The role of motivation and its effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A study on educators employed in Maltese schools

Master's Thesis, 2019

86 Pages, Grade: MERIT


Table of Contents



Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Research Background
1.2 Aims and Objectives
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Hypotheses
1.5 Research Justification

Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Motivation
2.2.1 Educators Motivation
2.3 Job Satisfaction
2.4 Organisational Commitment
2.5 Theories of Motivation and Job Satisfaction
2.5.1 Needs-Hierarchy Theory Variations and Criticism of the Needs-Hierarchy Theory
2.5.2 Two-Factor Theory Criticism of the Two Factor Theory
2.6 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
2.6.1 Intrinsic Factors
2.6.2 Extrinsic Factors
2.7 Motivation Variances by Gender and Age
2.7.1 Gender
2.7.2 Age
2.8 Research Gap

Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Philosophy
3.3 Research Approach
3.3 Research Strategy
3.3.1 Research Methods and Justifications for Rejection and Selection
3.4 Data Sources
3.5 Research Design, Sampling and Data Collection
3.5.1 Questionnaire Structure
3.5.2 Testing of Data Collection Instrument
3.5.3 Sampling
3.5.4 Questionnaire Distribution
3.6 Ethical Considerations

Chapter 4: Findings, Analysis and Conclusions
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Response Rate
4.3 Demographic Characteristics
4.3.1 Gender
4.3.2 Age
4.3.3 Educational Background
4.3.4 Grade
4.3.5 Length of Service
4.4 First Research Question
4.4.1 F actors of Job Motivation
4.4.2 Motivation Levels
4.4.3 Factors of Job Satisfaction
4.4.4 Job Satisfaction Level
4.4.5 Organisational Commitment Level
4.5 Second Research Question
4.5.1 Motivation and Job Satisfaction
4.5.2 Motivation and Organisational Commitment
4.5.3 Motivation and Age
4.5.4 Motivation and Gender
4.5.5 Motivation and Grade

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Critical Evaluation of Adopted Methodology
5.3 Conclusions to Research Questions
5.4 Study Limitations
5.5 Recommendations for Further Research
5.6 Recommendations for Management





Foremost, I am thankful to God for providing me with the required health strength and inspiration throughout the entire process of this dissertation, especially in times, were I felt that difficulties where impossible to overcome.

I express my deepest appreciation to my dissertation supervisor, Mr Ray Micallef for his support and motivation throughout my studies as a lecturer and during the progression of this dissertation. His knowledge and guidance aided me a lot during my study and writing of this task.

I also wish to express my gratitude to the Permanent Secretary and the Director in charge of the Department of Research at the Ministry of Education and Employment in Malta, for giving me the necessary permissions to undertake this research.

A special acknowledgement goes to the Director of Human Resources Ms Mary Scicluna and my work colleagues for their affectionate support and valuable information, which assisted me in finishing this dissertation.

I am grateful to all the classes of educators in Maltese State Schools for the valuable information they provided for this project. Without their involvement, it would have been impossible to make this dissertation.

Last but not the least, I am very thankful to my beloved wife, Anabelle and my wonderful four children, Yasmaia Jo, Alishia Jo, Gabriel, and Kaya, for their understanding and endless love throughout my studies. Their continuous encouragement, sympathetic ear, limitless patience, and tolerance of my occasional moods were the foundations of this dissertation.

It would have been impossible to finish this dissertation without the help and support of all these persons and I am grateful to all of them for their role, in helping me to embark and finish this dissertation.


Educational administrators in Maltese State Schools are facing a big challenge in developing highly motivated and satisfied educators who are ready to commit themselves to their profession. It is upon this background that this study aimed to find the levels of educators’ motivation, job satisfaction and organisational commitment and which factors mostly affect motivation and job satisfaction of teachers, kindergarten educators and learning support educators. Moreover, various hypotheses were expressed to discover if there are positive relationships between educators’ motivation, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Furthermore, this research intended to discover if motivation varies between different age groups, genders, and educators’ grades.

