.[51] Yet, 25% of test persons in Heller’s experiment associate red with femininity. In contrast, only five percent of the 2,000 person sample consider red to be a male color.[52] The assertion of red being a more masculine color than a female one is backed up by Frieling: he points out that usually the opposite sex prefers a masculine or feminine color. Resulting, it is normal that more females are drawn to red than men, even though or just because it is a masculine color.[53] Apart from the popularity of red with females, especially high-achievers, economically stable and secure individuals prefer this color as well.[54]

Studies show that associations among different sensations are connected, such as the sensation of seeing red with all other human senses. When transferring red to the olfactory and gustatory senses, it is associated with sweet and substantial tastes or odors. Touching red feels heavy and strong, while the sensation on the skin is associated with warmth and heat. In the sense of hearing and listening, red is perceived as a loud color. This might result from the fact that trumpets stand for the color red, even though there is no visible connection between the two.[55]

3.3.2. Associations with Specific Tones of Red

The darker the red color, the deeper, more power- and boastful it is perceived.[56] Contrasting, people associate joy, passion, temperament and excitement the lighter the hue gets.[57] Eisemann, former executive director of Pantone Inc., the leader in color systems and precise communication of color hue, provides further associations: in her book “Pantone Guide to communicating with color”, she explains differences in impact of shades of red. Customers associate bright red with adjectives such as energizing, dynamic, stimulating, dramatic, hot, sexy and powerful. Brick red, in contrast, makes customers think of earth and soil while burgundy evokes feelings of elegancy, taste, maturity, wealth and expen-siveness.[58]

When combining red with other colors, individuals even draw a greater range of associations. Red color blended with yellow results in orange and stands for dynamics and arousal. In contrast, combined with purple, it expresses brutality. The arrangement with blue creates a contrast similar to water and fire.[59] When interpreting the impact of color combinations, one needs to consider that not only the component colors play a role but also the mixing ratio.[60]

3.3.3. Ambivalent Associations

Among the associations which people draw when seeing red, there are not only similar attributes such as fire and heat. Instead, red reminds individuals of absolutely opposite attributes. This is a unique feature of red, as all other colors group rather similar thoughts. First of all, red is the most preferred choice when being asked about the color for both love and hate in an experiment of Heller. In fact, people turn red when being excited or angry and both emotions involve a lot of passion and less rationality.[61]

Secondly, two contradictive political systems, communism and monarchy, both have a strong link to red: not only is the flag of communism of red color but also its partisans are called “the Red”.[62] In contrast, red and purpure, a special shade of red, are still strongly associated with splendor and monarchy. This results from the fact that, back then, red was such a precious color. Only kings and monarchs used and wore this color. But as different as those two contra-dictions can be: in both cases, the partisans make use of the positive conno-tation of mastery and power.

To complete this chapter, there is another pair of associations, which is very worthwhile mentioning: red color is a representative for both death and life. First of all, life and red are linked to each other due to the color of blood and its importance for living.[63] If losing too much blood, one dies. Homer denominates purpure as the color for death and also according to Theroux and Frieling, red can symbolizes death.[64]

As a result, there are manifold variations of interpreting red in everyday life. Some may be conscious, other linkages work subconsciously. The choice of the human brain, what kind of association to bring up in which situation, heavily depends on the context, in which humans perceive red.


[1] Heller, E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 61, cit. Goethe, J. W.: Zur Farbenlehre;
(’König aller Farben’).

[2] Metzmacher, D.: Wirkung der Farben; (’Farbe der Könige’),
see also: Heller, E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 57.

[3] Goethe, J.: Farbenlehre, Art. 796.

[4] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben, 2004, 36.

[5] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben, 2004, 41.

[6] Linxweiler, R.: Marken-Design, 2004, 280;
(’begrenztes Spektrum der Wellenlänge des Lichts definiert’; ’spezielle Sinnesempfindung’).

[7] Goldstein, B.: Sensation & Perception; 2007, 144.

[8] Bruns, M.: Das Rätsel Farbe, 1998, 43; Goldstein, B.: Sensation & Perception, 2007, 144.

[9] Crozier; R.: Meanings of colour, 1999, 6.

[10] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben, 2004, 19.

