Social, economic and environmental aspects of community development of Gotera Condominium


Akademische Arbeit, 2018

15 Seiten, Note: A


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Contents

1. Background

2. Methodology

3. Data presentation, Analysis and Findings
3.1 Social Aspects
3.2 Economic Aspects
3.3 Environmental Aspects

4. Policy Implication

References

Appendix I

Appendix II

1. Background

Gotera Condominium is one of the oldest condominium sites in Addis Ababa, and it has opened in August, 2009 G.C. This condominium site is located in Kirkos sub city at Woreda 04 and has covered the total area of 13525 square meters. It has 78 blocks that are all G+4 having units range from 23 up to 32, and it also has 6 communal buildings. Those buildings are multi-type occupancy i.e. residential, commercial (shops, mini and super-markets, pharmacies), business, institutional (children day care), assembly (restaurants, bar and tavern) occupancies. The criterion for site selection is its centrality. This means the site is located at almost at the center of Addis Ababa and it has transport access, it is not that much far for us. And the other criterion is familiarity with the site since one of our group member lives there so we can have a better access for the required data.

The rationale behind this project work is that so as to be able to determine the level of socio-economic development at which community residing at Gotera condominium site has reached and what contribution they are making for either the preservation or degradation of the larger environment. Besides, it is to determine and/or assess the contribution of condominium housing strategy on the acceleration of community development in terms of economic, social and environmental aspects.

Therefore, in order to determine the development status of the community development of the community residing at Gotera condominium, I have identified social, economic and environmental indicators that enable me to measure the extent of community development. Social indicators of community development are social capital and social and human services. I have identified engagement of people in local affairs, the extent of people to influence decisions that affect their area and social network and social support as variables of social capital and access to education, access to health services and access to affordable housing as variables of social and human services. Besides, unemployment/employment rate and income inequality are identified as economic indicators with the number of people who cannot find job, the number of people who have permanent job and the number of people who are doing temporary job as well as the highest income level and lowest income level as variables of unemployment rate and income inequality respectively. In addition, waste materials and climate change are identified as environmental indicators, and carbon dioxide emission concentration and greenhouse gases concentration are identified as variables of climate change and the amount of waste generation and waste disposal and management pattern are identified as variables of waste materials.

2. Methodology

To conduct this project data is collected from primary data sources using different data gathering instruments. The primary data sources were the community living in the condominium site (unit owners and those people who rent units) and housing brokers who negotiate unit selling and lease or rent. The data gathering instruments that has been employed to collect primary data from the data sources were questionnaire, interview and observation. The questionnaire was both close ended and open ended, and it has been administered for about 200 units. Besides, interview i.e. semi-structured interview was conducted with 2 housing brokers. The data collected through close ended questionnaire were tabulated and quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistics i.e. percentage whereas data gathered from open-ended questionnaire, interview and unstructured observation are analyzed qualitatively through narrative process.

3. Data presentation, Analysis and Findings

The questionnaire was distributed to 200 households residing in Gotera condominium. Among 200 households to whom the questionnaire was given out 169 households returned the questionnaire responding to the whole items, but 20 households returned the questionnaire with incomplete response and 11 households did not returned the questionnaire at all. The rate of return of the questionnaire is 84.5%. Statistical analysis was made taking the information from those 169 respondents who correctly responded to the questionnaire. Besides, interview has been administered for 2 house brokers.

3.1 Social Aspects

To measure the social development of Gotera condominium I have identified social indicators that I have already expressed in the background part. As indicated item No 1 of table 1 from 169 respondents about 99 respondents (58.6%) stated as they are well-informed about their local affairs and the remaining 70 respondents (41.4%) described as they are not well-informed about their local affairs. With regard to active community participation about 99 (58.6%) of respondents reported that they actively engage in their local community affairs and the reverse is true for about 70 (41.4%) respondents. About 75 (44.4%) respondents described as they feel that they can influence decisions that affect their local area, and the remaining 94 (56.6%) respondents reported as they do not feel as they can influence decisions that affect their local area. 105 (61.3%) participants stated as they have close friends who live nearby and 64 (38.7%) participants responded as they do not have close friends who live nearby. About 104 participants stated as they see or speak their friends at least once a week, and the remaining 65 (38.5%) respondents described as they do not see or speak their friends regularly. Besides, about 77 (45.5%) of respondents explained as they help each other with their neighbors in different scenarios like happiness or sadness, ill in bed or needing to borrow money and the reverse is true for the remaining 127 (54.5%) respondents.

Table 1: Social aspects of community development

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With regard to access to primary as well as secondary and preparatory education 155 (91.7) respondents stated that there are public primary schools nearby their home, and 14 (8.3%) respondents responded as they do not even know as there are primary as well as secondary and preparatory schools nearby their home. About 50 (28.6%) of respondents described as their children learn at public schools, 95 (56.2%) respondents stated as their children learn at private schools. Those respondents whose children are learning in private schools explained that they pay monthly schooling fee ranging from 1250 to 2000 per head.

