CHAPTER 1. THEORY OF CONTROL RESOURCE
1.1 The essence of the categories of resource saving management
1.2 Theoretical aspects of the laws and factors of resource saving management in modern conditions
1.3 Analysis of resource theory and management of resourcesaving
CHAPTER 2. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS CONTROL RESOURCE IN AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION
2.1 Methodological approaches to assessing the characteristics of resource use in agricultural production
2.2 System principles and methods of resource saving management
2.3 Methods for the comparative evaluation of the economic efficiency of consumption and saving resources
CHAPTER 3. ECONOMIC EVALUATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION
3.1 The system of indicators for assessing management effectiveness of resource saving management
3.2 Economic analysis of the efficiency of resource saving management results (at the level of regional agriculture)
3.3 Toolkit cost analysis of resource
Solving complex problems, promote sustainable economic development of the Republic of Belarus is impossible without increasing the efficiency of resource use. As follows from our studies, it was the high resource intensity of domestic production is one of the factors reducing its competitiveness on domestic and foreign markets. These circumstances reflect the urgency of improving the methodological approaches to the study of resource saving management. One of them is a resource-based approach.
Research shows that the sustainable development of agriculture and rural economy, in particular, is provided as by increasing the resource base and by increasing the intensity of use of resources. However, the functioning of agriculture at the present stage requires new approaches to process management using economic resources, based mainly on the concept of resource conservation. The management of resource saving are devoted to a number of foreign and domestic authors. They are actively engaged Ansoff I., V. Leontyev, P. Drucker, Jean-Jacques Lamba, M. Porter, Kotler, K. Bagrinovsky, O. Vikhansky, Glazyev, R. Fatkhutdinov, Yu Yaremenko and others. So, I. Ansoff Resource viewed in the long term within the limits of the theory of strategic management and in terms the formation of an effective strategy for economic organization.
Leontief using his method of interbranch balances investigated the possibility of saving resources by rationalizing the interbranch relations in the national economy. He also justified the use of simulation methods in the management of technological development, giving the key innovations in the mechanism of effective management control P.Druker of resources saving. Kontseptsiya target, among other things, raises issues of resource support of the organization and effective use of resources on the basis of their economies in achieving long-term and short-term purposes.
J.J Lamben and M. Porter are considering resource organization due to its competitive advantages by allocating resources to ensure such. Kotler contributed to the methodology for managing resource conservation, sound management of the marketing approach in the study of reserves to conserve resources at the implementation stage of goods and services.
In the last decade a number of papers published by Russian scientists who consider the problem of resource in the conditions of transitive economy (the transition to a market economy). There are many publications covering these issues from different perspectives (cost management, management accounting, the establishment and development of budgeting systems) in the writings of scholars like P. Bezrukov, N. Wroblewski, A.P Dugelny, V.P Komarov, L.P Ivanova, G.L Kiperman, M.T. Mkrtchyan S. Nikolaev, N.V Pavlov, A.Y Sokolov, S.A Knocks, A.D Sheremet and others.
For example, the O.S Vikhansky developed an approach to the consideration of resource management from the standpoint of the most effective use of the organization, primarily human potential for successful survival in a rapidly changing environment.
Glazyev contributed to the development and popularization of the idea of natural rent, which develops the theory of resource saving management in ecological and economic terms. Y. Yaremenko developed the original concept of the quality of the economic structure that is used to study the structural and investment policies affecting financial savings.
P.P Bezrukikh investigated the problems of energy saving and economically feasible the use of alternative energy sources. N. and S. Wroblewski Stukov consider issues from the perspective of resource accounting and cost management in conditions of limited material, labor and financial resources.
Research of A.P Dugelny, V.P Komarov affect especially the use of resource-saving logistics management concepts. L.P Ivanova developed a basic theory of resource-saving production processes.
G.L Kiperman and M.T. Mkrtchyan investigated the effects of competition in the effectiveness of resource saving management in transition economies. S.A Nikolaev an approach to the justification of factors and identify resource reserves.
N.V Pavlov considered the problem of human impact in the process of resource management. I. Sokolov analyzed growth factor production scale in terms of its impact on the economy of resources. P. Sheremet has expanded the methodological apparatus of analysis of efficiency of use of economic resources. In the 70-80s of the last century the most important works on the efficient use of material, fuel and energy resources is a research: P.G Bunich, L.B Breslov, L.L Zusman, G.Y Kiperman, G.A Krayukhina and others. In the framework of improving the economic mechanism they considered problems of material incentives for resource conservation. In the 90 years of questions efficiency of logistical and other resources are reflected in the works of V.M Andrianov, A.A Arbatov, G.L Basheva, Y.M Ipatov and others.
Thus, V.M Andrianov studied the direction of regulating the distribution of resources in the market conditions and its impact on the economic efficiency of resource use. A.A Arbatov was engaged in tasks efficient use of natural resources at the national level. G.L Bashev review the effectiveness of the resources under the influence of energy-saving innovations. Y.M Ipatov in improving the efficiency of the national economy gave important resources such as knowledge, information.
Resource issues are also involved in the Belarusian scientists: L. S.Gerasimovich, V.G Gusakov, V.F Medvedev, A.M Kagan, M.I Cold, M. E Zheludkevich, S.A.Konstantinov and others. It is characteristic that led V.G.Gusakov and L.S.Gerasimovich Belarus was first developed by the scientific and methodological basis of the National Programme for the Development of local and renewable energy in 2011-2015. V.G.Gusakov laid the scientific and methodological basis for efficient use of economic resources in agricultural production in the conditions of the Belarusian model of agrarian economy. V.F Medvedev, N.I Cold, M.E Zheludkevich developed economic toolkit resource of the national economy. A.M.Kagan justified the use of transfer prices for resources as a management tool in a resource-saving implementation of commercial calculation in the agricultural sector. S.A Konstantinov proposed a theory of resource efficiency in agricultural production for transition economies.
