Emotion Artificial Intelligence is one of the trending topic nowadays. It mainly deals with emotion recognition to determine the various emotions and behaviors of an individual. The number of researches are being carried out in emotion artificial intelligence to identify the various applications in real environment. The emotions of students are a key factor to determine the effective involvement of students in virtual learning. Due to the pandemic COVID -19, it is not possible for the Universities to conduct the physical classes. The Universities are taking the virtual classes, providing e - learning environment to the students to manage the academic sessions. The main idea of this paper is to improve and enhance the quality of e – learning by detecting and monitoring the emotions of students and provide quick response. The emotions of students such as excitement, happiness, confusion, sadness, desire and surprise are evaluated in this paper. Similarly, the movement of head, eye and whole face are also considered in this research. Different techniques such as concentration level measurement and artificial neural network are employed to identify the learner’s involvement and their interest in attending e -learning classes. Finally, the emotion artificial Intelligence system will provide the feedback to the teacher to improve the learning environment. The system is tested with the bachelor level students of Pashchimanchal Campus.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Neural network, e-learning, covid-19, emotion, University.
Due to the pandemic situation of COVID -19, the whole world is suffering and everything has been shut down to control the spread of corona virus. Industries, Automobiles, Universities, Service sectors etc. are closed however, the patients of COVID -19 positive are continuously increasing. Nepal is also suffering from this pandemic situation. According to the Ministry of Health and Population, the total cases of COVID -19 are 48138, the total infected are 14686, and recovered cases are 32964. Total death till now due to COVID -19 are 306 6. The government of Nepal is taking various actions such as Lockdown, employing frontline health workers, distributing masks, sanitizers to the needed individuals, disseminating COVID-19 preventive information’s. The people are also taking precautions such as distancing to avoid such circumstances. Only the emergency tasks are going on and other tasks are pending due to this pandemic. The education sector is also suffering a lot therefore it is very difficult to manage the academic sessions by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. There are total ten Universities in Nepal 9. Tribhuvan University is the oldest and largest public University of Nepal. There are at least 3000 undergraduate programs and 2000 graduate programs run by different constituent and affiliated campuses all over the country. In this pandemic situation, Tribhuvan University as well as other Universities are also conducting the online classes to manage the academic sessions. Pashchimanchal Campus, Institute of Engineering is one of the institutes under Tribhuvan University.
Pashchimanchal Campus started the e- learning classes after the six month of long pandemic situation dated August 17, 2020. Teachers, students and all the related personnel are very motivated to continue the academic session after long time. However, the challenges are still there for all the campuses to continue the e- learning classes. Some of the challenges are slow internet problems, lack of internet in remote places, unavailability of digital devices, knowledge of operating digital devices, e-learning platforms and software’s. After the survey conducted by Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, it found that almost 50 percent of students are ready for online classes. Similarly, the internet service providers are providing student internet package at cheap prices. The e-learning process is going well in most cases but the next challenge for the campus is to improve the quality of e-learning so that the student’s effectiveness can be seen in attending the classes until COVID -19 ends. This may take 1-2 years to control this pandemic as recently there are no vaccines available and many countries are involving in research to develop the effective vaccine 11. E- learning provide the platform to the students for continuing the classes. Since the teachers doesn’t see the students physically, it is very difficult for the teachers to grab the attention of the students in the online classes. The online classes need to be interactive to engage the students.
In this paper, for analyzing the student’s emotions such as excitement, happiness, confusion, sadness, desire and surprise, the neural network model is designed to capture the facial expression. Deep learning is the emerging techniques to process large datasets of images with Kera’s using TensorFlow backend. Convolution Neural Network is an artificial neural network that has specialization in detection and classification. Convolution neural network has hidden layers called convolution layers. This layer consists of neurons. Facial emotion recognition usually employs a training and testing stage to produce the desirable output [ 2]. The emotion of the students plays the vital role to determine the student interest in attending classes. Facial expressions are among the most universal forms of body language. The facial expressions are almost similar throughout the world. The facial expression, movement of head, eye, mouth helps to identify the emotions of the students so that the level of interest of student can be predicted form the emotion analysis of students. For example: A smile can be used to indicate happiness. Facial expression reveals the true feelings about a situation. Then, after collecting those information, e-learning quality can be improved and enhanced. The reaction of the students is analyzed during the teaching and learning course. Thus, the mood of students can be predicted easily which help to improve the e - learning environment. The feedback will be provided to teachers to enhance the teaching and learning process in e-learning.
