Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Urban Water Supply: A Case Study of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana


Master's Thesis, 2016

120 Pages, Grade: 1.7


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL OVERVIEW
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background
1.3 Problem Statement
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Organisation of the Report

CHAPTER TWO: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Overview of Research Methodology
2.2.1 Literature review
2.2.2 Selection of case study
2.2.3 Sampling techniques, field visit and data collection
2.2.4 Data Collation and analysis
2.2.5 Reporting
2.3 Conceptual Framework

CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW ON RAPID URBANIZATION AND URBAN WATER SUPPLY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Urbanization
3.2.1 Meaning of urban and urbanization
3.2.2 Theories of urbanization
3.2.2.1 Pro-urbanization theories
3.2.2.2 Anti-urbanization theories
3.2.2.3 Theories based on labour market and rural-urban wage differentials
3.2.2.4 Theories that seek to link urbanization and network infrastructure
3.2.3. Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa
3.2.3.1 Pre-colonial urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa
3.2.3.2 Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era
3.2.3.3 Post-colonial urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa
3.2.4 Urbanization in Ghana; history, trend and driving forces
3.2.5 Urbanization in Accra; history, patterns, driving forces and major problems
3.2.5.1 History and patterns of urbanization in Accra
3.2.5.2 Driving forces of urbanization in Accra
3.2.5.3 Major problems and challenges of rapid urbanization in Accra
3.2.6 Some Policies on Urbanization
3.3 Urban Water Supply
3.3.1 Infrastructure; definition and classification
3.3.2 Interlinkages between urbanization and infrastructure (Water supply)
3.3.3 Urban water supply situation in Sub-Saharan Africa
3.3.4 Urban water supply situation in Ghana
3.3.4.1 Historical development of water supply in Ghana
3.3.4.2 Institutional framework for urban water supply in Ghana
3.3.4.3 Current urban water supply situation in Ghana and future outlook
3.3.5 Water supply in the city of Accra; current situation and future projections
3.4 Key findings from the literature review

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Background of the Case Study Area - Accra
4.3 Presentation and Analysis of Results
4.3.2 General information about the respondents
4.3.2 Demographic and household characteristics
4.3.2.1 Household size
4.3.2.2 Age/sex distribution of households
4.3.2.3 Household income and source
4.3.2.4 Migration
4.3.2.5 Housing characteristics
4.3.3 Access to water supply
4.3.3.1 Access to GWCL water supply system
4.3.3.2 Access to alternative sources of water supply
4.3.4 Dependency of households on water
4.3.5 Direct and indirect consequences of not having adequate water
4.3.6 Ranking of water supply versus other infrastructure and services
4.3.7 Main problems associated with water supply
4.4 Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Urban Water Supply in Accra
4.4.1 Impact on the environment
4.4.2 Impact on the physical water infrastructure
4.4.3 Impact on service delivery
4.5 Past and present policy measures and their effectiveness
4.6 Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Recommendations
5.2.1 Recommendations for policy
5.2.2 Recommendations for further research
5.3 Limitations of the Study
5.4 Conclusion

REFERENCES xci

APPENDIX 1: HOUSHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE ci

APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEW GUIDE (FOR KEY INFORMANT) cvi

DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to my lovely wife, Edith Ahulu and my son, Joseph Kwame Gyan. Thank you so much for your moral support, understanding and patience.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Glory be to the Almighty God for His guidance, protections and abundant grace that have sustained me all along. I express my deepest gratitude to my supervisors, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Habil. Jörn Birkmann and Dr. Anette Gangler for making time out of their busy schedules to supervise my work. I appreciate your profound suggestions and comments which positively shaped this research work and contributed to its successful completion.

I am also grateful to MAPLE Consult and VNG International for their financial contributions towards my master’s study. My dream of pursuing a master’s degree abroad, especially in Germany, would not have been a reality without their financial support.

I am deeply indebted to my lovely wife (Edith), my son (Joe) and all my family members, especially my dad (Mr. Joseph Gyan) and my mum (Mrs. Mary Amoah) whose continued support, sacrifices and encouragement have helped me to reach this far. Bravo Edith! for the patience you demonstrated and the sacrifices that you and Joe made. I know it was not easy, but it was worth it.

I also thank all those who readily provided me the relevant information I needed for this research, particularly the officials of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) and the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) and the residents of Osu Klottey, Ayawaso Central and Ayawaso West sub-metros. I am grateful for the interviews, discussions, the materials and the other forms of support you gave me during my field visit. I am also thankful to my colleagues at MAPLE Consult who assisted me in the data collection and collation especially, Mr. Mawuena Dotse (Managing Director), Nii Odai Laryea, Mr. Christopher Sackeyfio and Mr. Kwasi Poku Asare.