However, analysis of the different sources on resource shows that many questions still remain unexplored or under development. Moreover, the transition to innovative development of the national economy have changed the approach to the management of resource conservation - from administrative methods of setting targets to conserve resources to economic methods of reducing the cost of resources on the basis of innovation. The rationality of resource use, resource conservation were the main conditions for economic growth in the industry of the region and the company. This necessitates the study of such issues as: the mechanism and criteria for resource in terms of innovative economic development, methodology and technique of measuring the efficiency of the use of material resources, resource saving management mechanism, the prediction of resource consumption of agricultural products. It should be noted that the scientific and methodological basis of resource saving management in the agricultural production of the republic are now extremely scarce. This confirms the lack of new fundamental publications and teaching materials on the subject. As a result, the economic literature there is no single definition of "resource saving management." The criteria for the effectiveness of the organizational and economic mechanism for resource conservation, as shown by studies performed by us should be - providing the maximum amount of resource (with an increase in the level of socioeconomic development of the region), the potential profitability of agriculture, improving the ecological environment. To increase its production requires restructuring based on new technologies and materials (much superior to their technical and economic parameters exist). The objectives of effective, innovative performance and sustainability of the enterprise in the long term can be solved by reducing the mismatch condition levels of resource potential of innovation and technology and social needs of society. More efficient use of material resources, as shown by studies carried out by us, cover the following aspects of the agrarian economy:
1. The structure of costs of production and sales in many sectors of agro-industrial complex are dominated by material costs. So, saving material resources - a major source of cost optimization.
2. Factors of competitiveness of agricultural products, which in today's consumer demand for food associated with the problem of food safety for human health. Therefore, the priority issues of agricultural production - a resource-saving and environmental protection.
3. Payback material resources should serve as a basis for the initial increase in the volume of products under the same amount of material costs.
As follows from the results of research carried out by us, the strategic goal of socio-economic policy in the long term is a new quality of economic development - both in composition and orientation of growth factors and the dynamics of its outcomes. This requires konkretizitsii essence and meaning resource. From our analysis it follows that the concept of "Resource" is a symbiosis of ideas to save resources, conservation programs, resources efficiency. The relevance of the chosen direction of research is determined by the objective necessity of solving major economic problems of establishing a coherent theory and methodology of management of resources and ensure agro-industrial enterprises in the optimum amount of material resources. A significant role in the solution of this problem - increase production efficiency based on innovation development - it belongs to resource conservation, improve the provision of material resources, their rational use, further strengthening the regime of economy in all sectors of agriculture. Main issues of our research includes the development of principles, methods and procedures for resource saving management based on research and the identification of new patterns of functioning of the regional agriculture. The solution of theoretical problems affecting the practical aspects of resource saving management: development of methods of economic evaluation of resource efficiency and resource audit, the formation of an economic model resource at the level of the region and others. The essence of the proposed economic model of resource saving management in the agricultural production of the economic region is that, unlike previously proposed models, aimed at achieving a gross measure, this development has its own idiosyncrasies. They concluded that it was the first volume of production tied to the optimal rate of consumption of economic resources, which ensures not only the implementation of Gross due to the parameters of food security, but also to achieve the required level of social, ecological and economic efficiency of agricultural production. Economic and functional model will act as the basis for planning and forecasting redundant system management mechanism resource conservation in agricultural production at the level of regional agriculture and business entity. This system, in turn, combines motivation, organization, monitoring, accounting, analysis, monitoring into a single mechanism. The main elements of the mechanism of resource saving management will intraeconomic commercial calculation, a unified information system of resource potential, the technique of bonuses for the achievement of target parameters of resources and others.
CHAPTER 1 THEORY OF CONTROL RESOURCE
1.1 The essence of the categories of resource saving management
The problem arises resource saving management on the one hand because of the relatively limited resources, on the other hand - reducing their effectiveness as a result of the law of diminishing returns. A study of the theory of resource saving management in the context of the essential aspects of its proposed start with the definition and improvement of the categories of "resources", "Resource", "resource saving management" and establish the nature of the logical relationship between these basic concepts. The problem arises resource saving management is particularly acute when a significant proportion of the public sector in the economy for the efficient allocation of budgetary funds. Consequently, it has macroeconomic nature. But for the business entity named above problem also occurs because the success of its business depends on effective management of resources and their rational economy. According to the theory P.Samuelsona focused on the development of the resource base, economic growth depends on the availability of production resources and the demand for manufactured goods. Cost resource is derived from the value of the final product, and the demand for resources - a derived demand [149, p.259-265]. Therefore, in our studies of resource focuses on the factors affecting final demand: income, distribution and consumer preferences, terms of trade, production, types of market. These factors are not constant, resulting in variability of relative competitive advantages in the production of goods [4-A, p.64-67; 5-A, p.60-64; 7-A, p.20; 12-A, p.810]. As additional factors of production and R.Solou Dzh.Stiglits identified scientific and technological progress and information [158, p.15]. We found that all of the additional factors of production in common is that they manifest themselves through the use of classical factors (land, labor, capital, entrepreneurial ability), but the effectiveness of the various systems in the context of typological resource saving management [2-A, p.37-43]. In today's economic environment, in which there is Belarus, has become urgent question about saving and rational use of resources. In the course of the statistical analysis, we found that in the past decade, saving resources at the enterprises of the agro-industrial complex is particularly acute. Despite the reduction in materials consumption in the organizations of agriculture and forestry in 2014 by 0.4% compared to the level of 2010, it is 0,68-0,69 of cost, and in the food industry 0.8. This explains the need for the modernization of agricultural production on the basis of resource-saving technologies [96-A, p.246-247; 107-A, p.39-42]. Hence, the Resource can be characterized by a set of measures for the economical and efficient use of all the factors, a common property which is a potential possibility of their participation in the production (inputs) and consumption (consumer resources). It involves the use of all kinds of resources to meet the challenges of social and economic development. Because many resources are limited and rare, the role of resource increases, which includes not only the factors of production, but also products. Therefore there is a need to supplement the provisions of the theory of resource management.
