Solar Energy and Nuclear Power. Economic Requirements and Hindrances


Essay, 2020

18 Seiten


Leseprobe

Contents

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Solar Energy
2.1 Advantages of Solar Energy
2.2 Disadvantages of Solar energy
2.3 Environmental impacts of solar power systems
2.4 Solar energy's potential

3. Nuclear Energy
3.1 Nuclear power is the result of nuclear fission
3.2 Advantages of Nuclear Energy
3.3 Advantages of Nuclear Energy
3.4 Disadvantages of Nuclear

4. Conclusions

References

Abstract

Both Solar Energy and nuclear Energy face significant economic challenges. Sustainable energy costs it has traditionally been greater than any of those associated with the growth of fossil-fuel power generation, although the costs of renewable energy technologies (especially photovoltaic) have dropped. Furthermore, capital costs remain a big challenge in the nuclear generation. in many nations, the cost of building small nuclear power plants is quite large due to time, technology, environmental and safety challenges for consumers. Such problems might not be as big for state-owned corporations or controlled industries for which utilities have quick access to cheap resources, and this partially explains why the interest for nuclear reactors in Asia is far greater than in the US or Europe. Learning could help decrease costs for both types of technologies, but the track record for learning-by-doing in the nuclear sector is not good.

Keywords: Solar Energy, Nuclear Energy, Renewable, Power Plants, Technology.

1. Introduction

The Sun is a nuclear fusion reactor that contains sgravity. It produces unimaginable quantities of energy. Solar energy is a very perfect source of power. It can be captured passively by solar panels or other collectors. When the collectors have been produced, there will be no carbon emissions or waste products 1. There are no moving parts to hurt wildlife. There is no dependence on foreign entities. The energy is produced and delivered for free by the sun2. The division of uranium starts off evolved with the absorption of the smooth-moving neutron via the non-strong isotope U-235. The obtained U-236 is split into Ba-139 and Kr-94 as well as three unfastened neutrons. The mass deficiency of approximately 20 Percent of Atomic mass units has also been converted into 210 MeV energy units [3, 4]. there were 447 nuclear fission power stations in service globally, 55 in construction and 111 in the design processes 5.

In united sated from 2018, 19.3% of the electricity supply was produced by 97 nuclear power plants. This amounts from zero percent to the other countries, for example in New Zealand and 71.7 per cent in Europe union, total global energy demand in 2018 was 10.3 per cent 6.

With 11 new reactors under development, China has the most quickly expanding nuclear power program. Pakistan aims to construct 3 to 4 nuclear power stations by 20307.

Several countries had nuclear installations in the past, but they still do not have nuclear plants in operation. Italy closed all the nuclear power stations between them by 1990 and, as a consequence of the referendums established by the Italians in 1987, nuclear power already has stopped 8. A number of nations currently run nuclear power stations, but are considering the process- nuclear technology. These countries are Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Spain 3. Also according to U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), solar power increased by 39% in the united states around 2014 to 2017 4. Whereas starting at 10 GW and ending at 27, this growth trend for the field is very encouraging. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions have decreased by a few percent, the lowest since 1991 5. If it continues down this path, more study is likely to be carried out as a result of the growth in the market for efficient, cheap solar energy, in order to attempt to develop even more carbon-free or low-carbon fuels such as wind and nuclear power 6. There are two big issues relating to nuclear plants: waste disposal and potential failure. Nuclear power plants produce dangerous wastes; for example, the 1-GW nuclear power plant can be produces 300 kg of nuclear waste, Half-life of almost 24,000 years and environmental issues. Current methods for disposing of these kind of waste are inadequate. The complete reprocessing of all radioactive waste and the chemical transformation of long- fission products will be an ideal option. However, trends in this area have not progressed extensively 7. The first and most critical problem is its disparity; the amount of solar energy that can be harvested depends widely relying on time, location, season, weather and several other factors. In order to improve this topic, engineers are exploring the development of new storage methods for large quantities of energy generated 5. One of these storage technique Suitable for mountainous areas is pumped hydroelectric storage, that also uses excess energy generated during non-peak hours of the day to pump water from a reservoir in a much high elevation. PHES is just one of several potential storage methods to be used by more people, but it is so essential because it provides a clean, efficient use of solar energy when normally none is generated by replacing it with hydroelectricity 8. To good use and storage of solar energy, it becomes more hard to determine whether to use solar energy or some other form of renewable energy for power companies and individuals. Despite the obvious cost of installing solar power, this is a higher investment opposed to the use of fossil fuels due to much lower maintenance and occasional overproduction of energy.