Finally, I acknowledge the support of all friends and classmates during my study at the University of Stuttgart, especially in the course of this research work. I am particularly thankful to my good friends, Kingsley Ato Enninful, for being very instrumental in my studies and Claudia Lindner, for translating the abstract into German.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Die entscheidende Rolle, die Urbanisierung bei der Entwicklung eines Landes spielt, kann nicht hoch genug eingeschätzt werden. Urbanisierung garantiert Wirtschaftlichkeit durch Bereitstellung öffentlicher Infrastruktur wie beispielsweise Wasserversorgung, Strom, Straßen, Gesundheitsversorgung und Schulen unter anderem in städtischen Gebieten als Folge von räumlichen Häufungen von Bevölkerung und Wirtschaftstätigkeiten. Doch sich rasch vollziehende Urbanisierung, im Umfeld einer nicht bestehenden entsprechenden Infrastruktur, führt zu einer Überlastung der bereits existierenden Anlagen und stellt Stadtdirektoren und Versorger vor eine Vielzahl von Herausforderungen. Diese Studie soll daher die wichtigsten Auswirkungen von rapider Urbanisierung auf die städtische Wasserversorgung untersuchen. Dafür wurde der Ansatz einer Fallstudie übernommen, um diese anschließend in Kontext mit der Stadt Accra, Ghanas schnell wachsendem wirtschaftlichen und politischen Zentrum, zu setzen. Die Durchführung der auf Forschung basierenden Studie fand in ausgewählten Vororten innerhalb Accras statt. Sie beinhaltet eine Reihe von ausführlichen Interviews, bestehend aus offenen und geschlossenen Fragen, mit Haushalten, Vertretern der Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) und Beamten der Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL).

Darüber hinaus spielte die Bewertung von Literatur, Webseiten und offiziellen stadt- und staatspolitischen Dokumenten eine entscheidende Rolle. Die umfangreiche Prüfung der reichlich vorhandenen Literatur und die Feldstudie deuten darauf hin, dass die rasche Urbanisierungsrate in Accra schwerwiegende Auswirkungen auf die städtische Wasserversorgung sowie Umwelt, die physikalische Wasserinfrastruktur und die allgemeine Servicebereitstellung hat. Einige der Hauptauswirkungen sind häufige Rohrleitungsbrüche aufgrund außerplanmäßiger Entwicklungen, hohes Aufkommen von Wasserdiebstahl, intermittierende Wasserversorgung bedingt durch hohe Nachfrage und unterminierte Wasserqualität als Folge von schlechtem Gesundheitsmanagement. Basierend auf den wichtigsten Erkenntnissen, schlägt die Studie relevante Politikmaßnahmen vor, die die negativen Auswirkungen reduzieren können. Dazu gehören unter anderem die notwendige Förderung einer dezentralen Entwicklung des Landes; effiziente Planung, Regulierung und Kontrolle von Entwicklung; Wiederaufbau und Erweiterung bereits existierender Wasserinfrastruktur in der Stadt, sowie stärkere Kontrolle von Wasserdiebstal und ein strengeres Vorgehen gegen denselben. Das übergeordnete Ziel dieser Studie ist, wertvolle Einblicke in die Formulierung und Umsetzung einer ganzheitlichen Stadtpolitik im Bereich Wasserinfrastruktur im Hinblick auf Nachhaltigkeit und städtische Effizienz zu geben.

Schlüsselwörter: urban, rapide Urbanisierung, Bevölkerungswachstum, Infrastruktur, städtische Wasserversorgung, Accra, Ghana

ABSTRACT

The vital role played by urbanization in a country’s development cannot be overemphasized. Urbanization ensures cost-effectiveness in the provision of public infrastructure such as water, electricity, roads, healthcare and schools among others in urban areas as a result of the spatial clustering of population and economic activities. Nonetheless, rapid urbanization without corresponding infrastructure provision results in congestion and pressure on existing facilities and presents a plethora of challenges to city managers and utility providers. This study therefore seeks to examine the major impacts of rapid urbanization on urban water supply. To do this, a case study approach was adopted in order to put the study into context and perspective. More specifically, the study takes the city of Accra, Ghana’s rapidly growing economic and political centre, as an empirical case. The study was based on empirical research conducted in selected suburbs within the city of Accra, including a series of structured and semi-structured in-depth interviews with households, representatives of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) and the officials of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). Additionally, the assessment of literature, websites and official city and state policy documents played a crucial role.