On the basis of scientific developments of domestic and foreign scientists, we have developed the basic principles of optimization of resource saving management in agricultural production [16-A; 52-A, p.2831; 60-A, p.31-35; 70-A, p.64-67]: Optimization resourcing, which is based on the diversification of the supply of material resources and the flow of funds, as well as efficient logistics in these areas; Separation of functions of state regulation and management of agro-industrial organizations in the management of resource conservation; Utilization of the potential selfsustained economic trends proportions of resource and resource-based indicative planning; Establishment of optimum standards Cost resources in volume and value dimensions to this economic situation and, ceteris paribus; Increasing resource productivity through intensification of their use and implementation of innovative technologies in agricultural production; The importance of a comprehensive review of all resources and all stages of the formation of the value of goods and services in the production of final products of agricultural production; Adaptive control system to changes in resource saving factors external and internal environment on the basis of strategic and tactical planning of resourcesaving measures; Improving the liquidity of the financial resources in the management of resource conservation; Innovative resource-saving measures, which is based on the latest technology advances the science and practice of agricultural production; Prioritize the demand for the goods or services of agro-industrial organizations in the various markets in determining the direction of development of resource-saving system of agriculture organizations.
Establishing the essence of each of these principles indicates that they should not be used alone or in a hierarchy, and integrated in the management of resource conservation in agricultural production. Features of the application of the principles developed can be different depending on the orientation of the process under the influence of factors of resource saving management, among which are the overall typical of most control systems, and specific, reflecting differences of resource saving management of other types of systems. In the course of our assessment of the factors we proposed a permanent monitoring of their conduct, including any influence to increase or decrease the consumption involved in the agricultural production of basic resources: land; labor; material; energy; financial; other. Consideration of specific agro-resources organization that provides it a competitive advantage, among which we have identified product quality, recognizable brand, the unique abilities of the employees of the enterprise (organization) [35-A, p.5-6; 42-A, p.51-55; 61-A, p.14-19; 62-A, p.48-51]. For organizations that have or forming a competitive advantage, the general rule is to determine the optimum ratios resource costs arising from the calculation of the impact of resources and indicators of resource intensity. The market conditions needed to ensure the economic sustainability of agriculture companies exposed to the external competitive environment. For the national agricultural production, according to our observations and calculations, it is manifested in the sphere of foreign economic activity of agriculture. Enterprises engaged in agro-industry at all stages of the formation of the value of goods and services have to control the level of costs to maintain their competitive position [59-A, p.17-19; 75- A, p.61-63; 84-A, p.38-39]. Since we are talking about economic studies, the category of "resources" is considered by us in the economic sense, as 'economic resources'. According to the encyclopedic sources [21, s.464] Dictionary of Economics [117, p.757; 25, p.617] and the work of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, JB Say, J. Fischer, R. Coase, Wassily Leontief, M. Porter on this subject category "resources" is defined as follows (Table I. 1). It follows that so far has not developed a clear definition of the term "resources" in terms of savings, despite the extensive coverage of the category of representatives of different economic schools. In the context of the French school of economic resources (ressource) means "aids", ie sources for the production factors used in the production of economic goods. One of the theory of J.B. Say it considered the relationship and interdependence of labor, capital and land as the main factors of social production. In this connection it should be noted that the contrast factor set J. B. Say and A. Marshall, the economic resources that represent economic potential of the resources and factors of production - these are the resources that are already involved in the production process [104, p.299].
Further continuation of studies on the relationship of resources was a mathematical model of general economic equilibrium L. Walras, which reflects the relationship of the finished product markets and factor markets under the market mechanism of management with perfect competition, leading to a single equilibrium sets markets. However, it should be noted that in the model the use of resources (inputs) L. Walras occur simplify the real state of the market economy, which are expressed in a predetermined function of marginal utility. This means the set initial amount of goods and services sold on the market, as well as the assumption of identical costs, ie, their constant returns and price changes directly depend on the excess of demand over supply and others [12, pp.21-35].
Table 1.1 Overview of the basic theoretical definitions of the category "Resources"
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: Compiled by the author based on the analytical review [4, 5, 7, 12, 15, 17, 30, 35, 45-52, 55, 84, 87, 88, 91, 106, 110, 112, 115, 128, 134, 142, 146, 148, 151, 153, 160, 161, 167, 178, 208, 216].
For methodology J.S.Mill characterized by the fact that he considers the problem in terms of the objective of economic relations, recognizes the natural character of economic laws and upholds the laws of free competition, supply and demand, wages, free trade [153, pp.24-25].
Economic resources for their role in the production process serve as fixed assets, intangible assets and other property of the owner. I.A.Blank and other supporters of these views define assets as economic resources, and the latest addition to the natural, human resources, business skills and knowledge, capital include cash and in-kind (means of production) forms [15,17,30,88,115,184].
At the same time, as a result of research carried out by us revealed that opposes laws J.S.Mill production distribution laws. The laws of production, in its opinion, are unchanged, given the technical conditions and have the character of "inherent natural sciences." There is nothing that depends on faith. Laws of distribution of controls "human instinct", so the rules of wealth distribution depends on the willingness of the ruling of the society and different at different times. In this connection, signs J.S Mill, these laws explain the distribution of property through the division of revenues between the three main classes of society. On the basis of this methodological approach J.S.Mill develops recommendations for social reform of society.