About access to public health institutions, 153 (90.5%) participants described as there is public health institution nearby their home and the remaining 16 (9.5%) participants responded as they do not know as there is public health institution nearby their home. 100 (59.2%) respondents reported as public health institutions located nearby their home are fully organized with necessary facilities and human resources. On the contrary 50 (31.4) participants refused the full organization of and fulfillment of materials and human resources in public health institutions. From 169 respondents only 49 (29%) respondents reported as they prefer to get medical treatment in public health institutions. 120 (71%) respondents reported as they would rather prefer to be treated in private health care facilities.

Regarding access to affordable housing, from 169 participants only 95 (56.2%) of them are living in their own unit/house. But the remaining 74 (43.8%) of respondents are living in rental house. As expressed by those respondents living in a rent house they pay a monthly housing rental fee ranging from 6000 up to 9000 Birr for variously sized units. Those respondents also explained that the housing cost is too high and it is not actually affordable. But they are living here with this housing cost they do not have choice and they do not want to live in the outskirt of the city.

Those house brokers that I have interviewed stated that the average housing rental fee for studio is about 4,000 ETB, for one bed room unit it is 6,000ETB and for two and three bedroom units the average housing rental fee is 8,000 and 10,000 ETB respectively. And they also explained that the selling price of units depends upon the quality of the house and in average the selling price of a unit with one bed-room, with two bed rooms and with three bed rooms is 1.1, 1.5 and 1.7 million respectively. And if the poor community group want to purchase units/houses in this condominium site this is totally unaffordable.

3.2 Economic Aspects

The data about economic aspects of community development are presented as follow.

Table 2: Economic aspects of community development

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As indicated in the above table out of 169 respondents about 98 (58%) of respondents are employed, 59 (34.9%) and 12 (7.1%) of respondents are self-employed and unemployed respectively. Besides, out of those 98 respondents who are currently employed, 89 (90.8%) of them are permanently employed and the remaining 9 (9.2%) participant are temporarily employed on the basis of contract. With regard to the feeling of job security out of 157 participants who are employed and self-employed about 102 (64.9%) of them fee as they have a job that is secured. On the contrary, 55 (35.1%) of respondents reported as they feel job insecurity.

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Table 3: Income distribution

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Figure 1: Income distribution (source: field survey, April 2018)

About the amount of monthly expenditure and saving pattern 41 respondents reported as they spend all of their income and their expenditure falls between 3,000 and 5,000 ETB per month and those respondents said that they got nothing to save. The other income group who earn monthly income that falls between 5,001 to 10,000 ETB responded as they spend almost all of their income for different purpose such as housing rent, kids schooling fee and other domestic expenses. They also expressed as they save some amount of money but it is not consistent. Some also explained as they save between 500 to 1000 ETB per month. The third and fourth income group reported as they expend their income for different purpose and the expenditure range from 8,000 to 15,000ETB and they save the remaining part of their income which range from 2,000 up to 6,000ETB. Some respondents of these income groups also stated as they spend all off their income without any saving. Even the expenditure pattern shows us as there is a great disparity in the standard of life among the community living in the same village.

3.3 Environmental Aspects

Regarding environmental aspect of community development we have tried to measure it with two indicators i.e. climate change and waste materials. Under each indicator I have identified 2 variables and we collect data accordingly. The data has been presented in the following table.

Table 4: Environmental aspects of community development

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Carbon dioxide gas emission intensity and greenhouse gases concentration have a great effect in climatic change. In residential areas greenhouse gases can be produced from the use of refrigerator and cleaning agents or solvents. For example, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Hydrochloro-fluorocarbons (HCFCs) and Hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) are greenhouse gases emanated from the use of refrigerators for cooling purpose. In the same way carbon tetrachloride is a kind of greenhouse gas that is produced from the use of cleaning agents that we use at home. Similarly, carbon dioxide gas produced from various sources mainly from the use of vehicles. And this in has a great effect on climate change in one way or another. Taking this into consideration I have collected data about how many of households resided at Gotera condominium use refrigerator and how many of them own vehicles.

As indicated in item 1 of table 4 from 169 households living in Gotera condominium all of them reported as they have and use refrigerator, and also all of them reported as they use cleaning agents/solvents for cleaning purposes. This in turn increases the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmospheric air. Besides, from 169 households about 133 (78.7%) of them own vehicle. Besides the questionnaire I have observed the site and I have seen a lot of vehicles in every direction of the parking area and even out of parking areas. This makes me to be sure as most of the residents are car dependents.