The broad assessment of the abundant literature consulted and the field survey point to the fact that, indeed, the rapid rate of urbanization in Accra has serious impacts on urban water supply including the environment, physical water infrastructure and overall service delivery. Frequent bursts of pipe lines due to unplanned developments, high incidence of water theft, frequent service interruption due to high water demand and undermined water quality as a result of poor sanitation management are some of the major impacts. Based on the key findings the study proposes relevant policy measures that could help alleviate the negative impacts. These include the need to promote decentralized development in the country; effective planning, regulation and control of development; rehabilitation and expansion of existing water infrastructure in the city; and monitoring and clamping down on water theft in the city among others. The overarching goal of this study is to provide valuable insights into the formulation and implementation of holistic urban policy on water infrastructure towards sustainability and realisation of urban efficiency.

Key Words: urban, rapid urbanization, population growth, infrastructure, urban water supply, Accra, Ghana

LIST OF TABLES

1 Allocation of households among the three sub-metros

2 Population in four largest urban centres in Ghana and their contribution to urban growth

3 Population trends within Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA)

4 Relationship between infrastructure and level of urbanization, India

5 Availability of water supply from GWCL

6 Age/sex distribution of households

LIST OF FIGURES

1 Structure of the report

2 Workflow of research methodology

3 Sampled Sub-Metropolitan Areas

4 Conceptual framework

5 Urban population growth in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1950 to

6 Average annual urban growth rate of Africa versus other regions, 1950–

7 Urban population growth in Ghana from 1921 to

8 Trends in proportion urban versus rural population and outlook in Ghana, 2021-

9 Contribution of net migration and natural increase to urban population growth in Ghana, 1948-

10 Rate of urbanization for the top ten most populated countries in Sub-Saharan Africa,

11 Population growth trend in Accra Metropolitan Area

12 Population density of Accra Metropolitan Area, 1960-

13 Population density by sub-metropolitan Area in Accra

14 Examples of slum areas in Accra

15 Growth of Accra from 1985-

16 Access to improved water versus urban population growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990-

17 Unequal distribution of access to water supply in urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa

18 Institutional framework for urban water supply in Ghana

19 Access to improved water versus urban population growth in Ghana, 1990-

20 Location map of case study area

21 Employment status of respondents

22 Average household size of sampled households

23 Average household income in Ghana Cedis (GHS)

24 Main source of households’ income

25 Reasons for migrating to Accra

26 Types of dwellings

27 Households connection to GWCL’s system

28 Frequency of water flow – GWCL consumers

29 Monthly water bill (GWCL consumers)

30 Average monthly expenditure on water (Non-GWCL Consumers)

31 Dependency of households on water

32 Ranking of water supply versus other infrastructure and services

33 Main problems with water supply

34 Impact of rapid urbanization on urban water supply in Accra

35 Filthy water causeways, Osu Klottey

36 Burst pipes in Ayawaso Central

37 Old, rusty main distribution pipe line, Kotobabi - Ayawaso Central

38 Pipe lines lying in filthy gutters – Osu Klottey

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL OVERVIEW

1.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the general overview of the study including the background, description of the problem statement, research questions as well as the objectives of the study. The chapter also covers the scope of the study, the significance of the study and organization of the entire report.

1.2 Background

The world economy is undergoing series of metamorphosis. Among the major driving forces of this change process is urbanization. The United Nations (UN) forecasts that the global population will hit approximately 9.6 billion by mid-2050 (UN, 2013: 2). Currently, over half of the world’s population lives in urban areas. It is projected that by 2050 about two-thirds of the world’s population will be urbanized (UN, 2014: 20). Both developed and developing countries are experiencing the phenomenon of urbanization in various degrees; however, the triggering factors differ. Whilst urbanization in developed countries has been facilitated by industrialization, urbanization in developing countries, especially those within Sub-Saharan Africa, has been characterized by rapid population growth amidst inadequate socio-economic, technical and environmental infrastructure. According to the UN’s statistics, the proportion of urban population in Sub-Saharan Africa increased from 27% in 1990 to 37% in 2014 with an average annual growth rate of 1.4% (UN, 2014: 20). Given the current figures, it is said that Africa (besides Asia) is urbanizing more rapidly than other regions of the world and this trend is expected to continue over the coming decades (ibid).

Ghana experienced a major shift in its demographic indicators when for the first time since 1960 the proportion of the urban population exceeded the rural population in 2010. Precisely, the proportion of urban population in 2010 was 50.9% as compared to previous figures of 43.8% in 2000 and 23.1% in 1960 (Ghana Statistical Service - GSS, 2013: 53). As at 2014, the proportion of urban inhabitants stood at 53% and the trend is projected to continue at an alarming rate of 4.2% per annum so that by 2050, 70% of Ghana’s population will live in urban areas if the impact of HIV/AIDS can be held in check (UN, 2014: 21).