However, this view has some contradictions. So, to economic resources can be attributed only tools used in the manufacturing process, but in the balance sheet often contains and cost value of property companies, referring to the non-manufacturing sector, the use of which is not accompanied by productivity and profitability, in some cases, able to influence the final results of production.
In analyzing the definition of the category "resources" (see. Table 1.1), we identified relevant studies of the concepts of classical approaches of the works of Adam Smith 142, David Ricardo 134 Karl Marx and 95. The disadvantage of such a determination, according to the analysis of the work performed by us, is the identification of resources and factors of production and examination of the manufacturing process in the context of the triad: land, labor and capital, which diminishes the value of knowledge, information and technology with priority in the modern economy.
Based on the study of theoretical sources, we can conclude that the term "resources" and "rent" is interconnected and put into scientific circulation since mid-VIII c. But the classic triad of "land, labor and capital" is now transformed into a complex combination of tangible and intangible resources.
Our own abstract logical analysis it possible to distinguish two heterogeneous source of rent of the resource group [69-A, pp.78-82]:
resources generate rents D.Ricardo, who proved the fallacy of the theory of the Physiocrats of natural origin of rent and labor due to its origins, eventually counting her dress for a factor of production, according to our calculations the level among the different agro-organizations explained different elasticity factors; Entrepreneurship and innovation, forming J. Schumpeter rents, as a result of entrepreneurial risk premium innovator in uncertain and complex environment, especially in intensive technology sectors.
According P.Druker considering the theory of Jean-Batiste Say, the owner transfers economic resources from the area of lower to higher productivity and greater efficiency. Equally, everything that increases the potential impact of existing resources is an innovation [61, P.56].
Thus, in the course of the analysis of sources we found such an economic phenomenon as the allocation of entrepreneurial activity (redistribution) of economic resources, which is one of the sources of business income in the efficiency of the process. Completed our studies have shown that the category of resources should be further examined in terms of the institutional approach. Its essence is not to be limited to the analysis of economic categories and processes in its pure form, and include in the analysis of institutions, non-economic factors to take into account the use of economic resources. As reasons for the formation, operation and development of economic institutions that affect the accumulation and distribution of economic resources. It is important to consider the following elements of their [76-A, pp.27-33]: the quantitative characteristics of resources that define their volume and rate of increase; quality - reflect the potential ability of each unit of resources to meet the demand for them.
Application of the institutional approach to the concept of resource enables us to formulate the following provisions:
1. Enterprises may adopt unsustainable resource solutions in an unfavorable institutional environment. Thus, the lack of (asymmetric) information relative underdevelopment of market institutions or monopolistic forces companies to look for signals of market distortion which leads to irrational decisions on the use of resources.
2. Resource investment is not always optimal and productive. Unfavorable institutional environment of a market economy or monopoly enterprise is a factor in the flow of resources for going counter to the economic interests of the manufacturer or market requirements.
3. An important condition of productivity of resource investments is their compliance with the organizational culture. Organizational culture along with other factors ensures the adaptation of enterprises to the economic environment that contributes to the productivity of resource investments.
4. Businesses can deliberately refuse to copy resources in connection with the state of the institutional environment that does not encourage the achievement of competitive advantage through resource advantages copy competitors.
5. Social factors affecting the company, lead to a leveling, reduce the potential level of the sustainability of their production. Thus, the need to maintain a high level of wages and employment in the organization under the influence of the trade union, as a public institution, affects the ability to reduce costs, thereby reducing the potential level of sustainability of production.
The novelty of these provisions is that, in contrast to the traditional view of interdependence and the growth rate of income growth of resource under the constraints of the law of diminishing returns and resource analysis, resource investment proposed to take into account the institutional environment of the enterprise and organizational culture in terms of innovative development path.
Consequently, the influence of the institutional environment for the use of resources, gives a sense of technology in the functioning and development of the economic organization. So, if the technology is presented in a neo-classical resources, along with labor, capital, land, etc., for the followers of the institutional approach is not a resource until the relevant technology. In other words, the technology has the status of a kind of "creator" of resources or factors that can turn anything into a resource [109, pp.110-124].
Thus, the term "resources" in economic theory and practice is the least certain, because of its diverse. In practice, the economic entity operates in a variety of roles: on the one hand, as the owner of the factors of production; on the other - an entrepreneur, manager and worker. From the standpoint of economic theory, there is a specific understanding of life from the standpoint of cost, but so far not implemented the synthetic function of the system connection of the category of "economic resources" in the system of economic relations and in the management system. Based on the theoretical analysis, we propose to determine the economic resources as an open concept, ie their volume and set of resources aspects of the study can be regarded as finally established. The concept of "economic resources" need to be modified to clarify and redefine the framework set up in the core features or content of the concept (see. Table 1.1). The structure of this set of attributes we have included: aids, sources, tangible, intangible and specific assets and others. These attributes in any version of the definition of economic resources are inherent in the concept of the foregoing. To define the concept of "resources", and invariant positions of economic theory and in terms of management theory, should identify a common core (logical proximity) known theoretical concepts.
In economic theory, the basic role played by categories such as needs and useful products (and services), costs and income, a stable operation of the market (economic equilibrium, market dynamics, macroeconomic equilibrium of the economic system). For management is characterized by the problems affecting economic decisions. Objects, which are associated with economic, organizational and other alternatives to determine the choice of the use of economic resources, are generating a product of the enterprise entity, and it's per se as they play the role of resources. We found that the resources should be considered as the elements of production and economic environment that affect the possibility of an economic choice. Source or creates these opportunities, or acts as such. The advantage of this definition is to consider the category of "economic resources" not only in the theoretical and economic terms, but also in the practical aspect of resource management as a basis for management decisions in the area of resource conservation.