They use their vehicle always means they are car-dependent. The respondents also stated that they use their vehicle always, and the rationale behind their car dependency as reported by them is that jobs-housing location imbalance and longer commuting times. Due to this reason they become automobile dependent community. Again, this increases atmospheric carbon dioxide and this has a great environmental effect as well as an enhanced greenhouse effect which will causes global warming.

The manner in which human beings manage waste materials has a lot of direct effects on the physical environment. Unless waste materials get managed in the proper manner, they become hazardous to human beings who generate them and they make the living environment miserable. Taking this into accounts I asked the respondents about their waste generation and management trend. About 88 (52%) of respondents reported as they generate half of a basket waste per day, and the remaining 81 (48%) of the respondents described as they generate 1 basket waste per day. About the way of waste disposal all respondents reported that the waste get collected and removed or transported in every week (once a week) by waste collector.With regard to community cleaning program, we had asked the participants about the existence of regular cleaning program in which the whole condominium community engaged to clean up their surrounding environment, and about 143 (84.6%) respondents reported as they do not have such program and the remaining 26 (25.4%) respondents described as they do not know. The participants described that the whole compound of the condominium get cleaned through the hired janitors. I have also observed the site, and I get it very neat or clean. And this indicates as there is proper waste management system in the site and as the community living in this village pays enough attention for environmental protection. And I took this as a sign of development. The different side of the condominium looks like the following.

When I conclude, my conclusion lays on the three development aspects i.e. social, economic and environmental aspects. When I measure the social aspect of development in terms of social capital and access to social and human services we can say that the community who reside in Gotera condominium have a relatively better civic engagement in local affairs, but in is not at a satisfactory level. Besides, I can conclude that there is a good social support and social network but not better. This makes me to conclude as the social capital of this village is not that much satisfactory even if it is not bad.With regard to access to social and human service they have access to public schools and health care institutions. However, access to housing, which is one of social infrastructure, is so hard for the poor community since both rental cost and selling price are too high as compared to the income of poor community. As I have seen in the analysis part the housing rent range from 4,500 to 10,000 ETB which is completely unthinkable for the urban poor. This high rental fee of housing will leads to the gentrification of the urban poor. Even those people who have their own unit may not live in this site. Instead they will rent it for higher rental fee and they may go to other impoverished area with lowered housing rent. This in turn will create urban injustice through social gentrification.

When I come to the economic aspect of community development our measurements were unemployment rate and income inequality. I have noticed that the majority of our participants have job with the exception of 12 individuals who do not have job. This is an indication of low unemployment rate. When I come to the income measurement the majority of our respondents’ monthly income and even expenditure is less than 5,000 ETB with the exception of 41 households whose income is between 2,000 and 5,000 ETB. But 41 household is not modest or little. So, I can say that income inequality, and the difference can be calculated between 2,000 ETB and more than 15,000 ETB – the disparity is great!

Finally, I measure the environmental aspect of development, and I have noticed that the accumulation of residents at the center of the city creates automobile dependent community since our city is large and those people residing in this village work at various part of Addis which is relatively far from their home. And this automobile dependency is contributing a greater share to environmental degradation through the enhancement of greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere. On the contrary, with regard to waste materials management the community is doing its best to keep its environment neat and livable, and this is astonishing!!!

4. Policy Implication

Access to education services is one of the indicators of social development and providing or expanding education for all is the general objective of Ethiopian Educational Policy. With this regard, the attainment of policy objectives through the provision of education for all including the urban poor seems become true in this part of the city i.e. the area that surround Gotera condominium since the surrounding community has access for primary as well as secondary and preparatory education. With respect to access to affordable housing, the condominium housing program was mainly attempted to the urban poor and idle income earners. The Ethiopian Housing Development Policy and strategy stated as the housing program that is to be facilitated and controlled by the government itself is primarily intended for those community group who earn low and middle income. However, when we see the implementation of the policy it seems as there is a deviation since the larger part of the community living in this condominium is middle and higher income earners whose monthly expenditure is more than 5,000 ETB. This indicates even if the housing policy and strategy attempted to benefit the urban poor, those urban poor are not still the beneficiaries.

The housing policy and strategy attempted to mix different socio-economic group of society so as to enhance the social interaction or social support and network. With this regard the implementation of the policy intention become true to some extent since low income group of society is mixed up with middle and higher income society in this condominium site even if the number of lower income group of society is not as such large.

Moreover, the housing policy and strategy stated as the housing development strategy shall be able to enhance and ensure environmental conservation and the compound of the condominium and communal areas should be kept clean and need to be properly utilized. The implementation of this policy intention becomes true in Gotera Condominium site. The compound is clean and even the community create and utilize green area which serves as a park (small park actually) for the kids, teenagers as well as adults. However, most of the backyards of buildings are not utilized to the expected level. They are clean actually but their cleanliness is not enough by itself. Instead they must get utilized with green plants as well as with toys for the kids.