Accra is one of the most densely populated and fastest growing cities in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa for that matter. This is owing to its status as the administrative hub and economic backbone of the country. Besides, the city enjoys relatively better socio-economic infrastructure and services as compared to other cities and towns in Ghana. Thus, the very status of the city of Accra as the national capital and administrative centre coupled with the presence of some level of services such as water supply, healthcare, transportation, education and housing has served as a pull factor leading to the incessant migration of people from other parts of the country, especially rural areas, into the city with a view to enjoying better living condition.

As a result, the population of Accra has grown rapidly from a little over 388 thousand in 1960 to 2.34 million in 2010, an increment of over 500% in 50 years (Ardayfio-Schandorf et al., 2012: 20; UN-Habitat, 2013: 158). Yet the UN-Habitat projects that Accra’s population will increase to 3.5 million by 2025 at an annual rate of 3.01% (UN-Habitat, 2013: 158). This rapid rate of urbanization has profound implications for the environment and socio-technical infrastructure including water supply given that city dwellers depend on infrastructure and its services to attain self-sufficiency. Meanwhile, rapid urbanization in Accra keeps enlarging the areas and number of people un-served by public water supply utilities. Indeed, UN-Habitat (2011 a: 38) posits that, “rapid urban growth without a proportional increase in basic urban infrastructure can only widen the urban divide, as it leads to further slum expansion”.

It is against this backdrop that this research work examines the impact that rapid urbanization exerts on urban water supply using the city of Accra as a case study. The study takes a deeper look into the history, patterns and trends of urbanization in the city of Accra and the interlinkages between urbanization and urban water supply as well as the effects that rapid population growth and the physical expansion of the city have on the environment, the physical water supply infrastructure and overall water service delivery. Based on the key findings the study then proposes relevant policy measures that could help alleviate the negative impacts.

1.3 Problem Statement

The term urbanization became prominent in the early 19th century during the agricultural and industrial revolution. Since then, the phenomenon of urbanization has taken a central focus in contemporary development discourses due to the important role it plays in the development processes of countries. Urbanization brings opportunities for more efficient resource management and improved access to social, economic, environmental and technical infrastructure including drinking water. However, rapid urbanization without corresponding infrastructure provision to meet the pressing demand of the population creates development gaps with enormous pressure on existing and planned infrastructure in urban centres. For instance, global water supply coverage rates in urban areas increased by only 1% point between 1990 and 2012 (WHO/UNICEF, 2014: 72). This stagnation in urban water coverage suggests that most governments and water utility providers are just managing to keep pace with the urban growth.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, access to improved water in urban areas stagnated at 83% over a period of ten years between 1990 and 2000 and increased by only 2% points to 85% in 2012 (WHO/UNICEF, 2014: 73). Impliedly, about 15% of urban dwellers in Sub-Saharan Africa (52 million) lacked access to improved water in 2012. In Ghana, notwithstanding the progress made in improved access to drinking water supply in urban areas, rapid urbanization, including people living in slum and informal areas, tends to hamper efforts. While access to safe drinking water in urban areas increased by 9%1 points between 1990 and 2012, urban population growth between 1990 and 2010 was 14.9%2. The picture is even more alarming given that the proportion of urban population in Ghana is estimated to hit 70% by 2050 (UN, 2014: 21).

The city of Accra has been a major recipient of this rapid population growth within the country with migration contributing to about 47% of the population increase (GSS, 2014: 20). This is due to its position as the administrative, industrial and commercial centre of the country. With this rate of urbanization, the city has become the most densely populated and congested in the country. The population density of the city of Accra has grown sharply from about 1,940 inha./km2 in 1960 to 4,845 inha./km2 in 1984 and 11,710 inha./km2 in 2010 (Ardayfio-Schandorf et al., 2012: 34; UN-Habitat, 2013: 158; Adank et al., 2011: 4). This implies that the population density of Accra more than doubled between the periods 1960-1984 and 1984-2010.

The impact of this rapid rate of urbanization on the existing socio-technical and environmental infrastructure (including water supply) in the city cannot be overemphasized. Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL), the main public utility responsible for urban water supply, is unable to meet the demands of this rapid population growth in the city. According to World Bank (2010: 73), only 68% of the population of Accra has a household or at best a yard connection and this include the rich. Notwithstanding the limited population served, water supply in the city is intermittent. For instance, since 2012 the city of Accra has been experiencing water and energy crisis forcing GWCL to embark on water rationing exercises in some sections of the city.

