How Can First Graders Learn to Read in Pili, Philippines? A Reading Book to Improve Oral Language Usage and Comprehension


Scientific Study, 2020

21 Pages


Excerpt

Table of Contents

I. RATIONALE

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

III. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

IV. SCOPE AND LIMITATION

RESEARCH METHOD
A. Sampling
B. Research Design
C. Data Collection
D. Plan for Data Analysis

V. Analysis and Interpretation of Data

VI. FINDINGS

VII. CONCLUSIONS

VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS
A. ETHICAL ISSUES
B. COST ESTIMATES
C. ACTION PLAN

IX. References

I. RATIONALE

Various reading strategies for the pupils in the primary level are essential concern especially on reading and writing skills to succeed in their next grade level. In early elementary grades, pupils with poor reading skills result to shortened attention span, exhaustion and difficulty with concentration. Unfortunately, due to poor reading performance of the pupils, they are most likely to fail in their respective classes.

According to some studies, primary education is the foundation of child’s development. Pupils who enter in Grade One class with limited academic language skills typically left behind with other school children in reading. The alarming result of Reading Evaluation Test conducted by Grade One adviser in Pili Elementary School describes the reality that the teachers are facing now. If this problem will not be solved, it will continue and reach to higher grades. In my own class, I have seen how my pupils struggled in reading especially in the area of reading comprehension. The result of the 2018-2019 Phil IRI challenged the researcher to conduct a research pertaining on reading stories and its effects on the oral language and comprehension of Grade One pupils since most children define themselves as good or poor readers during first grade.

School children especially in the primary level learn to love the sound of letters through listening a story before they notice the existence of printed letters/words on a page of a book. Reading stories aloud with them expands their understanding and excites their imagination. Through stories, the pupils enjoy and experience a lifelong love of books. In addition, various stories help the pupils develop their listening skills especially understand language/words which they encounter in daily life.

The researcher decided to make a probe on the positive effects of listening stories in Grade One school children of Pili Elementary School.

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Reading is significant in the life of every individual. According to Tella, et al. (2007), reading is the fundamental process of learning. It is the practice of comprehending and acquiring knowledge for personal growth and development. This statement confirmed that the ability to read would be a great help for educating oneself and for transforming life and society.

Previous studies have found a positive association of parents reading to their children and the child’s subsequent reading skills, language skills and cognitive development. Children who listen stories to more frequently at an early age enter school with larger vocabularies and more advanced comprehension skills (Mol & Bus, 2011).

Research also has found that reading storybooks to children is one of the most important activities for developing the knowledge required for eventual success in reading. Reading to preschoolers has been found to be related to language growth, emergent literacy and reading achievement. (Bus et al., 1995). In addition, reading to children also stimulates them to read books themselves and further develop their cognitive skills (Canoy et al., 2006).

According to Herbert, et al (2012), children who begin school with academic readiness skills and are prepared to engage with teachers, peers, and curricula likely have successes in their earliest school experiences that support their motivation for learning and other opportunities that schools may offer them. Conversely, children who struggle early on may become discouraged and disengaged, particularly if they are not identified for appropriate interventions.

In this connection, the researcher has come up with a reading workbook entitled “Letra Ko, Aram Ko”. The reading material created by the researcher for Unit 1 competencies in Grade I MTB-MLE is designed as instructional material/ reading workbook for reading remediation in order for the pupils to master producing the beginning sound of letters through listening stories/phrases, answering guide questions, singing the letter sound songs and writing uppercase and lowercase letters in print.

Each letter is divided into 5 parts: 1. Magmati, the part of the workbook where the pupils listen stories/phrases to their teacher; 2. Simbagan, the pupils will answer the questions relative to the story read by the teacher; 3. Taramon, the pupils will familiarize the words given that will be found in the story; 4. Kantahon, the fourth part where the pupils will sing the letter sound songs; 5. Isurat, in this part, the pupils will practice writing the corresponding letter in the story. With these parts, children from an early age find reading a motivating and meaningful experience. Also, the author of this book wants to help the young children to build a strong foundation to achieve the 21st century skills. First-grade pupils who don't yet know their letters and sounds will need special catch-up instruction. This instructional material will enhance the oral language and comprehension of Grade One Pupils and it will be used during their remedial period every afternoon.

The Professional Development Webcasts on Reading and Writing reported that it is important that children find joy and meaning in reading because it could develop the skills they need. Reading pleasure should always be as much a focus as reading skill. Research shows that the children who learn to read most effectively are the children who read the most and are most highly motivated to read. The texts children read need to be as interesting and meaningful as possible.

