Waste Water Characteristics and its Managment in and around HSTU Campus of Bangladesh


Bachelor Thesis, 2019

53 Pages


Free online reading

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
1.2 Objective

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 General

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Area
3.2 Sampling Techniques
3.3 Different Parameters for Analysis
3.3.1 pH(Hydrogen-Ion-Concentartion)
3.3.2 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
3.3.3 Alkalinity
3.3.4 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
3.3.5 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
3.3.6 Nitrate
3.3.7 Phosphorus
3.3.8 Hardness
3.3.9 Boron
3.3.10 Colors
3.4 Methods of Analyzing Samples
3.5 Selection of Treatment
3.6 Selection of Filter Media
3.6.1 Aggregate
3.6.2 Sand
3.6.3 Activated Charcoal
3.7 Design of Filter
3.8 Testing of Filtered Water

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Phsico-chemical Charateristics of Waste water Samples
4.1.1 Influent
4.1.2 Effluent

CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
5.1 Results
5.1.1 Standard Guideline
5.2 Discussions

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, the authors are grateful to GOD, for the good health and wellbeing that were necessary to complete this work. Lots of thanks to research Supervisor Md. Belal Hossain, Assistant Professor and Chairman, Department of Civil Engineering, HSTUfor his guidance, assistance and dedicated involvement in every step throughout the process, this paper would have never been accomplished without him. Thankstoresearch Co-supervisor Dr. H. M. Rasel, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, RUET, for his valuable guidance and supervised partially to complete this research. The authors would like to thanks them very much for their support and understanding over these past periods.

Thanks to Md. Abdul Wadud, Lab Assistant, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, HSTU,for his help on Lab work.The authors also wish to thank the Department of Civil Engineering, HSTU, its leadership and the staff for providing them with an academic base which has enabled them to make up this study. And the authors also grateful to their friends and well wishers, for sharing expertise, and sincere and valuable guidance and encouragement extended to them.

Last but not the least; the authors like to thank his parents, for supporting them spiritually throughout our life.

ABSTRACT

Huge volumes of freshwater can be conserved if the exercise of re-using waste water is encouraged. This research was based on the characterization of waste water of HSTU Campus situated at Dinajpur. Campus needs large amount of water for the agricultural and landscape irrigation. So to reduce the pressure over fresh water and to reduce the requirement of fresh water, treatment is required for waste water and then it is utilized for various purposes. And also for proper management, the waste water can safely dispose into pond in order to support aquatic life. Samples of the waste water were analyzed for the physical and chemical characteristics such as pH, TDS, TSS, Hardness, Alkalinity, DO, COD, NO3-N, Phosphorus and Boron. After studying it is found that waste water from this campus is reused for gardening and proper management, after giving the treatment by using activated charcoal as filter media.

LIST OF FIGURES

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Different Sample points with respective sampling codes

Table 3.2 Chart of Solid Concentration in different water

Table 4.1 Average results of all these samples before Filtration

Table 4.2 Average results of all these samples after Filtration

Table 5.1 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 1 before Filtration

Table 5.2 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 1 after Filtration

Table 5.3 Test results of waste water from Waterlogging area at Location 2 before Filtration

Table 5.4 Test results of waste water from Waterlogging area at Location 2 after Filtration

Table 5.5 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 3 before Filtration

Table 5.6 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 3 after Filtration

Table 5.7 Test results of waste water from Pond at Location 4 before Filtration

Table 5.8 Test results of waste water from Pond at Location 4 After Filtration

Table 5.9 FAO guidelines for interpretation of water quality for irrigation

Table 5.10 Permissible limit for pond water quality to support aquatic life

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

Almostevery activity of man results in waste production[1]. Most of the water use daily is ends as waste water. If the waste water is not manage in time, it generated problem . Conversely, waste water could also constitute a huge resource if plan for reuse is put in place. Domestic waste water can be classified into two: grey water and black-water[3]. While the former is composed of excreta, urine and sludge, the latter is composed of waste water originating from kitchen and bathroom sinks. Other forms of waste water that could arise from human activities include industrial waste water, laboratories and agricultural waste water. All forms of waste water contain biodegradable contaminants which may be organic or inorganic[2]. The degree of treatment given to waste water is determined by the contaminant and the intended purpose of reuse and settle. Uses to which treated waste water may be put include ornamental landscape, fire protection, dust control, vehicle washing, toilet flushing, machinery coolant, agriculture, and bathing. Waste water intended for agricultural or domestic use is usually guided by several standard guidelines including the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline for reuse for irrigation[4], Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines[5]. The guidelines are required to prevent the spread of diseases and the attendant risk to public health.

The importance of water in all aspect of life cannot be over emphasized. It is vital for consumption, health and dignity. It is a fundamental resource for human development, especially residential like campus, which is surrounding by residential building and hostels.

Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur is the first Science and Technology University in the northern region of Bangladesh. It is providing technical education for both undergraduate and post graduate students. Today it has around 10000 plus students studying here under 9 faculties with 45departments.The total area of campus is 85 acres. Waste water generated in large quantity in this campus so keeping in consideration research is continued.

Grey water is all waste water that is discharged from a house, excluding black water (toilet water). This includes water from showers, bathtubs, kitchen, dishwashersandlaundry tubs. It commonly contains soap, shampoo, toothpaste, detergents, food oil and hair. Grey water makes up the largest proportion of the total waste water flow from households in terms of volume. Typically, 80% of the household waste water is grey water[3]. The main purpose of grey water recycling is to substitute the precious drinking water in applications which do not require drinking water quality. Non-potable reuse applications include industrial, irrigation, toilet flushing and laundry washing dependent on the technologies utilized in the treatment process. With grey water recycling, it is possible to reduce the amounts of fresh water consumption as well as waste water production, in addition to reducing the water bills. If grey water is regarded as an additional water source, an increased supply for irrigation water can be ensured which will in turn lead to an increase in agricultural productivity. Unlike rainwater harvesting; grey water recycling is not dependent on season or variability of rainfall and as such is a continuous and a reliable water resource[14].

Although water availability is not a major problem in northern region of Bangladesh, but management of waste water is fire term. The current study examines the case of HSTU campus in Dinajpur which is 100% self-serviced from natural groundwater resources. The study examined the quality of waste water generated at the institution with the aim of treatment and management.

1.2 Objective

The following objectives are going to be determine in this paper:

i. To determine the physical and chemical parameters of waste water.
ii. To suggest an appropriate treatment and management of waste water according to its quality.
iii. To compare impurities value with standard guideline.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 General

The whole world is concerned about to save the world from pollution from many decades. Several experiments, conferences, seminars are hold in the world to overcome from the pollution. Many of the scientists are try to manage the pollution and the minimize the affect of its on environment.

Many study and experiment done on small scale areas (likes factories, colonies, campus etc.) which are contributing to produce waste water in order to understand the quality and management of it. Kesalker and Raisoni (2012) characterized the effluent coming from paper production mill. They found that the treated effluent is high in concentrations compared the Indian standards[1].

A study was done by Sonune (2015) for the Physico-chemical characteristics of domestic waste water and it was found that the results were above the permissible limits as prescribed by American Public Health Association (APHA), (1989)[6]. They concluded the effluent with such qualities should not be used for irrigation purposes and discharged into nearby water bodies or soil, without proper treatment. Falguni and Mishra (2012), in their study found that the sewage characteristics of a hostel building of NIT Rourkela, was more than the permissible limits prescribed by the APHA (1989)[7]. On the basis of the results they designed a waste water treatment plant to be established in the campus, which included clarifier tanks, a bar screen, an aeration tank, a collection pit and sludge drying beds. Patil (2013) analysed the characteristics of waste water from the NMIMS campus and designed a treatment plant for the campus on the basis of quality & demand of sewage[8]. They also suggested that the treated waste water can be used for landscape irrigation inside the campus.

In Ghana, Awuah (2014) were characterized the domestic waste water according to chemical properties and suggested for proper management of it[13]. From several physical and chemical test of waste water, Sanghamitra(2016) concluded that after primary treatment the waste water can be reuse[15]. To reduce the load over fresh water, Deshmukh (2017) observed that using sand filter with activated charcoal, the waste water from bathroom can be used for gardening[14]. Similar studies were done by Chia(2015) who collected and tested waste watersample from Alfred AkaweTorkula Hostel, University of Agriculture, Makurdi and characterized them accoeding to it strength[9]. Nancy (2015) who compared the effluent filtered through sand bed at different depths, found changing in strenthg of effluent at every interval of filter[10]. By Sharada (2014) who studied the bench scale treatability of domestic waste water by soil aquifer treatment system (SAT)[11] and by Singh (2011) who studied the effects of treated domestic waste water on soil properties & crop yield[12]. Improper management of waste water systems may cause serious problems in availability and quality of water.

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Study area

HSTU campus is situated in the Dinajpur district of Rangpur division, northern region of Bangladesh. It is just 13 kms north from Dinajpur town. It is developed over 135 acres of land and provides state-of-the-art facilities to students, faculty and its staff. It has 10000 pluspopulation living on its area in day time and 5000 plus population in whole day. The average volume of water pumped from numbers of functional boreholes is around 1,125,000 liters for their day to day activities such as drinking, cooking, washing, flushing, bathing, housekeeping etc. The other water requirement in the campus is for water fountains, cleaning of roads, floors of office buildings, some laboratories, toilets and urinals and the landscape irrigation. According to standard rule about 80 % of supplied water i.e. 900,000 liters of water are generated per day as waste water. Nearly all this waste water coming from residential buildings passed through a constructed drainage lineand discharge into a nearby pond and waterlogging area (fig 3.1).