[11] Kroeber-Riel, W.; Weinberg, P.: Konsumentenverhalten; 1999, 421.

[12] Crozier; R.: Meanings of colour, 1999, 6.

[13] Zollinger, H.: Color; 1999, 79.

[14] Schmidt, R.; Schaible, H.: Sinnesphysiologie; 2000, 288.

[15] Goldstein, B.: Sensation & Perception; 2007, 158.

[16] As it goes beyond the scope of this thesis, human dysfunction such as color blindness are not discussed further in this thesis.

[17] N.N.: Farbe sehen, 2.; Goldstein, B.: Sensation & Perception; 2007, 147;
Zollinger, H.: Color; 1998, 8.

[18] Goldstein, B.: Sensation & Perception; 2007, 147.

[19] N.N.: Farbe sehen; 1, ’Konfettieffekt’.

[20] N.N.: Farbe sehen; 1.

[21] Zollinger, H.:Color; 1999, 66.

[22] Zollinger, H.: Color; 1998, 64; Goldstein, B.: Sensation & Perception; 2007, 148.

[23] Zollinger, H.: Color; 1998, 79.

[24] Goldstein, B.: Sensation & Perception; 2007, 158.

[25] Isaac Newton proved this with prism experiments
(see: Sölch, R.: Evolution der Farben; 1998, 16).

[26] N.N.: Netzhaut; 1.

[27] Singh, S.: Impact of color; 2006, 783; Sölch, R.: Evolution der Farben; 1998, 27.

[28] See: Chapter 5. Use of red with regard to different factors.

[29] N.N.: Welt der Farben; 1.

[30] Central Intelligence Agency: Fact Book. Flags of the World.

[31] Heller, E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 74.

[32] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben; 2004, 30.

[33] Central Intelligence Agency: Fact Book. Russia.

[34] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben; 2004, 29.

[35] Paul, P.: Color by numbers; 2002, 33.

[36] Eisemann, L.: Pantone; 2000, 62.

[37] Theroux, A.: Rot; 1998, 7.

[38] Beer, U.: Farben; 2005, 31.

[39] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben; 2004, 18.

[40] Beer, U.: Farben; 2005, 31.

[41] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben; 2004, 45.

[42] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben; 2004. 45-46.

[43] Theroux, A.: Rot; 1998, 7.

[44] Hill, R.; Barton, R.: Red enhances Performance; 2005, 293.

[45] Beer, U: Farben; 2005, 22.

[46] Duden: Fremdwörterbuch; 2001, 96.

[47] See also: Heath, R.: World of Color; 1997, 45.

[48] Bruns, M.: Das Rätsel Farbe; 1998, 69.

[49] Bruns, M.: Das Rätsel Farbe; 1998, 144.

[50] Frieling, H.: Farbe hilft verkaufen; 1980, 36.

[51] Frieling, H.: Farbe hilft verkaufen; 1980, 36; Paul, P.: Color by numbers; 2002, 32;
Heller, E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 58- 60.

[52] Heller, E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 61-62.

[53] Frieling, H.: Farbe hilft verkaufen; 1980, 34.

[54] Paul, P.: Color by numbers; 2002, 32.

[55] Küthe, E.; Küthe, F.: Marketing mit Farben; 2002, 86;
Frieling, H.: Farbe hilft verkaufen; 1980, 30.

[56] Braem, H.: Macht der Farben; 2004, 43.

[57] Frieling, H.: Farbe hilft verkaufen; 1980, 36.

[58] Eiseman, L.: Pantone; 2002, 63.

[59] Frieling, H.: Farbe hilft verkaufen; 1980, 25.

[60] Küthe, E.; Küthe, F.: Marketing mit Farben; 2002, 27.

[61] Heller, E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 58.

[62] Heller, E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 74.

[63] Paul, P.: Color by numbers; 2002, 32; Heller E.: Wie Farben wirken; 2000, 59.

[64] Frieling, H.: Mensch und Farbe; 1981, 70; Theroux, A.: Rot; 1998, 6.

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Impact of the Color Red on the Marketing of Consumer Goods
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Julia Bölke (Author), 2007, Impact of the Color Red on the Marketing of Consumer Goods, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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