With the exception of few high and middle class residential areas, the majority of the population lives in informal settlements and slum areas. The problem is further exacerbated by increased crowding in existing residential areas and higher occupancy rates in existing housing units. This kind of unplanned structures and slums in the city retard the laying down of water pipes to reach all sections in the city (Kaleem and Guohua, 2015). Confronted with lack of direct access to GWCL services, majority of the population living in these slum and informal settlements have no choice than to resort to alternative sources of water which are often expensive and of low quality. In such neighbourhoods, the outbreak of water and sanitation related diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera and malaria is rampant. It is estimated that diarrhoea was among the first 20 to 50 causes of death in Ghana in 2012 with a death toll of 23,516 or 12.53% (Government of Ghana, 2014: 2).

Indeed, access to improved water supply forms the fundamental of health, growth and development of mankind and exerts significant influence on quality of life and human dignity. “Without water there is no dignity and no escape from poverty” (Ban Ki-moon cited in UN-Habitat, 2011 b: 8). To this end, a study on the impact of rapid urbanization on water supply in the city of Accra becomes imperative.

1.4 Research Questions

The study aims at finding concrete answers to the following questions:

- What are the nature, patterns, causes and major problems of rapid urbanization in Accra?
- What is the state of water delivery in the city of Accra?
- What are the interlinkages between urbanization and water infrastructure provision and access to safe water in the city of Accra?
- How and to what extent has rapid urbanization impacted water supply in Accra: (i) in the past, (ii) in the present (iii) and what are the implications for the current and future development of the city?
- What measures can be taken to curtail the negative impacts of rapid urbanization on water supply in the city of Accra?

1.5 Objectives of the Study

The overall objective of this research is to provide valuable insights into the formulation and implementation of holistic urban policy on water infrastructure management by examining the major impacts of rapid urbanization on urban water supply with due reference to the city of Accra. To achieve this, the following specific objectives were pursued:

- To review the history, patterns and causes of rapid urbanization in Accra, highlighting the past trend, present situation and implications for the future.
- To present an overview of urban water delivery in Accra including the institutional framework of urban water supply.
- To understand the interlinkages between urbanization and urban water supply with due emphasis on the inter-dependent role that takes place between people and physical infrastructure and how they complement each other in achieving urban efficiency.
- To examine the impacts of rapid urbanization on water supply in Accra and detail out some of the past and present policy measures that have been implemented to reduce the negative impact.
- To recommend sustainable policy measures that can be adopted to curb the negative impacts of rapid urbanization on water supply in the city of Accra.

1.6 Scope of the Study

Contextually, the study focuses on examining the impact of rapid urbanization on urban water supply. Specifically, the study examines the interlinkages between urbanization and urban water supply and the effects that rapid population growth and the physical expansion of cities have on the environment, the physical infrastructure and overall service delivery.

Geographically, the study is related to Ghana and borders on the Accra Metropolitan Area (see figure 20). Given that Ghana is in Sub-Saharan Africa, the study makes more reference to Sub-Saharan African countries. The essence of this is to ensure easy application of the themes being studied.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The issue of rapid urbanization and its impact on environmental, technical and network infrastructure such as water supply has not been accorded the needed attention in policy discourse in Ghana and most Sub-Saharan African countries. As a result most policy measures are geared towards fighting the symptoms rather than the root cause of the problem. This research work therefore aims at bridging the knowledge gap among relevant stakeholders such as city managers, government, utility providers and urban engineers among others about the nature, pattern and major problems of rapid urbanization in Ghana and the resulting impacts on the wellbeing of the people in respect of water supply with particular focus on the city of Accra. It will afford relevant authorities the opportunity to adopt a more proactive approach in tackling the core of the problem rather than the symptoms.

The study is also intended to contribute to several other scholarly discourses on dealing with the challenges and problems of rapid urbanization in Ghana and Sub-Sahara Africa in general. Wealth of research works have been conducted on urbanization and urban water supply in Sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana in particular. For instance: Tettey (2005) has undertaken a multifaceted quantitative analysis of the urbanization in Africa in relation to socio-economic development; Songsore (2009) provides detailed explanation on the urban transition in Ghana focusing particularly on urbanization, national development and poverty reduction; Odoro (2010) undertakes a critical examination of the effects of rapid urbanization on livelihood in the peri-urban areas of Accra; Addo (2010) looks at the institutional analysis of urban water supply in Ghana with particular focus on Accra; Adank et al. (2011) have carried out a comprehensive study on the integrated approach to urban water management in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA); just to mention a few.