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Fig 3.1 Rotaract club of HSTU. (2018). LayoutRotaract Club of HSTU. (2018). map showing HSTU campus and its waste water discharge sites, marked with red. www.rotaracthstu.org

Areal view of HSTU Campus, which show waste waters are disposed into the Open area and Pond without any treatment. This is may inviting pollutant around campus area which looks inconvenience.

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Fig 3.2 Google. (n.d.). Aerial map showing HSTU campus and its waste water discharge sites as red spot. Retrieved Jan 13, 2019 from https://www.google.com/maps

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Fig 3.3 Rotaract club of HSTU. (2018). Layout map of HSTU campus showing Residential Buildings of campus. www.rotaracthstu.org

Detailed research plan carried out during the study was as per the follows. This shows the step by step procedure carried out during the research work shown in figure 3.4(flow chart of work).

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Fig 3.4 Step by step flow chart of research work. Author’s own work.

3.2 Sampling techniques

The samples are collected from different waste outlets, usually kitchen and bathroom waste water from hostels and residential building as influent and from discharged site as effluent. The samples are collected in contamination free sampling bottles of 1000 ml. During sampling, hand gloves are used to prevent contamination. The samples are collected and transported to laboratory for appropriate test.

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Fig 3.5 Collected samples. Author’s own work.

Table 3.1 Different Sample points with respective sampling codes

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This is drainage line staring from different residential bildingson Southern side of campus and end at Open area beside of Bangabandhu Hall. All the time, It is running which implies that ample of water is used daily.

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Fig 3.5 Drainage line of Waterlogging area besides of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Hall. (2019). Author’s own work

This open area full submerged with waste water and created the Waterlogging area. Which is inconvenience for students to walking around this area.

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Fig 3.6 Waterlogging area. (2019). Author’s own work.

This is another drainage line staring from different residential buildings on Northern side of Campus and end at Pond. All the time, It is running which implies that huge amount of water is used daily.

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Fig 3.7 Drainage line of Central Pond. (2019). Author’s own work.

This is the condition of central pond where all the waste water from Nother side of campus is disposed.

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Fig 3.8 Central Pond. (2019). Author’s own work.

3.3 Different Parameters for Analysis

3.3.1 pH (Hydrogen-Ion-Concentration)

The term pH refers to the measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and defined as the negative log of H+ ions concentration in water and waste water. Determination of pH is one of the important objectives in biological treatment of the waste water. In anaerobic treatment, if the pH goes below 5 due to excess accumulation of acids, the process is severely affected. Shifting of pH beyond 5 to 10 upsets the aerobic treatment of the waste water. In these circumstances, the pH is generally adjusted by addition of suitable acid or alkali to optimize the treatment of the waste water. pH value or range is of immense importance for any chemical reaction. A chemical shall be highly effective at a particular pH. Chemical coagulation, disinfection, water softening and corrosion control are governed by pH adjustment. Lower value of pH below 4 will produce sour taste and higher value above 8.5 a bitter taste. Higher values of pH hasten the scale formation in water heating apparatus and also reduce the germicidal potential of chlorine. High pH induces the formation of tri-halomethanes, which are causing cancer in human beings[17]. Figure below shows pH values of commonly used household products.

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Fig 3.9 Meave60. (2016). pH Scale. https://socratic.org/questions/if-chemical-substance-has-a-ph-balance-of-more-than-7-what-is-it-considered

3.3.2 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Suspended Solids (SS)

Total Solids (TS) are the total of all solids in a water sample. They include the total suspended solids and total dissolved solids. Total Suspended Solids (TSS) is the amount of filterable solids in a water sample. Samples are filtered through a glass fiber filter. The filters are dried and weighed to determine the amount of total suspended solids in mg/l of sample[18]. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are those solids that pass through a filter with a pore size of 2.0 micron (1/1000000th of a meter, Also known as a Micrometer) or smaller. They are said to be non-filterable. After filtration the filtrate (liquid) is dried and the remaining residue is weighed and calculated as mg/l of Total Dissolved Solids[17].

Table 3.2 Chart of Solid Concentration in different water

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3.3.3 Alkalinity

The alkalinity of the water is a measure of its capacity to neutralize acids. Thealkalinity ofnatural waters is due primarily to the salts of week acids. Bicarbonatesrepresent the majorform of alkalinity. Alkalinity is measured by titrating a sample with acid.

