TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background Information of the Study
1.2 Relevance of Economic Analysis of Tomato Spoilage
1.3 Problem Statement
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Justification for the Study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.1.1 Tomato Spoilage
2.2 Empirical Literature Review
Table 1: Nutritional Contents of Tomato
2.2.1 General Characteristics of Tomato Markets in Africa and Nigeria
2.2.2 Reduction in Market Price of Tomato
3.1 Study Area
3.2 Data Sources
3.3 Sampling Technique
3.4 Analytical Technique and Model Specification
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents (Tomato Marketers)
4.1.1 Distribution of Respondents According to Age
Table 2: Distribution of Respondents According to Age
4.1.2: Distribution of Respondents According to Sex
Table 3: Distribution of Respondents According to Sex
4.1.3: Distribution of Respondents According to Marital Status
Table 4: Distribution of Respondents According to Marital Status
4.1.4: Distribution of Respondents According to Household Size
Table 5: Distribution of Respondents According to Household Size
4.1.5: Distribution of Respondents According to Religion
Table 6: Distribution of Respondents According to Religion
4.1.6: Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Level
Table 7: Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Level
4.1.7: Distribution of Respondents According to Years of Marketing Experience
Table 8: Distribution of Respondents According to Years of Marketing Experience
4.1.8: Distribution of Respondents According to Source of Capital
Table 9: Distribution of Respondents According to Source of Capital
4.2 Causes of Tomato Spoilage
Table 10: Factors that cause Tomato Spoilage in the selected Markets
4.3 Reduction Strategy of Tomato Spoilage
Table 11: Methods for minimizing Tomato Spoilage in the Selected Markets
4.4 Losses Associated with Tomato Marketing in the Selected Markets
4.4.1: Percentage Loss (PL) in the Selected Markets
Table 12: Percentage Loss (PL) in the selected Markets
4.4.2: Quantitative Loss (QL) in the Selected Markets
Table 13: Quantitative Loss (QL) in the selected Markets
4.4.3: Economic Loss (EL) in the selected Markets
Table 14: Economic Loss (EL) in the selected Markets
4.5 Problems of Tomato Marketing
Table 15: Problem(s) encountered by Marketers in the selected Markets
4.6 Selling price of Fresh Tomato Purchased (in Basket)
Table 16: Selling Price of Fresh Tomato Purchased
4.7 Selling Price per Unit of Fresh Tomato Purchased
Table 17: Selling price per Unit of Fresh Tomato Purchased
4.8 Selling Price per Unit of Spoilt Tomato (ESHA) in the selected Markets
Table 18: Selling Price per Unit of Spoilt Tomato (ESHA) in the selected Markets
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
My greatest thanks go to Jehovah the Almighty God for His wisdom, knowledge, power and insight as this project comes to its completion. I thank my supervisor, Prof. A. E. Oguntade who acted as a pillar of support during the project for his advice, correction and supervision in conjunction with Dr. L. O. Oparinde. I also express my sincere gratitude to the former Head of Department, Prof. T. T. Amos and the present Head of Department, Prof. J. A. Afolabi.
I also express my sincere gratitude to all the staffs of the department that include; Prof. T. E. Mafimisebi, Prof. S. O. Ojo, Dr. J. O. Oseni, Dr. O. A. Thompson, Dr. O. O. Akinrinola, Dr. I. O. Ogunwande, Dr. D. O. Awolala, Dr. (Mrs.) S. F. Arifalo, Dr. (Mrs.) A. Obisesan, Dr. W. M. Ashagidigbi, Dr. (Mrs.) O. Oduntan, Mr. J. Ajayi, Mrs. C. Ajayi, Mrs. S. Adewole, Mr. A. A. Atejioye, Mrs. M. A. Mella, Mrs. E. A. Olabode, Mrs. T. T. Alonge, Mr. M. Adeseluka, Mr. O. Ogunbusuyi and Mr. A. Iraoya for their support and encouragements.
I also thank all the members of my family; my parent Mrs. C. O. Fape for her support in all my endeavors of life and my siblings. I also thank all well-wishers together with all my course mates for their support. May Jehovah the creator of heaven and earth be with all of you for your benevolent actions.
This project work is dedicated to the most high God whose name is Jehovah who has brought me thus far, kept me in perfect peace to the completion of this programme.
This study examined the economic analysis of tomato spoilage in selected markets of Ondo State. The study was carried out in Akure South, Akure North, Owo and Ondo West Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ondo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study were to: describe the socioeconomic characteristics of tomato marketers in the selected markets, identify factors that cause tomato spoilage, examine the methods used by tomato marketers in minimizing tomato spoilage, and estimate the amount of loss due to spoilage in the selected markets. A total of eighty (80) respondents were selected for the study through the use of multistage sampling procedure. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and formulae for calculating losses associated with spoilage.
The study shows that 35% of the marketers were male and 65% were female, the largest percentage (27.5) of the marketers fell in age group 30-39 and 40-49 years. About 53.75% of the marketers source their capital through personal savings. Only 16.25% of the marketers were illiterate while the remaining 83.75% attended at least primary school and this made little arithmetic to be easily done. The main cause of tomato spoilage was attributed to impact damage (especially collision during transportation due to bad roads) as seventy seven (77) of the marketers affirm this. The main spoilage reduction method adopted by the marketers was proper sorting of the tomato, seventy six (76) of the marketers affirm this. The average loss due to spoilage was estimated as follows; Percentage loss was 16.05%, Quantitative loss was 22.24Kg and Economic loss was N2,396.04. The main problem encountered by the marketers was loss. Therefore, a lot of tomatoes were lost to spoilage due to impact damage and hence it is recommended to reduce spoilage level by establishing tomato processing industries in Ondo State.