The essence of the resource saving management. Research categories of economic resources revealed the property of their different potential in the agricultural production process. The traditional, well-known feature of economic resources is also their limitations. According to our observations, in contrast to the conventional approach of general limitations of the basic resources involved in the production of its main factors (labor and capital), the limited resources of individual species varies in relation to the current economic situation in the management of resource saving.
For example, the water resources in the Republic of Belarus have fewer restrictions than in Israel. When given at the limited resources, the problem of resource saving management comes under pressure from the institutional environment. The increased competition between economic entities of their activity involves monitoring the market situation in order to manage all the components of the processes of production and sales of products.
Production of the process of wealth creation necessary to meet various needs, is provided on the basis of a combination of different factors of production. According to the results of our analysis of information about the market situation and information on the possibilities for the development of enterprise market is for production starting points that define the object of production, its design and technological features, competitive, price, and other characteristics. Together, these data allow to predict the extent and type of production efficiency of the reproduction process, which depends on the amount of resources consumed for each of its phases.
Thus, considering the above, in relation to the current situation in the national economy should be said that it determines not only the feasibility of, and the need to promote the economic model for resource-saving type of reproduction, which requires more efficient use of any and all kinds of resources: material, energy, techno -technological, financial, information, labor, intellectual. It should be emphasized that the term "resource conservation" is interpreted V.S. Gevorgyan, N.A. Kushnirovich, A.A. Golub, P.M. Nesterov, usually in two dimensions (Table 1.2).
The data in Table 1.2 that the first approach developing such modern scholars as V.S. Gevorkyan, N.A.Kushnirovich, G.M.Pokaraev, M.E.Zheludkevich and other scientists. It boils down to the definition of resource saving management vforme the value creation process of final goods and services with an optimal rationing of basic economic resources in agricultural production and a minimum load on the natural environment [36, 48, 64, 90,116,124].
In the implementation of the test process, a special role for its environmental aspects, which seeks to ensure a necessary minimum intake of natural (natural) resources. Most researchers (N.F. Reimers, A.G. Ayrapetova 29, V.G. Gusakov 45 A.M. Kagan [69, 70]) is not limited to the study of the management of resource conservation in manufacturing. They propose to consider the continuation of this process in the field of food consumption and other products of agricultural production and produce the special role of the energy components of the structure of consumption of resources as the main regulator of the environment.
In the implementation of the test process, a special role for its environmental aspects, which seeks to ensure a necessary minimum intake of natural (natural) resources. Most researchers (Reimers N.F., Ayrapetova A.G. 29, Gusakov V.G. 45 Kagan A.M. [69, 70]) is not limited to the study of the management of resource conservation in manufacturing. They propose to consider the continuation of this process in the field of food consumption and other products of agricultural production and produce the special role of the energy components of the structure of consumption of resources as the main regulator of the environment.
Table 1.2 Overview of definitions of the category "resource economy"
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: Compiled by the author based on the analytical review [20, 29, 36, 4043, 64].
Analyzing this approach, it is noted that it does not capture all aspects of the use of resources, since in some cases may increase the resource consumption, particularly in the form of financial investment. So, when the company's growth strategy to increase resource consumption at all stages of the production cycle, which is reduced by a change in the strategy to reduce production.
The second meaning of the term "resource conservation" as the object of control, is represented in the works of scientists: S.N.Bobylev, Yu.I.Bystrakov, S.Pileev, I.N.Golub, P.M.Nesterov et al. Which define it in the form of object-saving, often resource consumption [20, 29, 40-43, 114, 123].
This definition affects only one type of resource - natural. It does not apply to other types of resources. In the formation of the theoretical concept of resource saving management are encouraged to use all available approaches to the nature of this process, functions and system events, taking over one of the management goals to conserve resources.
The terminological dictionary A.N. Rodnikova economy of material resources is defined as a set of indicators of efficiency, quantifiable level and degree of resource consumption, as well as the fight against production losses. Research shows that saving resources for products and services in modern conditions is achieved through the use of progressive norms of consumption, introduction of energy saving technologies, the use of new types of material resources, efficient logistics [136, P.3].
We have considered the problem of classification of resources, taking into account the approaches K. Hofer, E. Schindel, Amit R., P. Schumacher, J. Barney R. Grant. So, Grant R. expanded five-element typology resources K. Hofer and David Schindel (1978), adding to it the sixth element - intangible resources (reputation, brand recognition, goodwill). According to George. Barney (1991), the company's resources include its assets, capabilities, business processes, attributes, brands, information, knowledge, controlled by the company to implement strategies [69-A, pp.78-82].
It is known that the classification of the resources R. Grant (1991) takes into account the financial, physical, human, technological, organizational (quality control system, corporate culture) and reputation. According to the classification of resources and Amit R. P. Schumacher (1993): it is embedded in the organization of managerial competence rather than the availability of valuable physical and intangible resources is a determining condition of competitive advantages [187, 193 and 217].
Our analysis shows that the distinguishing feature is the classification of the organizational nature - ordered internally coordinated interaction and improvement of resources within the organization, the growth of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of their potential.
The disadvantage of classifications R. Grant, K. Hofer, D. Shindell, R. Amit and others identified in the course of our theoretical study is the lack of a universal representation of the basic concepts (resources, resource management). The concept of dynamic capabilities V.S. Katkalo (2002), the basic concepts of the resource concept the following expression 73:
Factors of production - they are treated as undifferentiated resources available on the market (land, unskilled labor, capital, and so on.); Specific resources - especially for the enterprise assets that provide a competitive edge and can be imitated by other companies (trade secrets, special production facilities, engineering expertise); Organizational routines (competence) - distinctive in-house operations are possible by combining specialized assets in clusters (quality management, miniaturization, system integration); Core competencies - a competency defining the core business of the enterprise.