Alkalinity can be expressed as follows:

Alkalinity (mol/L) = [HCO3-] + 2 [CO32-] + [OH-] – [H+]

Alkalinity is significant in many uses and treatments of natural waters and waste waters. As alkalinity of many surface waters constitute of carbonates, bicarbonate and hydroxide contents, it isassumed to be an indicator of these constituents as well. Alkalinity in excess of alkaline earth metal concentrations is significant in determining the suitability of water for irrigation[17]. Alkalinity measurements are used in the interpretation and control of water and waste water treatment processes. Raw domestic waste water has an alkalinity less than or only slightly greater than that of the watersupply.

3.3.4 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

All gases of the atmosphere are soluble in water to some degree. Oxygen is classified as poorly soluble, and its solubility is affected both by atmospheric pressure, and physical and chemical properties of water such as temperature, salinity, pollutants, etc. The solubility of atmospheric oxygen in fresh waters ranges from 14.6 mg/L at 0oC to about 7 mg/L at 35oC under 1 atm. of pressure[19]. Most of the critical conditions related to dissolved-oxygen deficiency, both in natural waters and biological waste water treatment, occur during the warmer months when temperatures are high and solubility of oxygen is at a minimum. The low solubility of oxygen is a major factor limiting the purification capacity of natural waters. In aerobic biological treatment processes, the limited solubility of oxygen is also of great importance, because it governs the rate at which oxygen will be absorbed by the medium and therefore the cost of aeration. Hence, DO analysis is a key test both in natural waters and water pollution control practice.

3.3.5 Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

COD is another parameter used widely to measure the pollutional strength of domestic and industrial waste waters. COD is defined as the amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic matter chemically. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is generally chosen for this purpose due to its strong chemical oxidizing capability. Almost all organic compounds (except for ammonia, aromatic hydrocarbons, pyridine and their related compounds) can be oxidized by dichromateunder heated acidic and AgSO4-catalysed conditions, equivalent to 95 – 100% of the theoretical values[18].COD is often measured as a rapid indicator of organic pollutant in water; it is normally measured in both municipal and industrial waste water treatment plants and gives an indication of the efficiency of the treatment process.

3.3.6 Nitrate

Nitrate is a chemical compound of one-part nitrogen and three parts oxygen that is designated the symbol “NO3.” It is the most common form of nitrogen found in water. Other forms of nitrogen include nitrite (one-part nitrogen and two parts oxygen – NO2) and ammonia (one-part nitrogen and three parts hydrogen – NH3). It can be carried out by Spectrophotometric method.

3.3.7 Phosphorus

Phosphate is an essential element for plant life, but when there is too much of it in water, it can speed up eutrophication (a reduction in dissolved oxygen in water bodies caused by an increase of mineral and organic nutrients) of rivers and lakes[20]. It can also be carried out by Spectrophotometric method.

3.3.8 Hardness

Hardness is measure of polyvalent cations (ions with a charge greater than +1) in water. Hardness generally represents the concentration of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions, because these are the most common polyvalent cations. Other ions, such as iron (Fe2+) and manganese (Mn2+), may also contribute to the hardness of water, but are generally present in much lower concentrations. Waters with high hardness values are referred to as "hard," while those with low hardness values are "soft". Hardness is generally measured by titration[17].

The waste water from residential buildings contains calcium, magnesium, and other cations from the cleaning agents, food residue, and human waste that we put down our drains. Most of these cations are removed from the water after treatment but treatment can’t eliminate everything.

3.3.9 Boron

Boron is a naturally occurring element. In nature it is found combined with oxygen and other natural elements forming several different compounds called borates. Boron compounds have been detected in natural water at concentration levels of 0.3–100 mg/L. The concentrations above 100 mg/L depend on the surrounding geology and sewage disposal[21]. Boron is very important micronutrient for the plants, however, it is essential only in small quantities, and its excessive concentrations are damaging and even lethal to plants. Therefore, boron concentration in water and waste water is regulated in many countries.

3.3.10 Colors

The color of waste water is an important indicator of the type and the nature of the effluents in it. Waste water color that is obtained after the suspended particles have been filtered is called as True Color. Technically it is the color of non turbidwaste water. When the color of the original waste water sample is considered, then it is called as the Apparent Color. This sample is taken from waste water that has not been filtered or of the sample that has not been subjected to a centrifugal force to separate the suspended contaminants.

3.4 Methods of analyzing samples

All the parameters are analyzed using standard methods guideline. Physical parameter such as pH was measured by pH meter and total solids including TSS and TDS by electrically heated temperature-controlled oven. And the waste watersamples were tested for chemical parameters such asalkalinity, COD , dissolved Oxygen (DO) by using DO meter, boron,nitrate and phosphate by Spectrophotometric method. Using lab manual[17][18] all these parameters were analyzed.

3.4.1 For pH Test

The pH of samples was carried out by using pH meter. It was done by dipping the electrode of pH meter into the beaker containing sample. After 2-3 minute, the reading was taken. The pH meters also give the temperature along with pH value.

