This paper is deeply concerns with exploring of then-----present Sharing of River Nile and how the riparian regional of North Africa; especially Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan became sustainable with their consumption of political, economics and how the geographical location should affect the River Nile waters: the excitement feeling of useful practice of agriculture activities along the River as well. The paper also touch about the successful benefits attributes to pathing of Blue Nile, which originating from Ethiopia highland, through Atbara to meet the White Nile, forming ‘’Jazeera Scheme’’ at the present day Khartoum….before entering Mediterranean Sea (Delta). The Regional farmers of the above countries enjoys a lot with several festival connected to the present Nile valleys in which they receding it flood to their shallow basin for intensive agricultural irrigation and animals wandering during the winter and spring.
The historical waters abundantly permit a sharp human’s civilization and believed of promptly rising up their population growth and led them creation of cities, states and empires for vividly urbanization. All these accrued to the Nile River, and have been accredited in Egyptian calendars of ritual civilization.
Transboundary of the Nile Basin
The River Nile is a longest river in the world, meandering about 6,650 kilometers (4,130 mile) from the equatorial basins (Lake Victoria and Congo basin, Africa) to the Mediterranean Sea in the northern part of Equator.
The trans-bordering of Nile, disperse a lot of benefits to adjacent countries of Tanzania, Burundi, Congo, Uganda, South Sudan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Egypt which are the key consumers. The Nile Basin stretches almost 3,350,000 kilometers square, approximately, half of Africa land is covered. With diverse range of climatic conditions, including, tropical rainforest, broader Savannah, Marshland, Arid and Semi-arid deserts of the environment, each which has its own ways of contributions into hydrological inflow into the Nile.
The White Nile is the greatest arm in the Nile basin, this originated in the Great Lake region (Lake Victoria) of Africa, where the Tanzania, Burundi, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda are hostage. The most benefited Nile River originates from the Lake Victoria (Tanganyika) and flow northward of Kyoga in Uganda and pass through western Congo where it met Lake Mobutu to the Lake Albert. The ascending valley reaching South Sudan, and it create Savanna, Marshland known as the Sudd (land of black). The same Nile sediment collects all organic matters to provide distinctive ‘’Milky Land’’ for agriculture production in the areas of South Sudan, Sudan, and continues as White Nile to meet Blue Nile at Jebel Aulia in Khartoum.
The Blue Nile originated from Lake Tana in Ethiopia highland and travel to meet the River Nile through Atbara and flung into the White Nile in Khartoum to form the “Nile Proper” the continues through the Lake Nasser in Egypt. Another tributary is the Atbara which originated from the same Ethiopia Highland and joining the Blue Nile. The two contributes 72% percent for Water Consumptions. Entering Egypt, the Nile forms along narrow valleys approximately 476 miles long, where the most of the Egyptian population dependent for bulky food production. Every summer, the flood from the Nile-Blue Nile provide an ample nutrients that sustain intensive agriculture uses for ever thousand years; this is a famous valley in Egypt up-to-date.
The home of the ancient Pharaoh the Empire of Egypt and the shrines of Giza and Luxor is the location of modern city (Cairo) which attract number tourist. After passing through Cairo, the Nile River break up into branches toward Mediterranean Sea, forming the triangular region of the Nile Delta.
According to the Egyptian perspectives, the control of Nile Waters is major concern for their Economy Survival and the essential for the wellbeing of their citizen….with this sensitively its (Egypt) condoned anyone who wants to interfere with Nile waters in the construction of any dam along the River Nile.
Figure 1.1 Showing, the Consumption Areas of the Nile Basin.
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[The figure (map) was removed by the editors for copyright reasons]
The proposal of Century Storage Scheme
In 1920, the British Engineer Sir. Murdoch McDonald, proposed a construction of dam known as “Century Storage Scheme” along the Upper Nile that would permit the storage of water for need at any time of drought. However, the strategies gave upper Nile the right to control much over flow of the Nile waters of the riparian regions. The proposal gave Egypt catch up with considerable kind of feisty of who would interfere to control the overflow of the Nile waters and issue proposal of suspension.
As the tragedies of regional division for independents became a merit in 1922, then Egypt move immediately to historicized their fully control of bulky Nile waters and roughly with singing of an agreement with Great Britain over the utilization of Nile’s waters. Egyptian leaders promise secured Nile, in which no one would dare constructions along the Nile and its tributaries without proper prior approvable from the Egyptian government.