With regard to the management of resource-saving concept of dynamic capabilities complemented clarifies the provisions, the novelty of which is expressed as follows [56-A, pp.82-86]:
First, the emphasis on resource entrepreneurial abilities (recognition of new business opportunities and the extraction of economic benefits) accurately captures the main trend of our era to the constant updating of knowledge.
In contrast to the approach G. Hamel (the formation of core competence, ie the ability of the company's management to effectively use the economic resources), the concept interprets successful strategies not as a revolution, but rather as a guide (proactive) evolution, which means that taking into account the importance of effective use of the accumulated assets of the focus is on maximizing the new values.
Second, the special potential of our proposed interpretation of the concept of dynamic capabilities in explaining and predicting success and failure in the distribution of resources and the management of resourcesaving, due to the unique combination of its methodology.
Third, the concept reveals a new mechanism of competitive advantages, which is characteristic for the innovation economy - based not only on existing enterprise key strategic assets (resources), but, above all, their ability to derive economic benefit from the knowledge as assets.
This eliminates the traditional hard opposition of market factors and internal organizational structure, and stresses the importance of a combination of internal and external competence, which includes the analysis of mixed forms of market and public institutions in the publicprivate partnership.
The essence of our proposed improvement of the system of categories ("resources", "Economy of resources", "Management Resource") is in the relationship and interdependence of these concepts through interdisciplinary their definition, which confirms the dependence of the growth in production the availability and efficient use of key resources, and the effectiveness of management resource saving [50-A, pp.9-12; 57-A, pp.5-8].
Our studies show that the efficiency of resource use associated with their relatively limited, which is a consequence of the heterogeneity of the resource potential of economic entities, the differences in competences and relative mobility [46-A, P.44,45,90,92,93,98] .
Therefore, one of the growth factors of stability of socio-economic development of agro-industrial companies is a resource-type of agricultural production. Depending on the areas of economy, production resources we propose to highlight the variety of types of resource-saving production [72- A, pp.129-135].
The novelty of the approach we have developed a model of economic dependence of the index of growth of production, which varies with the index of the cost of resources (Figure 1.1), allowed to identify the main types of resource saving management:
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 1.1 - The economic model of resource saving management types
1) Compiled by the author on research [72-A, pp.129-135].
2) Areas of resource saving management:
0 - uncontrollable parameters of resource economics; 1 - management of extensive economic development resource; 2 - inefficient production cuts in the growth of resource costs; 3 - an effective reduction in production with an increase in resource costs; 4 - Management of economic development resource; 5 - resource intensive development of the economy.
3) Types of resource economics (graphics): I - traditional (extensive) type of economic development; II - the type of sustainable economic growth; III - an innovative type of development.
4) LminQ - minimum limit (limit) the beginning of growth of production volumes; LminQ - minimum limit rising costs of resources.
The figure 1.1 should be the main conclusion that the innovative type of economy requires its intensive development based on productivity growth and use of modern methods of resource saving management, which are organized by us in Table 1.3 in relation to the system of indicators characterizing the economy of resource. The novelty of the revealed laws that based on the economic model we have done rationale for the selection of conditions for economic growth, depending on the resource strategy and tactical problems of resource management.
Table 1.3 Analysis of definitions and metrics management resource saving
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Source: Compiled by the author based on the analytical review [8, 9, 34, 51, 65, 70, 83, 126 and 127].
From our analysis of definitions and metrics shown in Table 1.3, it can be concluded that for effective intensification of agricultural production in the market economy needed restructuring of the economic mechanism based on the concept of resource. The current stage of intensification provides a steady transition to an innovative path of development that combines a systematic approach to problem solving. The effectiveness of the industry in a market economy is significantly increased due to the organization of production on the principles of resource conservation, and the efficient use of resources can be achieved, if the resource is estimated from the position of the entire process chain of production [71-A, pp.46-50; 74-A, pp.75-78].
Do not deal with resource saving for the economy, since the identification of the limiting factors only allows them to make up, not be made to work effectively other resources. The data in Table 1.3 that the management of resource-saving - an innovative concept, various definitions which in modern economics offered R.A. Fatkhutdinov, V.G. Gusakov, I.L. Vorotnikov and al [34,160,161].
For example, R.A. Fatkhutdinov defines this concept through the formation of its strategy. Beneath it he understands the principles of the system of interaction, factors, methods, measures to ensure the reduction of the material at the level of individual organizations, enterprises and ultimately at the level of the national economy [33, c.386].
However, the management of resource conservation is not only strategic but also the tactical aspects. Moreover, resource saving management strategy is closely linked to the scientific organization of work processes and is the basis of the strategy resource.
V.G. Gusakov Resource defines as saving material resources in the production: reduction of losses of materials and labor in the production process; increasing the yield of the final product from the raw material, the maximum secondary resources in production; reduction of material production through the use of advanced technology and equipment, and others. [45, P.388]. From the same position and considers the resource- A.M. Checheta, who in his work focuses on the integration and analysis of material resources 174.
Saving of material resources is important in the resource-saving process, but it also affects the economies of all other resources. In general, any saving of resources amounts to a saving of time for the manufacture of goods and services that, in turn, is connected with the growth of labor productivity, the main factors of influence which is the process of innovation, new technologies and the formation of an effective mechanism to motivate employees, under the present conditions of the institutional environment [51-A, pp.24-25].