However, the above studies and similar others have examined the subjects of urbanization and urban water supply separately without exploring the impacts and consequences of the former on the latter. Even in the few cases where this has been done, the emphasis has been on urban employment/unemployment, housing, health, education and transport issues. Thus, the impact of rapid urbanization on environmental and network infrastructure like water supply has been empirically understudied, particularly in Ghana. This research work therefore seeks to heighten this forgotten but important part of today’s development challenges. It is expected to provide a better understanding of the dynamics of rapid urbanization and urban water supply, thereby contributing to the existing body of knowledge.

Finally, this research work is meant to serve as a reference material for researchers who are interested in issues related to urbanization and water, sustainable development and urban water infrastructure management and sustainability among other related disciplines in developing countries. It is particularly meant to contribute to modern theories of addressing the complex challenges of rapid urbanization and urban water infrastructure management.

1.8 Organisation of the Report

The report is structured into five major chapters as illustrated in figure 1.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Structure of the report (Author’s construct)

Chapter one presents the general overview of the study including the background, description of the problem statement, research questions as well as the objectives of the study. The chapter also covers the scope, significance and challenges of the study as well as the organization of the entire report. Chapter two details out the research methodology adopted in this study and the conceptual framework within which the study was conducted. Chapter three deals with the literature review on rapid urbanization and urban water supply while chapter four presents the results, analysis and key findings of the field data collection. The recommendations, limitations and concluding remarks of the study have been provided in chapter five.

CHAPTER TWO: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 Introduction

This chapter describes in detail the research methodology and approach adopted in this study as well as the conceptual framework within which the study was conducted. Basically, the study was based on empirical research conducted in selected suburbs within the city of Accra, including a series of structured and semi-structured in-depth interviews with households, representatives of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly and the officials of GWCL. In addition, the assessment of literature, websites and official city and state policy documents played a crucial role.

2.2 Overview of Research Methodology

The key methodology and approaches adopted in this research have been conceptualized in figure 2 and further explained hereunder.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2: Workflow of research methodology (Author’s construct)

2.2.1 Literature review

Relevant literature was reviewed. This was basically in the form of desk study. The essence of this was to obtain the necessary background information and familiarization with prior research and relevant theory concerning the research topic. It also helped to situate the study within the context of the existing body of knowledge. The desk study relied extensively on the published reports, journals, articles and policy documents of both nationally and internationally accredited institutions bordering on urbanization, population growth, infrastructure and urban water supply among others. Some of these institutions include Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), United Nations (UN), World Bank, Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL), Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA), Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH), Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA), World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF among others. Additionally, literatures were obtained from the studies of individuals and organizations on urbanization and urban water supply.

The literature review established the existing situation and the data gap as far as the impact of rapid urbanization on urban water supply, particularly in Accra, is concerned. This provided useful input into the structuring of the research instruments and the specific strategy for the data collection, analysis and presentation.

2.2.2 Selection of case study

In order to situate the study into context and perspective a case study was selected. In this connection, the Accra Metropolitan Area was selected for the study. The rationale behind the selection of Accra is due to its status as the national capital. It is also the administrative capital of the Greater Accra Region and the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA). This status has given the city a prominent position; on one hand as the administrative hub and on the other hand as the commercial and economic backbone of the country. Due to this, the city is considered as the centre of focus when it comes to the distribution of socio-economic resources such as water, electricity, education, health and road among others. This has facilitated the incessant migration of people from other parts of the country into the city of Accra with a view to enjoying better life. The complex challenges and impact of such rapid rate of urbanization on the existing facility like water supply is deemed significant and worth examining.

The location map of the case study area is presented in figure 20.

2.2.3 Sampling techniques, field visit and data collection

Sequel to the review of existing literature and selection of the case study area, a field visit was undertaken. The purpose of the field visit was to gather primary data for the study. In order to achieve this, research instruments such as structured and semi-structured questionnaires were developed. The development of the research instruments was informed by the key findings from the literature review and took into consideration the gap identified in the existing literature. Given the nature and objectives of the research, both institutional and household data were required. Institutional data was obtained from the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) and Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) through focus group discussions and key informant interviews.

Due to the large population size of the city of Accra vis-à-vis the limited time and resources, a sample of 200 households were selected and interviewed with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The household questionnaire was administered in three (3) out of the ten (10) Sub-Metropolitan Areas that constitute the Accra Metropolis. The technique used in sampling the three sub-metros was based on two main criteria. The first criterion has to do with the proportion of population connected to the services of GWCL, the public utility responsible for urban water supply. Thus, a combination of sub-metros with high, moderate and low/no access to GWCL services were considered to ensure fair representation of the sub-metros. The second criterion was based on the total population size and density of the sub-metros. The essence was to include a mixture of high, medium and low densely populated sub-metros as these could potentially have differing impacts on water supply. Based on these criteria the three sub-metros sampled for the study were Osu Klottey, Ayawaso Central and Ayawaso West as depicted in figure 3.