In 1929 the discouraging agreement of the utilization of Nile water was signed, giving its kind to the riparian regions thus serve no more discouragement to the development of the basin-wide management system.
At the stake, the Ethiopia had never signed the 1929 agreement and had repudiated all water sharing accord made by Italy and began to consider the use of Blue Nile waters in its own land for the irrigation projects.
The Prospective of integrated regional development
The prospective of integrated regional development of the Nile became less concern at the year following the World War II, when first Sudan and British colony of Central Africa became independent. Although it quick to tout the benefit of the regional development the leaders of these new nation where reluctant to approve the schemes that might diminish their control over water resources located within their borders. According to these all the states nullified the 1929 agreement with respect to their territorial sovereignty.
The geographical threatening of the Nile River
The developments of natural produces become a great anxiety in Cairo for control access of the Nile waters, they began speaking openly to national security for something related to the destruction of flowing water. The government headed with construction of Aswan High Dam which was completed in 1971 and its assurance was to reserves 160 billion cubic meters of water. The Egypt influent the development also in Sudan to construct the New Dam and irrigated schemes as a diplomatic and economic pressure to achieve its objectives. And in case of anything about Nile waters, the Egyptian government tout it immediate with security threatening.
At the moment the Egyptian government bullying over Sudan and South Sudan about the utilization of the Nile, because Sudan has been at its war for those days in which they could not think about the development along the Nile Basin. With hope of any time Sudan and South Sudan could induce the construction of the dams and reduces the volume of water flowing to the Egypt as Ethiopia do for the construction of Grand Economics Renaissance for Development (GERD) a great threat to Egyptian agricultural production and economics prosperity.
The possible importance of the Nile basin accounts to 85% of consumption for agriculture through irrigation from the potential countries (FAO 1997; Mohamoda 2003). In this remark, anything related to the mismanagement of Nile water is responded immediately to avoid wastage of water.
Hydropower development, the Nile Basin has large potential for hydropower development, especially in the Blue Nile. This would entail the construction of a series dams, among others regions in Ethiopia. For instance, Egypt's development is constrained more of power than lack of water. Therefore, the consequences of trade-offs between water and power would latterly need in the agreement to a greater water allocation for Ethiopia and to the construction of Blue Nile Reservoirs on the condition. According to I deal, a certain percentage of the electricity generate would be sold to Egypt at a specified price.
In other hand, reservoirs which control Blue Nile floods, could be particularly beneficial to agricultural development also in Sudan. This would enable an arrangement whereby Ethiopia would trade electricity to Egypt and Sudan in return for agricultural products.
The Future pressure on the Nile’s water
The Egyptian demand their “historical rights” of over-dependency on the River Nile, even with rainfall they enjoyed more than the upstream riparian nations. Egypt relies on 97% per cent of its Nile water needs. In line with current trends of water overuse, population growth and the possible redistribution of the Nile’s resources to other riparian nations, Egypt faces the challenge of coping with severe future water scarcity. The United Nations warn that Egypt could run out of water by 2025.
Egypt’s agricultural sector currently uses 80 per cent of the nation’s water supplies, yet domestic production levels are considerably short of demand. Half of the 18.8 million tons of grain that Egypt consumes is annually imported, making it the world’s largest grain importer. In total, Egypt imports 60 per cent of its total food demands. Egypt’s current population of 85 million is growing at a rapid rate of 1.88 per cent per annum and is expected to rise to 140 million by 2050. As the population increases, water demands will grow for household and industrial use and to grow the food required to ensure the country’s food security. Egypt’s reliance on food imports makes it vulnerable to global food price hikes and supply shortages. To mitigate this security risk, Egypt has embarked on land reclamation schemes in desert areas, which require huge amounts of water and will place further strain on the shares of other agricultural, industrial and municipal water consumers.
Egypt’s extreme reliance on the Nile for its electricity, drinking water and food security is the major source of conflict in the river basin. A tenth of Egypt’s electricity generation capacity comes from the Aswan Dam alone. Egypt already overdraws on its water allocation but is still extremely water scarce. As the population booms, the country will require more water than it currently has available; however, shifting geostrategic alliances among upstream nations mean that its allocation is likely to decrease. Unless it embarks on a large-scale overhaul of its inefficient water networks, Egypt could experience major water crises in coming years that could trigger conflicts with its neighbors.