The objectives of this research are:
a) To design the convolution neural architecture for emotion identification.
b) To analyze the emotions to predict the mood of students.
c) To enhance the e-learning environment based on concentration level and feedback.
The study of facial expressions was started date back to early of 4th century BC. By the late 1980, cheap computing power s become available. This led to the development of robust face detection and face tracking algorithms. Then in, 19th century, the important work on facial expression analysis that has a relation to the modern-day science of automatic facial emotion recognition was the work done by Charles Darwin [ 2] In 21st century, various researchers’ study about facial emotions and its applications using artificial intelligence. Similarly, other researches had been carried out in the field of e-learning. This research paper focus on combining both the e-learning and emotion recognition to predict the emotional state of the students in e-learning environment.
This paper 3 explains the effectiveness of e-learning measures, learning outcome and benefit of quality feedback on the effectiveness of e-learning solution. Different e-learning solutions and process are also considered in this paper. In paper 7, the authors describe the scope and applications of e-learning. Also, the author suggests a set of critical success factor and framework for developing e-learning environment. In this research paper 4, the researcher supports the emotional side of learners to raise the awareness and motivation. The importance of facial expression during educational game is also considered in this research with accuracy of 97 percent.
Further, A pilot study is conducted using Machine learning concepts for emotion recognition on E learning community. The emotions are recognized from the speech of a person, textual sentiments given in social media and facial expression during study. The emotions are used to identify like and dislike of the learners [ 12]. The author in this paper 2 , explain the deep learning model to classify the various emotions of the human faces using three convolution layers. The accuracy of the model is 98 percent when working with FER2013 datasets.
Similarly, the researchers in this research paper [ 8], applies the support vector machine and K nearest neighbor algorithm to learn the emotional state based on facial expressions. Researcher proposed the hybrid information system combining computer vision and machine learning technology for visual and interactive e-learning system. The research motivates the educator to concern about the education of the learners by taking the feedback from the information system.
A) System Architecture
System Architecture define the overall procedure and working of the emotion AI learning system. The main blocks in architecture are image preprocessing, feature engineering, concentration level metrics, convolution neural network, classification of emotions and feedback to teacher. From the video of student learning in online classes, the picture frames are collected at different time interval. Facial images are focused. Emotions and concentration level are classified at the final stage.
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Figure: Block diagram of emotion AI learning system
The emotion AI learning system consist of student’s facial image as input. Convolution Neural network is applied to the images using different hidden layers. Training dataset of images are used to train the images. Different concentration level is also measured such as high-level concentration, and low-level concentration. Then, emotions of student are obtained. The emotions may be excitement, happiness, confusion, sadness, desire and surprise. On the basis of these emotions and concentration level, the feedback is collected and provided to the teacher.
2) Input students’ images dataset.
3) Perform Preprocessing of images such as identifying facial key points, enhancement of image and cropping of images.
4) Perform feature engineering such as image segmentation, localization and features development.
5) Collecting Training set of data and testing set of data.
6) Convolution Neural network is trained using training set of data.
7) Measure student level of concentration.
8) Classify mood of student (excitement, happiness, confusion, sadness, desire and surprise) using testing images dataset of students
9) Obtain the feedback from the information collected from emotion and level of concentration.
10) Provide feedback to the teacher.
C) Image Preprocessing
After the image is inputted to the system, the first step in system is preprocessing of images. The face of the student is detected, then facial key points are obtained. Facial key points are also called Facial landmarks which generally specify the areas of the nose, eyes, mouth, etc. on the face, classified by 68 key points, with coordinates (x, y), for that face[ 5]. Image enhancement improve the performance of system. The noises in images are removed in this stage. Then, the image is cropped for the suitable region of image to include as the final input image.