Furthermore, the housing policy and strategy intended to make the condominium housing strategy an opportunity that enable to build good urban image and make cities competitive through the integration of this housing program with urban renewal program. When I see this condominium site, I can say that the intention of the policy really works since the site is provided with the necessary infrastructure and it is clean green and livable. Before this area is turned out into condominium site, it was full of impoverished houses and unattractive. But now it is really a nice village. So, taking those things in to consideration I can conclude that the housing policy and strategy has positive implication.

But we need to keep in mind the deviation between the intention and implementation of housing policy which specifically deals with housing program that is intended to the urban poor and middle income earners. This is the negative implication of the policy. Because I think that even if the policy intended and designed a housing program for those poor people may be the initial amount of money that is required to be saved by those poor people is still unaffordable. May be that’s why still condominium sites are dominated by middle and high income earners who enjoy a relatively better quality of life in our country standard. Therefore, I believe that this part of the policy needs to be revised and amended to the level that enables the urban poor to be house owner.

References

Federal Democratic Republic Government of Ethiopia. (1994). Education and Training Policy. (1st ed.). Addis Ababa: St George Printing Press.

Ministry of Urban Development and Construction. (2013). Urban Housing Strategy. (1st ed.). Addis Ababa.

Appendix I

Ethiopian Civil Service University

College of Urban Development and Engineering

Department of Urban Management

Questionnaire to be Filled by Households

We are students who are currently studying for a Masters in Urban Management at Ethiopian Civil Service University. We are conducting a project work into community development so as to analyze the existing economic, social and environmental aspects of community development and to determine how far the community living in Gotera condominium site is developed. This questionnaire consists of 31 questions and it will take no longer than 31 minutes to complete. All responses will be kept anonymous and no one will be identified in the project.

Part I – General Information

Please tick the box provided to show your consent to be part of the project .

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Marital Status Single Married Divorced Widowed

Part II - Please tick the box provided for your answer and write your response on the space provided.

Social Aspects

1. Are you well informed about your local affairs? Yes No
2. Do you actively engage in your local community affairs? Yes No
3. Do you feel that you can influence decisions that affect your local area? Yes No
4. Do you have close friends who lives nearby? Yes No
5. Do you see or speak to your friends at least once a week? Yes No
6. Dou you help each other with your neighbors in different scenarios (in both happiness and sorrow time, ill in bed or needing to borrow money)? Yes No
7. Are there public primary schools nearby your home? Yes No I do not know
8. Are there secondary and preparatory schools nearby your home? Yes No
9. Where do your children learn? In public schools In private schools Do not have children
10. If your children learn at private school how much do you pay monthly pear head?
11. Are there public health facilities nearby your home? Yes No I do not know
12. If your answer is “YES”, are they fully organized with the necessary facilities and human resources? Yes No
13. Where do you prefer to be medically treated? In public health facilities In private facilities
14. House/Unit ownership - Live in your own house/unit Live in a rent house/unit
15. If you are living in a rental house how much do you pay monthly?

Economic Aspects

1. Employment Condition - Employed Self-employed Unemployed
2. If you are employed what is your term of employment? Permanent Temporary/Contract
3. Do you feel job security? Yes No
4. What is your monthly income? Less than 2000 ETB 2000-5000ETB 5,000-10,000ETB 10,000-15,000ETB More than 15,000ETB
5. How much do you spend monthly?
6. How much do you save monthly

Environmental Aspects

1. Do you have refrigerator? Yes No
2. Do you use cleaning agents or solvents to for cleaning your home? Yes No
3. Do you have vehicle? Yes No
4. If your answer is “YES” do you use your vehicle always? Yes No
5. If your answer is “YES” why you always use vehicle?
6. How much waste do you generate per day? Half of a basket 1 basket 2 basket
7. How waste materials get disposed and in what interval?
8. Do you have a regular cleaning program in which the whole condominium community engages to clean up your compound including the corridors and staircases of buildings? Yes No
9. If your answer is “NO” how the compound of the condominium site gets cleaned?

Appendix II

Ethiopian Civil Service University

College of Urban Development and Engineering

Department of Urban Management

Interview Question to House brokers

1. What is the housing rent cost for studio, one-bedroom unit, two bed-room unit and three bed-room unit in Gotera condominium?
2. What is the selling price of units having different area?

[...]

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Details

Titel
Social, economic and environmental aspects of community development of Gotera Condominium
Hochschule
Ethiopian Civil Service University  (College of Urban Engineering and Development)
Veranstaltung
HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Note
A
Autor
Jahr
2018
Seiten
15
Katalognummer
V935446
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
social, gotera, condominium
Arbeit zitieren
Emebet Hailemichael Admassu (Autor), 2018, Social, economic and environmental aspects of community development of Gotera Condominium, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/935446

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