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1: A Spoilt Tomato (fungi)
Plate 2: A Spoilt Tomato (Bacteria)
Plate 3: Camry 50Kg Measuring Scale
Plate 4: Taking the weight of Tomato in a Basket
1.1 Background Information of the Study
Tomato which is scientifically referred to as Solanum lycopersicum with the synonym Lycopersicon esculentum belongs to the family of Solanaceae or nightshade family of common vegetable. The crop originated from South America and was introduced to Europe in the 16th Century and later to East Africa by colonial settlers in early 1900 (Wamache, 2005). In Nigeria, tomato plays a vital role in meeting domestic and nutritional food requirements, generation of income, and creation of employment (Oluwasola, 2015, Sigei et al., 2014). The crop is mainly sold fresh and marketed for consumption.
There is a significant interstate trade in tomatoes in Nigeria. Tomatoes are transported over long distance from the North where they are largely cultivated (Kutama, et al., 2007) to the south to meet the demand of consumers. In the process, some of the tomatoes get spoilt during transportation while others become spoilt in the markets before they are sold.
Therefore, there is a need to look into the spoilage of tomato since it is a perishable commodity. According to Verma and Singh (2004), the overall losses in vegetables can be up to 25 percent of total production. Severe loses occur because of poor transportation facilities, lack of know-how (knowledge), poor management and improper market facilities or due to careless handling of the produce by farmers, market intermediaries and consumers (Gauraha and Thakur, 2008; Singh et al., 2008). These causes of loss are also applicable to tomato spoilage in the market. Large proportion of tomatoes were lost due to the predominant use of baskets for packaging (Kereth et al., 2013) as the tomatoes are over packed and excessive pressure is exerted on the fruits in the lower part of the baskets. (Idah et al., 2007; Kitinoja and AlHassan, 2012; Ugonna et al., 2015). Therefore, some methods used in area like South Africa that involve the use of crates and cartons (Mashau et al., 2012) can be adopted in this study area (the selected markets) to reduce spoilage. Tomato spoilage form part of the total food losses in Nigeria (Oguntade, 2013). As food situation and general performances in food production, lack of storage facilities that cause a lot of spoilage and inadequate processing facilities got worsened in Nigeria, several programmes in form of projects have been put in place to assist the populace to be food secured and to improve the economy of the nation. These programmes include; National Accelerated Food Production Programme, NAFPP (1973), Operation Feed the Nation, OFN (1976), Agricultural Development Programme, ADP (1975), Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme, ACGS (1977), The Green Revolution, GR (1979) and other programmes. These were put in place to assist in the area of food sustainability and food security.
Tomato is an important part of the target of these programmes since Nigeria imports 65,809 tonnes of processed tomato annually worth over 11.7 Billion Naira despite its massive local production (RMRDC, 2012). So, it is possible that this recorded trend continue if adequate processing and storage facilities are not put in place.
Nigeria is ranked the second largest producer of tomato in Africa and 13th in the world with a total production estimated at 1.701 million tonnes per annum from 1 million hactares of land. This amounts to 20-30 tonnes per hectare and yet Nigeria is the largest importer of tomato paste from China and Italy (http://yisanigeria.org/projects/tomatoes-farmers-cluster/).
“Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2014) states that in 2012 about 9.4 million Nigerians or about 6 percent of the population were undernourished and the poverty level in 2010 was estimated at 69 percent (NBS, 2012). Given this level of poverty, food insecurity and undernourishment in Nigeria, food losses and waste, which occur along the entire food value chain, are unacceptable” (Oguntade, 2013).
Surveys may help in understanding the severity of food losses in a specific place and at a specific time, (Oguntade, 2013., Oguntade, 2014). Estimates of post-harvest food losses in other crops grown in Nigeria have shown that spoilage due to microorganism, impact damage e.g. through transportation, has greatly reduce the contribution of each commodity to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the nation.
1.2 Relevance of Economic Analysis of Tomato Spoilage
The economic analysis helps to determine total cost of tomato and the price the marketers set in selling their product, amount of spoilage in monetary form and the quantity, and the percentage of spoilt tomato. So, the estimated amount of spoilage in the tomato markets can be obtained.
Economic analysis of tomato spoilage can also be used for decision making and policy formulation since it provides relevant information on the percentage of loss, quantity lost and the monetary value.
1.3 Problem Statement
The significance of tomato to human health and especially its nutritional contents made it necessary to address the issue of the amount of tomato that is lost to spoilage. Therefore, its availability and accessibility shows great potential to alleviate Vitamin deficiency. Tomato is very important when it comes to the nutritional benefit to man (USDA Nutrient Database). Tomato is one of the most important staple foods in Nigeria when it comes to making soup (stew) for common household consumption.
- Quote paper
- Bachelor's Degree Akinsola Fape (Author), 2017, Economic Analysis of Tomato Spoilage in Selected Markets of Ondo State, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/920689