The 200 households were distributed amongst the three sub-metros based on the population size and estimated number of households in the sub-metros. Thus, more households were allocated to sub-metros with large population size and number of households and vice versa as presented in table 1. The selection of households within the sub-metros was based on a variety of criteria including household in slum and informal neighbourhoods, high and low income areas and areas with and without access to public water utility service among others. The idea behind this was to purposefully include a variety of population that contain the characteristics of the study area in order to present a reliable picture of the existing situation in respect of the subject under study.

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Figure 3: Sampled Sub-Metropolitan Areas (Adapted from World Bank, 2010)

Table 1: Allocation of households among the three sub-metros3

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

(Author’s construct)

During the field work, some service and distribution pipe lines as well as environmental developments were inspected. This afforded the researcher the opportunity to observe and take pictures of water supply facilities as well as the state and conditions of the physical environment. This was useful in establishing the state of water infrastructure and the condition of the built environment within the city. As evidence-based research demands, effort was also made during the various engagements to quote and/or paraphrase some of the revealing statements from the respondents to support the study.

The household questionnaire and interview guide for the field data collection are attached as appendices 1 and 2 to this report.

2.2.4 Data Collation and analysis

Data is of no relevance until it has been collated and analysed into meaningful information. It is the information that can be used for decision making, deductions and generalization about a given phenomenon. In view of this, the primary data collected through the field visit was collated and analysed using computer software such as Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel. Important tools such as tables, charts, graphs, percentages and pictures were used to present relevant information in order to facilitate easy understanding of the data.

2.2.5 Reporting

An integral part of the research methodology is the report writing. Each stage of the study was duly documented and elucidated. In addition, the result of the data collection was duly discussed and interpreted. The final output is a detailed and comprehensive report containing the problem statement, research questions and objectives, scope, methodology, results and discussion thereof as well as key findings of the study and relevant recommendations.

2.3 Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework within which the study was conducted is presented in figure 4.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4: Conceptual framework (Author’s construct)

CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW ON RAPID URBANIZATION AND URBAN WATER SUPPLY

3.1 Introduction

Wealth of research and literature exist on urbanization and urban water supply, even though the complex linkages and interdependencies between the two subjects and the extent to which the former impacts the latter have been empirically undertheorized. In order to situate this research work in the existing body of knowledge, it is important to obtain the necessary background information and familiarisation with prior research and relevant theory concerning the research topic.

In this connection, this chapter delves into the review of relevant literature, policy documents and websites on urbanization and urban water supply. The chapter is structured into two major parts. The first part covers urbanization including definitions of some key concepts and theories. It also deals with the history, patterns, driving forces and major problems of urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana and Accra as well as some policies bordering on urbanization. The second part focuses on urban water supply with emphasis on some definitions of infrastructure and the interlinkages between urbanization and infrastructure including water supply. It also takes a closer look at the urban water supply situation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana and Accra and projections for the future. The chapter concludes with highlights of the key findings emanating from the literature review.

3.2 Urbanization

3.2.1 Meaning of urban and urbanization

The term urban is a very complex and dynamic concept and difficult to define. It can be described differently in different contexts, by different disciplines and by different countries. An urban area is an abstraction based on several interrelated factors, such as population size, population density, economic and social organisation and administration among others (Frey and Zimmer, 2001 in Oduro, 2010). While some countries adopt a combination of these factors as criteria for defining an urban area, others use population size as the main yardstick for defining an urban area. For instance, in Australia, an urban area is defined as population cluster of 1,000 or more people, with a density of at least 200 persons per square kilometre (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001: 30). European countries define an urban area on the basis of urban-type land use, not allowing any gaps of typically more than 200 metres, using satellite imagery instead of census blocks to determine the boundaries of the urban area (Wikipedia, 2015). In the United States of America, an area of 2,500 inhabitants constitute urban (Tettey, 2005: 26) while in Ghana and most African countries, any settlement with at least 5,000 inhabitants is recognised as an urban area (GSS, 2013: 53).

An urban area exhibits certain peculiar characteristics that distinguish it from a rural area; namely: (i) large population size and high density; (ii) heterogeneous society; (iii) high administrative functions; (iv) shift from primary economic activities to secondary and tertiary economic activities; (v) pressure on social facilities; and (vi) alienation and deviant behavior (Wirth , 1938; Davis, 1965; Schnore, 1964 in Oduro, 2010).