Solar energy is a key player in the sustainable power plan. In sunny places, many residents built panels on their roofs to support with air-conditioning, heating and other household needs, and made the panels make up for themselves. Study in the collection and storage of solar energy should be a major effort worldwide 9. But in less sunny areas, there are a few expensive homes which run 100% on solar power, using large battery banks to power them through the nights.

Solar energy has the capacity to boost everything we need, however our ability to turn the energy of the sun into electrical power and also to store energy is simply not fully developed. Energy storage in particular has proven to be challenging, as solar panels have a very irregular energy intake because it depends on season, climate conditions, time of day, and the list goes on. The inability to use all solar power harvested efficiently is an issue that is likely to force even more development in the field to come soon after it has been resolved. The industry is full of possible innovations that have yet to be made and which can be recognized if time is taken to develop the innovative technology. Therefore, when looking at potential ways of storing the energy produced, PHES may not be the most cost effective, but it is proven to be safe and can be decided to add to some existing infrastructure at the same time as analysis seeks to make it more efficient.

2. Solar Energy

Solar technology, i.e. renewable wind, offers a reliable and stable supply of solar energy during the year. As our natural resources are likely to decline in the years to come, it is necessary for the entire world to shift towards sustainable sources. Solar power is a reactive electromagnetic sunlight energy that can be used for a wide range of still-evolving applications, such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar electricity, solar thermal processing, artificial molten, salt power plants and photosynthesis.

Solar energy is a significant source of green energy, and its techniques are generally characterized as either passive solar energy or active solar energy based on whether solar energy is absorbed and transmitted or transformed into solar energy. Strong solar technologies involve the use of photovoltaic devices, concentrating solar power and solar water heaters to harvest electricity. Passive methods include the alignment of a Systems or building to the Sun, the use of products with desirable light- properties or thermal mass, and the construction of spaces that automatically disperse air.

2.1 Advantages of Solar Energy

The biggest advantage of solar energy is that it can be quickly installed by both home and business consumers, because it does not involve any major construction, such as in the case of wind and geothermal power stations. Solar energy not only benefits individual owners, but also benefit environment as well. Figure (1) Showed a Simple Model of Solar Thermal System.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1 Solar Thermal System10.

1. No Pollution: Solar energy is a safe, non-polluting, efficient and green energy resource. This does not pollute the environment by producing poisonous pollutants, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide. Solar energy does not need power and thus prevents the problems of shipping power or handling radioactive materials.
2. Long-lasting solar cells: Solar cells with two special features: first: lack of Drive systems and second: minimal maintenance requirements. Then they have already got a longer life and they're more noticeable.
3. Renewable Source: Solar energy is a sustainable energy source that can continue to generate power as long as there is light. While solar energy cannot be generated during the night and rainy days, it can be used again and again throughout the day. Solar energy from the sun is a steady and continuous source of electricity which can be used to harvest strength in remote areas.
4. Low maintenance: Generally, solar cells do not need upkeep and operate for a long time. More solar panels can be installed from time to time if desired. While solar panels have an initial expense, there are no recurrent costs. The initial expense, which is paid once, may be recovered in the long run. Apart from this, solar panels do not create any noise and do not emit an unpleasant scent.
5. Easy Installation: No need to install equipment such as cables, power supply, pipes, etc., installation of solar panels easier to tracking energy. Unlike wind and geothermal energy harvesting systems that need land drilling equipment, solar panels do not need them and can be easily mounted on rooftops to insure that no additional infrastructure is needed, so residential home users can easily use this technology to supply electricity. In addition, they can be installed in a dispersed manner, meaning that no large-scale installations are required.

The technology of solar cells is developing, and as our non-renewable supply decreases, it is necessary for the world to transition into renewable energy sources. There are, though, a range of issues that prohibit solar energy from being used more widely. Solar energy drawbacks are likely to be resolved as technology advances and their use grows as people continue to realize the benefits of solar energy.