The controversies along the River Nile
The construction of the dams has triggered considerable controversy, especially protests from Egypt after the construction of the Ethiopian Grand Economic Renaissance Dam (GERD), which was proposed to be complete by 2017. The concern is that, it could cause the evaporation of 3 billion cubic meters of Nile water consumptions each year, but this evaporation loss is only a quarter of the 12 billion cubic meters lost via the Aswan Dam in Egypt each year. As more upstream nations experience economic growth, the demand for large water infrastructure projects will increase. This could lead to reduction of water flows volume to the downstream countries and it is considerable as source of controversy.
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The figure 2.2 Showing the sharing of Nile before entering Aswan Lake Nasser in Egypt.
[The figure (map) was removed by the editors for copyright reasons]
The rapidly expansion of population along upstream countries, Uganda and Ethiopia are both experiencing extremely high population growth at 3.1 and 2.9% per annum respectively (UN reports). Population growth will increase demand for water shortage due to rising consumption of households, agriculture and industry. The continues population growth in several upstream nations has been accompanied by strong economic growth stimulating the development of infrastructure projects along the Nile, such as dams, irrigation networks and pipelines. Ethiopia, whose economic growth has averaged 7.5% a year in the last three years, is one example. The construction of Ethiopia’s US$4.7 billion Grand Renaissance Dam (GERD) is a testament to its economic improvement, and it makes possible through new provisions for development along the Nile for riparian nations through hydro-electric dam. The initiative will be a biggest achievement in Africa, with a capacity of 62 to 74 billion cubic meter, expected to generate an annual output of 6000 megawatts, all around three times than the existing electricity capacity. As a result, Ethiopia will become a net exporter of electricity to a host of potential buyers in the region, including: Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda and possibly Egypt.
The South Sudan position along the River Nile
The emergence of South Sudan’s independent in 2011, felt Sudan to deliberately intend of reallocation of Nile Water Resources with future storage. The Sudan proposed 16 sites for the construction of dams in order to store water in suspicious of escalation at any time along the River Nile. The infrastructure also develops an important maintaining of economy production in Sudan, after South Sudan economic decline with closure of Oil well-production in January 2012 over the disagreement of pipeline fees. However, South Sudan’s new plan of infrastructure developments along the Nile could have further detrimental impacts from Sudan to Egypt up-to-date.
The geographical threat along the River Nile
Large scale water infrastructure projects carry a dual security threat as well as potentially sparking conflict with neighboring countries, they can be a source of internal conflict gesture or soluble. While building dams along the Nile River may stimulate national economic growth, also known as to cause a huge displacement of large communities from fertile land of the Onshore Nile Bank areas to barren deserts. The construction of Merowe Dam in Sudan, 2009, forced 15,000 families along the Nile Valley and relocated to the desert areas, due to forced eviction and destruction of water levels. Insufficient government compensation sparked protests in Khartoum in 2011.
The Rosaries Dam, whose future expansion will significantly improve Sudan’s ability to irrigate its farmlands, also forced around 22,000 families to relocate. While these infrastructure projects carried out with national interests in mind, the direct impact on adjacent Nile communities can be destructive. Furthermore, ‘trickle down’ wealth generated from operational dams is not a certainty for the general population. Nile basin nations such as Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan must reinvest accrued royalties into the population, through effective governance, education and public health measures, to spur meaningful development, particularly the reduction of food and water insecurity. Moreover, the new infrastructure projects along the Nile will inevitably impact downstream nations and must be monitored to optimize water flow and satisfy current agreements.
The Environmental Pressure
The environmental pressures and Demands are the most potential conflict alongside of waters. The Nile valley itself; is also threaten, pushing many environmental pressures that ranging from climate change to population growth, pollution and degradation. Climate changes presenting serious challenges for the Nile, including reduction of river flow, land degradation, the increased likelihood of droughts and floods, and rising rates of disease. Dam building on the Nile is responsible for watershed land degradation. Population growth patterns in Egypt and upstream Nile nations, such as Uganda and Ethiopia, will undoubtedly bring future environmental issues as increases in municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes is expected.
- Quote paper
- Thon Samuel (Author), 2020, Exploring the Basic Consumption of Nile Water by the Riparian Countries, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/907330