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Fig 3.10 HSTU Chemistry Lab. (2019). pH meter. Bangladesh.

3.4.2 For TSS and TDS Test

First of all the beaker was cleaned and dried at 103°C in an oven for 1 hour. The dried beaker was weighted ant reading was noted. 100ml of the thoroughly mixed sample was taken into that beaker and placed into the oven maintained at 103°C for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the beaker was allowed to cool and its weight was measured. The total solids(TS) was calculated by subtracting the weight of clean empty dried beaker from the sample dried beaker.

For total dissolved solids (TDS), the sample of 100ml was passed through a double layered filter paper and collected the filtrate in beaker. The filtrate sample was taken into the breaker and placed into the oven as above. The results value after subtraction of the weight of clean empty dried beaker is the TDS.

The total suspended solids(TSS) was calculated by subtracting TDS from TS.

3.4.3 For Alkalinity Test

The 50ml of sample was taken into the 250ml conical flask and 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator was added into it which turned the sample color in pink. Now, the titration was done against this solution with 0.1 N HCL acid which was taken in a burette till color of the solution disappears. The color disappeared indicate all the carbonates have been converted in to bio-carbonates. The reading of titrate value of the phenolphthalein was noted at point of color change.

Again added 2-3 drops of Methyl orange indicator into the same above solution and continued the titration until the sharp color changes from yellow to rose red takes place. And at the end point, the total titrate value was noted from the beginning of the experiment as methyl orange end point.

Calculation:

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3.4.4 For Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

The DO of samples was measured by using DO meter. It was done by dipping the sensor jockey of DO meter into the beaker containing sample. After 2-3 minute, the reading was taken from the meter and noted.

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Fig 3.11 HSTU Chemistry Lab. (2019). DO meter. Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

3.4.5 For Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

First of all 100ml of sample was diluted with 100ml of distilled water in a conical flask. Added 10 ml of dil.H2SO4 (1:2) and 5ml of silver nitrate solution(20% w/v) into the conical flask. After that 10ml of N/40 KMnO4 solution was added accurately into the flask from burette and heated in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes. The flask was treated with 10ml N/40 sodium oxalate solution from a burette while hot. Finally the sample in the conical flask was titrated with N/40 KMnO4 solution from the burette at a temperature of 55 to 60°C until pink color end points appear. Same procedure and condition was carried out for 100 ml of distilled water.

Calculation:

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3.4.6 For Nitrate

First of all 50 ml of sample was taken in nessler tube and 1 ml of 1.0N Hydrochloric acid was added into it and mixed thoroughly. After that the nessler tube of sample was placed into the spectrophotometric device and read absorbance or transmittance against redistilled water set at zero absorbance. A wavelength of 410 nm was used to obtain absorbance of standard nitrate solution.

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Fig 3.12 HSTU Chemistry Lab. (2019). Spectrophotometric device. Bangladesh.

3.4.7 For Phosphorus

Before starting the test, following reagents were prepared; primary standard phosphate (50ppm P), secondary standard phosphate solution (20ppm and 2ppm P), phosphate standard series solution, sulphomolybdic acid solution (2.5%) and stannous chloride solution.

The exactly 5ml of sample was taken into a 100ml volumetric flask and 4ml of sulphomolybdic acid solution was added and followed by the addition of distilled water up to 2/3rd volume of the flask. After that 5-6 drops of stannous chloride solution was added into the flask and mixed the solution thoroughly. The flask was filled with distilled water to it mark label. Within 3-4 minutes, intensive full color was developed which intensity was instantly measured in spectrophotometer at 660 nm wavelength. And also a blank solution was prepared using above reagents except phosphate solution.

By plotting the curve between the absorbance of light in Y-axis and concentrations of solutions in X-axis, the concentration of phosphate was obtained.

3.4.8 For Boron

The sample was treated with standard reagent solution which further changing it pH value guide to calculate the boron in sample using its manual table data.

3.4.9 For Hardness

First of all the burette was filled with Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and calibrated the burette to remove air bubbles. 10 ml of standard hard water was taken into the conical flask of 100ml and 3 ml of ammonia buffer solution was added. After that 4 drops of the Eriochrome black-T (EBT) indicator solution was added which change the solution color into red wine. The solution in the flask was titrated against the EDTA solution from burette until the sharp color of red wine was changed into blue which indicate the end point. The reading of the burette was note. The titration process was repeated to get the concordant reading. As above, the titration was done for the hard water sample. In last, the comparing the volume of used EDTA for standard hard water (known hardness) and water sample during titration gave the hardness of water sample.