The term urbanization describes the process by which a place assumes an urban character. In other words, urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. This process of urbanization, according to Davis (1965: 4), is “the switch from a spread-out pattern of human settlement to one of concentration in urban centers”. Thus, urbanization refers to the proportion of the total population concentrated in the urban settlements, or else to a rise in this proportion (ibid). Schnore (1964) postulates that the concept of urbanization is a process that hinges on three distinct but related components, viz: (a) urbanization as behavioural change; (b) urbanization as reorganisation of economic activities; and (c) urbanization as population concentration (in Oduro, 2010).

Urbanization as behavioural change focuses on people rather than the place where they live and it concerns the change in the conduct and behaviour of the individual person. Thus, it is assumed that there is an “urban way of life” or “urbanism” consisting of some set of values, ways of thinking and behavioural patterns which people acquire as they become urban. Urbanization as reorganisation of economic activities refers to a change in the relative importance of different types of economic activities and the spatial relocation of population that goes with the change (Oduro, 2010). This involves a transition from agriculture as a main source of employment to non-agricultural activities. Urbanization as population concentration focuses on the concentration of population in space and has to do with an increase in the proportion of population living in urban areas. This view of urbanization considers rural-urban migration as the main driving force of urbanization in most countries (Ledent, 1982) even though natural growth of population can also contribute to urbanization. Thus, a country can have a stable population and still experience rapid urbanization through rural-urban migration.

3.2.2 Theories of urbanization

This section seeks to explore some relevant theories and hypotheses on urbanization. The essence was to identify the major theories and hypotheses on urbanization and understand their main contributions, strengths and weaknesses as well as appreciate their major points of convergence and divergence. This helped in shaping the direction of this research work and how it can both contributes to and benefit from the existing body of theories and hypotheses.

Several theories and hypotheses have been formulated on urbanization over the past centuries. For the purpose of this study, these theories have been placed under four broad umbrellas, namely:

- Pro-urbanization theories
- Anti-urbanization theories
- Theories based on labour market and rural-urban wage differentials
- Theories that seek to link urbanization and network infrastructure

They are further explained hereunder.

3.2.2.1 Pro-urbanization theories

These set of theories and hypothesis view urbanization as an inevitable part of the development process of a country and therefore seek to promote urbanization. Proponents of these theories believe that urbanization is a consequence of economic development and that urbanization and economic growth go hand in hand. The main point of view of those who subscribe to this school of thought is summarised in the words of Jacques Ledent that: “urbanization is a finite process experienced by all nations in their transition from an agrarian to an industrial society; thus, different urbanization levels reflect differing degrees of economic development” (Ledent, 1982: 507). Theories that fall under this category include the external (agglomeration) economy hypothesis and the modernization theories.

The external (agglomeration) economies hypothesis is based on the ideas of Alfred Marshall who postulates that: “ great are the advantages which people following the same skilled trade get from near neighbourhood to one another. The mysteries of the trade become no mysteries; but are as it were in the air …” (Marshall, 1890: 156). His profound statement has made a great deal of contribution to the location theory branch of spatial economics to which the agglomeration economies hypothesis belongs. The argument here is that urbanization leads to the concentrations of large population and economic activities which produce external economies of scale. This in turn leads to a general decline in production and distribution costs, generation of more economic activities due to reinvestment of profits and creation of more jobs.

[...]


1 Access to safe drinking water in urban areas of Ghana for 1990 and 2012 were 84% and 93% respectively (WHO/UNICEF, 2014: 59).

2 Proportion of urban population in Ghana in 1990 and 2010 were 36% and 50.9% respectively (UN, 2014: 21; GSS, 2012: 3).

3 Estimated based on the district average household size of 3.7 persons (GSS, 2014: p.48)

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Details

Title
Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Urban Water Supply: A Case Study of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana
College
University of Stuttgart
Course
Master Program Infrastructure Planning (MIP) - Urbanization and urban water supply
Grade
1.7
Author
Year
2016
Pages
120
Catalog Number
V932843
ISBN (eBook)
9783346260178
ISBN (Book)
9783346260185
Language
English
Notes
This study seeks to examine the major impacts of rapid urbanization on urban water supply using the city of Accra, Ghana’s rapidly growing economic and political centre, as an empirical case. This included a series of structured and semi-structured in-depth interviews with households, representatives of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) and the officials of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). Additionally, the assessment of literature, websites and official city and state policy documents played a crucial role.
Tags
Urban, Rapid urbanization, Population growth, Infrastructure, Urban water supply, Accra, Ghana
Quote paper
Edward Gyan (Author), 2016, Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Urban Water Supply: A Case Study of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/932843

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