Although school children with reading disabilities are considered as a challenge to teach, they still must be provided with the best instruction and intervention possible. The school personnel, teachers, parents, and other stakeholders can craft plans together that design intervention to solve the problems in reading in order for the frustrated learner to become independent one.

III. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of listening stories through the use of Reading Workbook entitled “Letra Ko, Aram Ko” during Remedial Instruction among Grade One pupils of Pili Elementary School.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the least learned competencies/objectives in Mother – Tongue of Grade One Pupils in First Quarter?
2. What is the level of comprehension and oral language of the Grade One Pupils before using the Reading Workbook through reading assessment tools?
3. What is the level of comprehension and oral language of the learners after employing the Reading Workbook?
4. Is there a significant increase in the level of comprehension and oral language of the pupils who used the reading workbook?

IV. SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This study is designed to determine the effectiveness of listening stories through the use of Reading Workbook to the comprehension level and oral language of the identified Grade One pupils of Pili Elementary School, Magallanes North District. The research participants were Grade One pupils who were non-readers and retained from the previous school year 2018-2019. Specifically, these were 15 learners, 6 males and 9 females

RESEARCH METHOD

A. Sampling

Table 1 presents the distribution of respondents by frequency and percentage. The participants of this study were Grade One Pupils who were identified as non – readers or in the frustration level in terms of reading comprehension. There were 15 pupils who were subject in this research study specifically 6 males and 9 females through purposive sampling. According to Jupp (2006) the respondents in this type of sampling were chosen on the basis of their knowledge of the information desired. The selected pupils have poor oral language and reading comprehension which may result to drop out or failure in class. This study is of great help to these pupils in order to achieve the Mission, Vision and Core Values of the institution.

Based on the Pre- Test or Screening test result conducted, there were 15 pupils belonged to non – readers and frustration levels who were considered as the participants of this study. The Grade One class advisers conducted/administered the said screening test.

The Respondents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 1 Distribution of the Respondents in Grade One at Pili Elementary School

B. Research Design

The purpose of this study is to develop a Mother – Tongue Based reading workbook or instructional material and determine its effectiveness during reading remediation/intervention for Grade One pupils in Pili Elementary School for school year 2019 – 2020. This study utilized Experimental Research Design. According to Adi Bhat (2019), it is a highly practical research design method as it contributes towards solving a problem at hand. It is a causal research design where the effect caused by the independent variable over the dependent variable is observed.

This research design is appropriate to be used in this kind of study because the respondents are 15 pupils who were subject to both pre and post screening test. Furthermore, the variable was measured before and after the reading intervention/remediation.

C. Data Collection

The data collected from this study was based on the result of pre and post screening test. The level of reading comprehension of the pupils were based from the teacher – made screening test which administered prior to and after the conduct of the reading remediation/ intervention. The test composed of producing sounds and identifying the names of letters, reading simple words, short phrases or passages and answering questions from the story given.

The result of the test was recorded and tabulated in Phil – IRI form 1B. This form includes the names of the pupils, the itemized scores according to the types of questions answered and their total score. The same test administered to the same group of participants after using the workbook/instructional material. The content of the reading material/workbook was based on Unit 1 competencies in Grade I MTB-MLE. This is designed as instructional material/ reading workbook for reading remediation in order for the pupils to master producing the beginning sound of letters through listening stories/phrases, answering guide questions, singing the letter sound songs and writing uppercase and lowercase letters in print.

Each letter was divided into 5 parts: 1. Magmati, the part of the workbook where the pupils listen stories/phrases to their teacher; 2. Simbagan, the pupils will answer the questions relative to the story read by the teacher; 3. Taramon, the pupils will familiarize the words given that will be found in the story; 4. Kantahon, the fourth part where the pupils will sing the letter sound songs; 5. Isurat, in this part, the pupils will practice writing the corresponding letter in the story. The reading material/workbook underwent checking and correction from the Division LRMDS Coordinator.

After conducting the pre- screening test, the actual remedial/intervention teaching was started from September 2019 and ended on November 2019. The remedial lesson conducted after the school regular schedule for remedial teaching which is from 3:10-3:50 in the afternoon every day. The reading workbook/instructional material was provided to every respondent of this study.

On November, 2019, the post reading assessment was conducted by the researcher and with the help of Grade One advisers. The results tallied and interpreted using appropriate statistical data in order to determine if there is significant increase on the performance level of Grade One pupils before and after using the reading workbook/ instructional material.