3.5 Selection of Treatment

Generally for treatment of waste water following methods are used:

a. Trickiling filter
b. Rotating biological contactor
c. Lagoons and Wetlands
d. Anaerobic Digestion

For the selection of any types of treatment, we have to consider it economical aspects. But above mentioned methods are used for large quantity treatment and also there is problem of odor and sludge disposal. So keeping these points in consideration we prefer the san filter for treatment of waste water .

After analyzing the waste water we found that sand filter along with activated charcoal is capable to remove the impurities. So with this consideration sand filter along with activated charcoal is finalized for treatment.

3.6 Selection of filter media

With respect to characteristics of waste water the filter media is finalized. In filter three layers are provided of aggregate, sand and activated charcoal (in powder form) respectively.

3.6.1 Aggregate

Filter gravel is used to filter out large sediments, like leaves, insects, plastic pieces etc. For maximum efficiency, filter gravel must possess the necessary attributes of hardness and be rounded rather than angular. River Sands Filter Gravel is a hard, predominantly quartz aggregate[14]. The filter gravel, like filter sand, contains hard durable particles with a slow breakdown rate. This helps to prolong filter media life. The gravel is screened into three standard sizes which effectively supports the filter media. The aggregate is used in this filter is 5 mm to 30 mm.

3.6.2 Sand

Sand bed which is just below the gravel bed is used to remove fine impurities. As fluid flows through the porous sand along a tortuous route, the particulates come close to sand grains. They can be captured by one of several mechanisms, direct collision, London force attraction, Surface charge attraction, Diffusion. In addition, particulate solids can be prevented from being captured by surface charge repulsion. If the surface charge of the sand is of the same sign (positive or negative) as that of the particulate solid. Furthermore, it is possible to dislodge captured particulates although they may be re-captured at a greater depth within the bed. Finally, a sand grain that is already contaminated with particulate solids may become more attractivated or repel addition particulate solids. This can occur if by adhering to the sand grain the particulate loses surface charge and becomes attractivated to additional particulates or the opposite and surface charge is retained repelling further particulates from the sand grain[14]. The sand of size 1mm to 1.36 mm is used for this filter.

3.6.3 Activated charcoal

Charcoal is carbon & Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been treated with oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the carbon atoms. The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly porous charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2,000 square meters per gram. These so-called activated, or activated, charcoals are widely used to adsorb odorous or colored substances from gases or liquids. The word adsorb is important here. When a material adsorbs something, it attaches to it by chemical attraction. The huge surface area of activated charcoal gives it countless bonding sites. When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon surface, they attach to the surface and are trapped. Activated charcoal is good at trapping other carbon-based impurities ("organic" chemicals), as well as things like chlorine. Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all -- sodium, nitrates, etc. -- so they pass right through. This means that an activated charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while ignoring others[22].

Charcoal activation is achieved through a process of superheating the charcoal without oxygen at temperatures over 1000F[23]. The making procedure of charcoal is shown in following images:

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Fig 3.13 Procudure of making powder charcoal. Author’s own work.

3.7 Design of filter

For design the filter, 3 layers of filter media is used in it, first is gravel, second is sand and third is activated charcoal. In this experimental we have prepared the model of filter using bottle of 2 liters as in figure. Then waste water is poured in it for filtration. Basically this model is for small quantity of waste water but for campus, number of tanks is required.

Model is prepared in lab and filter media is placed in it. Firstly at the bottom of the filter cottons are placed to hold the charcoal powder.Then sand is placed upon the activated charcoal.In last gravel is placed, which is last layer and first filter media for waste water. After placing of filter media, sample is poured from the upper side of filter, within a minutes water is started to release from filter in constant rate. Tests are performed on the filtered water and results are excellent.

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Fig 3.14 Filter with activated charcoal. Author’s own work.

3.8 Testing of filtered water

When water is passed through the filter bed in model water get filtered and this water is again tested in lab for checking the characteristics of filtered water. All parameters are tested again like COD, DO, TDS, TSS, Boron, Hardness, Nitrate, PH, alkalinity and Nitrate. All these parameter tested on same instruments and by same methods. Following are the images of performing the test in lab.

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Physico-chemical characteristics of waste water samples

The physical and Chemical parameters of influent and effluent were tabulated after analysis.

4.1.1 Before Filtration

Table 4.1 Average results of all these samples before Filtration

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The pH of influent samples are low acidic in nature. Higher concentrations of NO3-Nand trace amount of nitrate nitrogen werenoticed in waste water. On the other handextensive epidemiological data support thecurrent guideline values for NO3-N of 10.00 mg/L [4]. DO concentrations varied from 0.30 to 0.55 mg/L, which indicated that the samples were highly pollutated. Phosphorus values were within suitable levelfrom irrigation but as it average value was 7.04 mg/L which is not under permissible limit for aquatic life [9]. Hardness of samples were 160.50 mg/L as average value which cannot affect the life of aquatic animal but it affect the growth of plant[8].