So, V.V. Leontyev examines production, consisting of a number of individual processes taking place both in parallel and at different levels. According to him, for all of the production process, there are some ideal proportions, which must be connected to all the factors of production, thus ensuring the conservation of resources through concentration and differentiation [91 pp.250-256].
According to our research, the ideal proportions of a combination of factors of production in the market conditions will be continuously violated under the influence of the institutional environment, the factors of supply and demand for resources. This follows from the equilibrium level of volatility of market prices. Their dynamics are carried out within the established markets of the corridor between the maximum and minimum price [4-A, pp.64-67; 33-A, pp.17-23].
In addition, the proportion of the resource directly influenced by scientific and technological progress. Therefore, I.L. Vorotnikov and E.A. Kotelnikova running resource saving understand the process of implementation of scientific and technological progress in achieving environmental, social and economic effects caused by organizational and economic, technical, technological, regulatory, socio-economic and innovative components 34.
Critically analyzing the set definitions should be noted that the innovation process involves not only the impact on the rate of consumption of resources on the part of the subject of management, but also changes the institutional environment of the economy as a whole, adapting it to the innovative type of development. The institutional environment in the future affect the level of consumption and savings of economic resources in a market environment that gives rise to the problem of building an effective management mechanism.
A.M. Kagan for solving this problem has developed scientific approaches to suitable resource conservation in terms of commercial calculation and management of resources savings, the basis of which - the formation of the consolidated standards of material costs and transfer pricing [69, pp.30-42].
Pricing, including transfer, according to our analysis, is just one of the levers of resource saving management [79-A, pp.23-27; 92-A, pp.116121].
Therefore, it is necessary in the formulation of the concept of "resource saving management" touch and other forms of influence on the economy of resources, as well as criteria for evaluating the efficiency of resource use. For example, S.A. Konstantinov recommends considering the criterion of resource efficiency as "maximizing profits per unit of agricultural land at minimum cost." Wastage of resources, according to him, is that the costs are not reimbursed to income and losses arise from the enterprise [83, P.70].
Thus, theoretical analysis allowed the following conclusions:
1. Management of resource conservation as an economic category, defined by us in the following aspects:
a) The theoretical, as the process of this dynamic relation resource costs, investment and created on the basis of their use of the product, which provides proactive cost growth of gross added value in relation to the intermediate consumption that serves a guarantee of macroeconomic equilibrium;
b) In practice, as the implementation of a set of activities carried out in specific production conditions and within a certain period of economic activity, as well as the institutional environment.
The novelty of this concept is that in contrast to the traditional, there is embedded a different meaning in terms of approaches, methods and tools within the allocated resource-contact type of organization. The practical significance is the ability to study a system of similar concepts, customized to the existing economic situation, the functioning of the subject resource.
2. The economic model types of resource saving management, the essence of which is in the definition of us as a determinant of growth in the value of the indices of the final product and the cost of resources. While various combinations of resources identified the following types of resource economy: traditional (extensive); intensive; innovative.
On the criterion of the efficiency of resource saving management organization highlighted areas of this process: uncontrolled economy; ineffective and effective reduction of production costs with an increase in the resource; Management of development and intensive development of the use of resources.
The novelty of the concept in the separation of the management of resource conservation into homogeneous sub-within which require different approaches to the planning of resource consumption, their use, setting boundaries economy and the implementation of other management functions.
The practical significance lies in the use of the proposed theoretical approaches to improve the regulatory framework of resource use in agricultural production, which is adapted to the specific type of economy we have dedicated resources and conservation management areas of influence.
1.2 Theoretical aspects of the laws and factors of resource saving management in modern conditions
The need to study the manifestations of economic laws and regularities in the management of resource saving is due to the new trends in the use of productive resources in the national economy. For their study were calculated with the use of common assets-economic model of the relationship, return on assets and number of employees in the national economy. For the analysis used data from official statistics of the Republic of Belarus for 1992-2013 years. [3-A, pp.40-46; 8-A, pp.35-37; 97-A, pp.208-211]. As the assessment of the effectiveness of the use of production resources at the level of our national economy an improved measure the relationship of social productivity, employment patterns and resource use [63-A, pp.140-141]:
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Where GDP - gross domestic product, mln. doll USA;
Ci - the average annual value of fixed assets per employee, mln. / Pers .;
Co - the gross domestic product of the past period, in relation to the value of fixed assets at the beginning of the analyzed period, rub / rub;
L - Average number of employees in the national economy (cost of the employed population) people.
Cs - coefficient of growth in labor productivity due to changes in the proportions of consumption of individual production resources (structural changes in labor and capital).
The novelty factor of the proposed model is to offer us a growth rate of labor productivity by changing the proportions of resource. The calculations show that the gross domestic product growth of 66.7% during the devaluation of the Belarusian ruble in 2010-2011. It was due to the growth of capital-(4 bln. dollars.), and its decline in capital productivity and due to the number of employees in the economy (28 bln. dollars.). We found a similar trend in the use of resources to obtain the gross value added of agriculture. The proportions in the use of basic resources (land, labor and capital), act as a factor of production in agriculture in recent years have changed the direction of the development of capital-intensive agricultural production. At the same return on assets and return on investment in the national economy decreased: from 2.8% growth in gross domestic product in 1992-1993. 2.5 to 1% growth of investments at the beginning of 2012. This affects the consumption patterns of processes and economies of productive resources in the national economy and the agricultural sector, in particular [97-A, pp.208-211; 107-A, pp.39-42]. According to our analysis (see Annex 2) processes of resource saving management characterized by the following two general laws of the nature of targets [56-A, pp. 43-44]:
1) Minimize - achieving certain (given) the results at the lowest cost;
2) Maximizing - to achieve the best results for a given amount of resources.