D. Plan for Data Analysis

After five weeks of using the reading workbook, the Post Screening Test was administered using the validated teacher made test composed of sounds of letters, reading of simple words, short phrases or passages and questions from the story given. The same test in pre-screening assessment was also given in the post- screening test in order to know if the reading workbook used during reading intervention/remediation was effective.

To determine the least learned competency of Grade One pupils in specific learning competencies in Mother – Tongue for First Quarter the following formula was used:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Philippine Informal Reading Inventory Manual 2018

V. Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This section covers the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered in connection to this study. The presentation includes tables and narrative interpretation to make it clearer to the readers.

The presentations of the data were arranged according to the statement of the problem given in research questions which can be enumerated as follows: (1) What are the least learned competencies/objectives in Mother – Tongue of Grade One Pupils in First Quarter? (2) What is the level of comprehension and oral language of the Grade One Pupils before using the Reading Workbook through reading assessment tools? (3) What is the level of comprehension and oral language of the learners after employing the Reading Workbook? (4) Is there a significant increase in the level of comprehension and oral language of the pupils who used the reading workbook?

1. THE LEAST LEARNED COMPETENCIES/OBJECTIVES IN MOTHER – TONGUE OF GRADE ONE PUPILS IN FIRST QUARTER

Table one (1) revealed the least learned competencies/objectives in Mother – Tongue of Grade One Pupils in First Quarter. This table included the percentage of mastery level in the competencies and its description.

TABLE 1 THE LEAST LEARNED COMPETENCIES/OBJECTIVES IN MOTHER – TONGUE OF GRADE ONE PUPILS IN FIRST QUARTER

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The table shown that five (5) learning objectives/competencies in Mother – Tongue for the First Quarter are under mastery level of least mastered. These learning objectives/competencies are the following: Identify specific letters (n,a,i,g,o,s,k,m) in the alphabet both upper & lower with mastery level of 13.33 % ; Give the sounds of the specific letters (n,a,i,g,o,s,k,m) in the alphabet with mastery level of 6.67 %; Write upper case and lower case letters (n,a,i,g,o,s,k,m) in print using proper proportion with mastery level of 13.33 %; Read simple words, short phrases and sentences with letters (n,a,i,g,o,s,k,m) with mastery level of 0.00 % and Recall important details in stories and short phrases with mastery level of 13.33 %. This data given implied that the respondents have difficulty in recognizing and producing sounds of the alphabets at the same time writing the upper and lower cases of the identified letters. Moreover, the research respondents have difficulty in applying his/her knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including correctly pronounce written words. This also mean that the respondents have difficulty in letter-sound relationships, and how to sound out words. According to Adams (1990), children's knowledge of letters is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read. That is, children who begin first grade able to quickly and accurately identify, say, and write the letters of the alphabet have an advantage in learning to read.

It is also reflected in the table that the Grade One pupils found the least learned competencies along Mother – Tongue in first quarter as difficult topics. The result signifies that some of the lessons in Mother – Tongue are hardly absorbed or grasp by the pupils that’s the reason why below mastery level occurred to the topics already covered by teacher. Therefore, the findings inferred that there is a necessity to develop an instructional material/reading workbook specifically designed for the learning competencies/objectives included in this research study to be utilized by the teachers to improve the oral language and reading comprehension of the first graders. The teachers also need to apply other effective strategies and provide exciting learning activities in teaching Mother – Tongue to motivate their learners to explore learnings especially on reading. As a result, the researcher proposed that the reading workbook entitled “ Letra Ko, Aram Ko” be adapted as reading workbook in teaching Mother – Tongue to facilitate effective learning environment and enhance the oral language and comprehension of the school children.

[...]

Excerpt out of 21 pages

Details

Title
How Can First Graders Learn to Read in Pili, Philippines? A Reading Book to Improve Oral Language Usage and Comprehension
Author
Year
2020
Pages
21
Catalog Number
V913590
ISBN (eBook)
9783346230928
ISBN (Book)
9783346230935
Language
English
Tags
first, graders, learn, read, pili, philippines, reading, book, improve, oral, language, usage, comprehension
Quote paper
Catherine Bon (Author), 2020, How Can First Graders Learn to Read in Pili, Philippines? A Reading Book to Improve Oral Language Usage and Comprehension, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/913590

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: How Can First Graders Learn to Read in Pili, Philippines? A Reading Book to Improve Oral Language Usage and Comprehension



Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free