4.1.2 After Filtration

Table 4.2 Average results of all these samples after Filtration

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The pH of effluents range recorded from 7.01 to 8.20. The pH of 6.o to 8.50 is acceptable for most pond life[25] and also it was under the permissible limit for irrigation. Alkalinity found as 3.34 mg/L in average after filtration. Hardness was reduced as compared to influent values, which changed from 160.50 mg/L to 117.50 mg/L. The NO3- concentration in the water samples of effluents was ranged from 4.14 to 5.00 mg/L which were under the limit of 5.00 mg/L. COD, TSS, Boron and Phosphorus were all reduced as compared to influent values.

CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Results

In the present study, comparative analyses of physicochemical parameter of waste water in HSTU Campus were carried out. Results obtained during the research work are presented by the graphs and tables and analysis was done on the basis of these results. This study was very important to solve and management of Waste water in and around HSTU campus. After the data collection from the selected area different tests are required to find the percentage of impurities in waste water. The physicochemical parameters under study were pH, Alkalinity, TSS, TDS, DO, BOD, COD, Nitrate, and Phosphate. Each experiment was conducted with help of different methods and instruments as above procedures. Results are tabulated as below:

SAMPLE S1/S2: Waste water from drainage line at Waterlogging area which is in running state. It directly coming from the residential buildings.

Table 5.1 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 1 before Filtration

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 5.2 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 1 after Filtration

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 5.1 Chart is plotted on the basis of data tabulated in the table 4.1 and table 4.2.

From this chart, we can see that after filtration there is huge change in amount of Nitrate- Nitrogen and COD value. Other parameters are also decreased .

SAMPLE S3/S4: Waste water from Waterlogging area which is in steady condition.

Table 5.3 Test results of waste water from Waterlogging area at Location 2 before Filtration

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 5.4 Test results of waste water from Waterlogging area at Location 2 after Filtration

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Fig 5.2 Chart is plotted on the basis of data tabulated in the table 4.3 and table 4.4

From this chart, It can be conclude that the value COD and hardness are reduced after filtration.

SAMPLE S5/S6: Waste water from drainage line at Central Pond which is in running state. It directly coming from the residential buildings.

Table 5.5 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 3 before Filtration

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 5.6 Test results of waste water from drainage line at Location 3 after Filtration

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Fig 5.3 Chart is plotted on the basis of data tabulated in the table 4.5 and table 4.6

From this chart, it can be conclude that there is significance change in total sissolved solids which was not seen in other samples comparison.

SAMPLE S7/S8: Waste water from Central Pond which is in steady condition.

Table 5.7 Test results of waste water from Pond at Location 4 before Filtration

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 5.8 Test results of waste water from Pond at Location 4 after Filtration

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Fig 5.4 Chart is plotted on the basis of data tabulated in the table 4.7 and table 4.8

From this chart, it can be conclude that phosphorus get change after filtration which was comparatively same in other chart.

5.1.1 Standard Guideline

Table 5.9 FAO guidelines for interpretation of water quality for irrigation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Using the value of FAO guideline for irrigation water, line chart were drawn between Infulent, Effluent and Standard values.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 5.5 Column bar chart for comparing standard FAO value with result data.

The sample’s parameters were under the FAO guideline after filtration with activated charcoal which can be reuse in irrigation and gardening. The average parameters vales of samples were compared with standard value of FAO guideline in Line chart. Boron and Nitrate-Nitrogen were huge amount in influent but get reduced and fallen under guideline. Although pH value was increased, it is under FAO guideline.

Table 5.10Permissible limit for pond water quality to support aquatic life

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The line chart were drawn between Infulent, Effluent and permissible Limit for Pond water quality .

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 5.6 Column bar chart for comparing permissible pond value with result data.

Some sample’s parameters were under the permissible limit after filtration with activated charcoal. And some are above it but can be consider for dispose into pond.

5.2 Discussions

5.2.1 pH

The hydrogen-ion concentration is an important parameter to check the quality of water discharge to water bodies or use as irrigation. The variations were recorded in the pH meter. The values of pH were ranges from 6.92 to 6.99 before filter i.e. influent and after filter i.e. effluent, it was ranging from 7.01 to 8.20. The pH ranges 7.00– 8.00 can be tolerable for both irrigation and water bodies.Fish can become in stress in water with a pH ranging from 4.00 to 6.50 and 9.00 to 11.0. Long term conditions above 9.00, can cause kidney damage to the fishes[25].

5.2.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand

The COD is parameter used to characterize the organic strength of domestic waste water. The minimum COD value was recorded as 109.60 mg/L and the maximum of 169.00 mg/L was observed. This data showed that COD was higher which cannot be tolerate by aquatic life as well as irrigated plant. After filter, the COD parameter was reduced to 49.00 mg/L which is acceptable for water bodies and irrigation.