On this basis, the problem of improving the management of resource-saving, we propose to consider two main aspects [89-A, pp.78-79]
First, saving and efficient use of resources is understood as an important and indispensable element of the strategy and tactics of management. In this case, we can talk about a set of requirements that make up the economy mode. These requirements must be taken into account in development planning, pricing, financial and credit mechanism, logistics and marketing. Secondly, the management of resource-saving serves as an independent direction of scientific and practical activities, covering all sectors of material production, treatment and distribution process, and consumption of material goods. In recent years, applications generated economic and engineering disciplines that constitute a comprehensive basis for the theory and practice of resource. The fundamental tenets of this theory can be attributed both to the individual types of material resources, as well as to the various industries and occupations. In this connection, within the framework of various theoretical concepts studied the consequences of ignoring the government of certain economic laws.
At the same time, due to a complete picture of the resource management concepts and their empirical base (studies of the impact of specific economic laws on the macroeconomic equilibrium) are invited to explore the patterns of economic use of resources, common concept of resource management and the reasons for economic phenomena affecting the efficiency of resource saving management. Given the above, we have proposed a systematization of economic laws and laws on the criteria of the impact of market and state intervention in the economy (Table 1.4):
From Table 1.4 that are currently in the theories of resource use and justification of the prerequisites of their savings associated with the management of resource conservation are the most common three paradigms: Competitive Planning, liberalism, and lean manufacturing. The first two pose and solve the problem of the borders of the state's participation in managing the economy and belong to the macroeconomic management of resource saving. Then, as the concept of lean manufacturing is associated with the development of the logistical approach to the management of resource conservation at the microeconomic level.
Table 1.4 Economic laws and the concept of resource management
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Source: Compiled by the author based on the analytical review [5, 165 and 167].
From our analysis sources should be fundamental conclusion that viewed economic laws have a common element - Resource. This item appears in the aspects of consumer behavior resources, the institutional environment of the market, scarcity, specificity and interchangeability of resources [70-A, pp.64-67].
The main feature of the modern economic laws (Table 1.4) according A.N.Erohina with which we can agree, is observed under certain conditions, the interaction within the system resource saving management processes, saving resources and the formation of the cost of management [63, pp.316-319] .
Our studies show that the result of this interaction depends on the level of intensification of agricultural production and the strategy to improve its efficiency. In this connection, in order to improve control theory allocated resource saving approaches to managing reproduction process within the basic concepts. In connection with the practical necessity of the transition government from administrative planning to indicative, we propose to analyze the concept of competitive planning M.Alle because it to some extent reflects the peculiarities of the Belarusian model of a mixed economy, characterized by a combination of state and market regulation [56-A, pp. 98-117].
The essence of the concept of competitive planning M.Alle proposed that the plan and the market they are not perceived as two alternative tool for implementing the same function of economic management, as well as tools that perform a variety of functions (1988.). The role of the market, according to his research, is that, without resorting to debilitating and unenforceable calculations, continuously adjust the state of the economy, depending on fluctuations in demand and supply of goods and services. The role of the plan is to beyond the capabilities of the market - to offer a common view on economic development, helping people choose the strategy [6, P.129].
However, we have found that the theory of optimum efficiency M.Alle does not give a specific resource tools at the microeconomic level, but merely defines the principles of market allocation of economic resources, especially investment, at the macroeconomic level on the basis of the mechanism of competition [6; 94-A, pp.92-94; 95-A, pp.94-96].
This is consistent with our studies, regional industrial clusters of Belarus on the impact of investment on the rate of agricultural production.
The results show that the highest return on the resources observed in the groups of independent businesses situated geographically compact, flexible organization associated relationships, including informal ones, which contributes to the constant and rapid innovation. Analysis charts ranked number factorial and productive indicators of the sample allows for a number of years to form two economic criteria for cluster resource efficiency investments: the first - the priority development of agricultural production received, processing of agricultural products and service; the economy in the second cluster of administrative areas and areas dependent on the growth of industrial production. It follows from the calculations that the trend in gross domestic product and public spending in most time periods are the same, but there are also time periods where economic growth was not due to a change in public spending, allowing adherents of liberal views exaggerate the role of market factors resource [87-A, pp.4756].
The best-known representatives of the neo-liberal concept of saving resources management at the macro, meso and micro levels of the market economy, according to on our theoretical analysis, are F. Hayek, Eucken V., L. Erhard, the Chicago School of neo-liberalism, in particular M. Friedman, et al. (20-80-ies of XX century). The founder is considered neoliberalism L.Mizes (1881-1973 yy). According L.Mizes, that private property is a necessary requisite of civilization and material well-being, and its social function is that it contributes to the optimal use of resources and ensure the sovereignty of consumers. The essence of the concept V.Oyken can be formulated in the "economic freedom within the framework of order" [101, 166 and 165].
Modern corporate model of a market economy, common in most countries, the implementation of the principles of neoliberalism leads to concentration of financial resources from low social stratum and the relative scarcity of economic resources in the real economy. For example, according to the results of the research revealed the proportion of small firms experiencing difficulties in the availability of credit in terms of mergers and acquisitions of US corporations. The last few years have shown that the standard liberal recipes of the management of economic resources and their saving work differently in the US, China, Brazil, India, Russia and other countries, depending on the institutional and legal environment of the national economy. Acceptable for practical use at the microeconomic level is the concept of lean manufacturing D.Hobbs aimed at the elimination of waste and the optimization of business processes: from the stage of product development, manufacturing, and to communicate with suppliers and customers. Management lean as possible focused on identifying the needs of the market and creating maximum value for the customer at the lowest cost resource: human effort, equipment, time, production facilities and other components of the resource potential 170.
- Quote paper
- Uladzimir Buts (Author), 2016, A modern concept of resource conservation management in agro-industrial production, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/937728