2.2 Disadvantages of Solar energy

Solar energy can either be thermal or photovoltaic. The photovoltaic type is one of the most stable types of radiant converting to electrical energy. It really is suitable in many countries with adequate sunlight, such as Iran, and countries close to the equator, and in terms of the quantity and availability of this technology. The energy source does not relate to someone and requires permission to use it. This feature has given rise to solar energy becoming special among renewable energy sources. Solar energy from ancient times used by people using a magnifying glass is used to light the fire. Throughout this way, the sunlight was concentrated on dark wooden surfaces and the fire became ignited. Also, Solar photovoltaic (SPV) cells convert solar energy directly into DC electrical electricity. This power source may be used to power solar clocks, calculators or signals. These are also found in areas which are not linked to the power grid. Figure (2) Showed a Concentrated solar power (CSP) Plant. Solar heat energy (SHE) can be used to heat water or Air ventilation, which requires ventilation of the room inside the house.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2 Concentrated solar power (CSP) Plant10

Solar energy can be broadly categorized as active or passive solar energy depending on how they are captured and utilized. For active solar power, specific solar heating equipment is used to transform solar power into thermal energy, but there is no specialized equipment for passive solar power 11. Active solar requires the use of mechanical devices such as photovoltaic panels, solar trap fans and solar thermal collectors or reservoirs. Passive solar solutions transform solar energy into thermal energy without the usage of active mechanical devices. It is primarily a method to use curtains, doors, plants, positioning of buildings and other basic methods to catch or block the sun for usage. Passive solar heating is a smart way to save electricity and optimize its consumption. An example of passive solar heating is what happens to your car on a hot summer day.

2.3 Environmental impacts of solar power systems

Although solar energy is recognized to be one of the cleanest and most renewable sources of energy today, it also has several environmental impacts. Solar energy uses photovoltaic panels to generate solar electricity. Nevertheless, the processing of photovoltaic cells to generate the energy includes silicon and to manufacture certain waste materials. In appropriate handling of such materials can result in hazardous exposure to humans and the environment12. Installing solar power plants will entail a significant portion of land that may have an effect on established habitats. Solar energy does not pollute the air when converted to electricity by solar panels. It is found in abundance and does not help in global warming.

2.4 Solar energy's potential

Solar power is now expected to play a greater position in the future due to recent developments that will result in lower costs and better efficiency. In fact, the solar photovoltaic industry is preparing to supply half of all future US power generation by 2025. More and more architects understand the importance of active and passive solar power and know how to successfully integrate it into building designs. Solar hot water systems can compete economically with conventional systems in some areas. Shell has predicted that by 2040, 50% of the world's electricity supply would come from sustainable resources. Over recent years, the rate of generating photovoltaic cells has declined by 3% per year, while policy subsidies have increased. While certain other information about solar energy are meaningless, this renders solar energy an even more efficient source of electricity. Solar energy is projected to be used by millions of households across the world in the next several years, as seen by developments in the US and Japan. Aggressive financial incentives in Germany and Japan and China have made these countries global leaders in solar deployment for years13.

A renewable resource that can be used to generate power is solar. The sun itself is a source of radiant energy, daylight and other energy sources on Earth. Steam engines are a perfect illustration of radiant energy, by having sunrays magnified by mirrors guided to the turbine to heat water and produce steam, which in effect drives the turbine and causes steam and escape, and this pushes the piston. Calculators often work on solar power by storing light rays and transmitting energy to enable the calculator to function even though no light is present. Trevor Smith1 notes that, “solar rays can be used to fuel or cool houses, supply hot water and produce steam for turbines generating energy Sunlight can be converted directly into energy by photovoltaics, a fast-growing branch of solar technology”, This allows people to generate energy from renewable resources. James Bow notes that in 1977, one watt of solar power costs $76.67. In 2014, the cost dropped to around $0.60, This suggests that modern solar power projects are far more economical, which means that renewable energy has come a long way and will continue to grow. One of the greatest declines in solar power is that the sun is still growing and dropping, ensuring that the energy provided and processed is confined to the location of solar panels Second, the batteries used to store electricity generated by the sun are expensive and produce a large amount of emissions. Thirdly, in order to allow the best of the light, wide quantities of solar panels or mirrors need to be installed, which could be a function of restricted resources. The energy generated by the solar is a type of renewable energy used by today's society.

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Ende der Leseprobe aus 18 Seiten

Details

Titel
Solar Energy and Nuclear Power. Economic Requirements and Hindrances
Autor
Jahr
2020
Seiten
18
Katalognummer
V922228
ISBN (eBook)
9783346244390
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
solar, energy, nuclear, power, economic, requirements, hindrances
Arbeit zitieren
Mostafa Esmaeili Shayan (Autor), 2020, Solar Energy and Nuclear Power. Economic Requirements and Hindrances, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/922228

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