5.2.3 Color

The colour of the waste water typically depends upon the pollutant. The removal of color is essential part. The figure below shows the variation of colour at the inlet and at the outlet of charcoal filter.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 5.7 Color of influent and effluent. Author’s own work.

5.2.4 Nitrate-Nitrogen

The minimum concentration of Nitrate-Nitrogen was found to be 18.45 mg/L and maximum concentration was 42.20 mg/L. In water, Ammonia exists in two forms ammonium ion (NH4 +) and free ammonia (NH3) depending on the pH of water. At higher pH, ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms and also for terrestrial organisms. But after filtration, it reduced by 80 to 90%.

5.2.5 Suspended Solids

The un-dissolved matter present in water or waste water is usually referred as suspended solids.Suspended solids reduce the photo synthesis activities of water plants by smothering benthic organism. The concentration of suspended solids measured for influent was ranging from 34.80 mg/L to 75.00 mg/L but after treatment the concentration of suspended solids is ranging from 9.00 mg/l to 15.20 mg/L. Therefore the filtration with activated charcoal reduces it up to 75 to 80 %.

5.2.6 Total Dissolved Solids

In sample the minimum value of TDS recorded as 4.04 mg/L and maximum value was 8.70 mg/L. But after filtration, there is no variation in TDS value. And also these values are in permissible limit.

5.2.7 Phosphate

Phosphorus is also a primary macronutrient that is essential to the growth of plants and other biological organisms but quantities can be excessive and if the concentrations in water are too high noxious algal blooms can occur. In these samples, phosphorus is mostly comes from cleaning compounds. The lowest value of phosphate was recorded as 5.53 mg/L and highest value was 10.20 mg/L for influent. But after filtration, it is reduced by 40 to 50 %.

5.2.8 Alkalinity

It indicates the amount of hydroxide (OH-), carbonate (CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions present in a given sample. As the average pH value of the samples is found to be more than 7, they are alkaline in nature and need some treatment if used for irrigation. But it is under permissible limit.

5.2.9 Dissolved Oxygen

It indicates the amount of oxygen dissolved in the sample, which can be used by different organisms used for treatment of the waste water and also for life support of aquatic animals. It is also important in precipitating and dissolving inorganic substances in water. The actual amount of DO in the waste water samples were ranging from 0.30 mg/L to 0.55 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen was below the permissible limit , which indicate the containsof organic pollutants.

5.2.10 Hardness

In sample the minimum value of hardnesswas recorded as 120.00 mg/L and maximum value was 202.00 mg/L. The hardness of waste water is due to excess of use detergent and shop. But after filtration, these values were reduced by 20 to 30 %.

5.2.11 Boron

Boron is very important micronutrient for the plants, however, it is essential only in small quantities. After analyzed it was found that the boron value was ranging from 2.10 to 2.80 mg/L. But after filter, it was reduced by 80 to 85 %.

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION

On this paper it can be concluded that filtration treatment by using Activated Chrcoal is simple and best method for removal of pollutants from waste water. And also reshape the effluent characteristics so it could be used as irrigation water to reduce the pressure of application of normal water irrigation. The filtration treatment method of waste water could be profitably practiced for removing the pollutants and thus avoiding the ground water contamination and its environmental impacts and also help to aquatic life. Activated Charcoal can be used for this purpose successfully. This experimental study also found that this filter is more effective for removal of COD, NO3-N, Boron, Phosphate, hardness and suspended solids. By using these multi layer filter, the impurities from the waste water can be remove as follows:

a. COD - 50 to 70 % Removed.
b. Hardness - 20to30 % Removed.
c. Boron - 80 to 85 % Removed.
d. Phosphate - 40 to 50 % Removed.
e. Suspended solids- 75 to 80 % Removed.
f. Nitrate-Nitrogen- 80 to 90% Removed.

Due to this study it is concluded that after treatment with acivated charcoal,waste water can be dispose safely into waterbodies in order to support aquatic life. And also a new source is generated for purpose of irrigationwhich reduce the load over portable water demand. Due to this technique the waste waterof the campus can be manage.

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Title
Waste Water Characteristics and its Managment in and around HSTU Campus of Bangladesh
Course
Civil Engineering
Author
Year
2019
Pages
53
Catalog Number
V921192
ISBN (eBook)
9783346358110
ISBN (Book)
9783346358127
Language
English
Tags
WASTE WATER CHARATERISTICS AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN AND AROUND HSTU CAMPUS, Wastewater Management, Wastewater Characteristics, Campus Wastewater, Waste water Quality, Quality of Wastewater, Waste Water Reuse
Quote paper
Kundan Yadav (Author), 2019, Waste Water Characteristics and its Managment in and around HSTU Campus of Bangladesh, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/921192

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