This study was based on the philosophy of positivism which directed the author to use a deductive approach. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select a sample from each educators’ category out of a total population of 6745 educators. A total of 713 respondents (382 teachers, 65 kindergarten educators and 266 learning support educators) took part in the study. The data collecting tool used was a questionnaire with close ended questions. SurveyMonkey and MS Excel built-in tools were used to analyse and present the quantitative data collected.

The study revealed that 49.64% of educators were motivated while 43.60% felt satisfied with their job. While educators were more intrinsically motivated than extrinsically. The most influential intrinsic factors were trust, achievement and praise and the highest extrinsic influences were interpersonal relationships, resources’ availability and job security. Besides, 38.74% of educators felt committed to their sector. The study showed that there is a positive relationship between educators’ motivation and the areas of job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Also, it was proven that motivation in educators varies between different age groups, genders and grades. However, the variance between genders is minimal.

The study recommended to other researchers on how they may use this research as a base for other studies on educators and mentioned different areas and gaps that can be explored. Finally, various recommendations to the management on how to tackle intrinsic and extrinsic factors of motivation and job satisfaction are given. Furthermore, recommendations on how to reduce turnover levels and increase organisational commitment are clearly defined.

List of Figures

Figure 1: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Figure 2: Herzberg Motivation Perspective

Figure 3: Entire Population and Sample

Figure 4: Response Rate for each Category

Figure 5: Gender

Figure 6: Age

Figure 7: Educational Background

Figure 8: Grade

Figure 9: Length of Service

Figure 10: Job Satisfaction Level

Figure 11: Relationship between Motivation and Age

Figure 12: Relationship between Motivation and Gender

List of Tables

Table 1: Population for each Strata

Table 2: Sample for each Category

Table 3: Response Rate for each Category

Table 4: Ranking of Intrinsic factors which influence motivation

Table 5: Ranking of Extrinsic factors which influence motivation

Table 6: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Level (Teachers)

Table 7: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Level (LSE’s)

Table 8: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Level (KE’s)

Table 9: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Level (Total Population)

Table 10: Job Satisfaction Factors

Table 11: Teachers’ & KE’s Commitment Levels

Table 12: LSE’s & Total Population Commitment Levels

Table 13: Overall Organisational Commitment Levels

Table 14: Relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction

Table 15: Relationship between Motivation and Organisational Commitment

Table 16: Relationship between Motivation and Age

Table 17: Relationship between Motivation and Grade

List of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Research Background

The Maltese Government has highly invested in its educational sector intending to achieve a better learning outcome rate and decrease the number of early school leavers. To reach its targets, the education expenditure rate in 2017 compared to Malta’s GDP was 4.9% which was above the EU average (Eurostat, 2019). Furthermore, in 2018, the budget for Education was even higher due to an increase in educators’ salaries (MFIN Malta, 2017).

The Maltese educational sector, which is under the remit of the Ministry of Education and Employment (MEDE), employs 9871 people which is a substantial share of the country’s public service workforce (MEDE, 2019a). Most of them are educators who are collectively responsible for the learning outcomes of students attending Maltese State schools (MSS). Apart from the administrative roles of College Principals, Head of Departments, Head of Schools, Assistant Heads of Schools and Education Officers, the Educators’ class is composed of three other categories which are the teachers in both primary and secondary schools, the kindergarten educators (KE’s) and the learning support educators (LSE’s) (MEDE, 2019a). For this research study, any reference to the Educators class is referring to the categories of teachers, KE’s and LSE’s.

In recent years MEDE realised that an effective plan for processes and policy implementation based on educators’ and learners’ needs was indispensable for the Maltese Educational Sector to reach its targets. Therefore, a strategic plan which is still ongoing known as ‘’Education Strategy for Malta 2014-2024’’ was launched five years ago. This plan apart from aiding MEDE to successfully implement its policies, demanded that MEDE commits itself to support and improve past educational achievements while preparing itself for possible challenges, to strengthen the educational system (MEDE, 2013). A crucial part of this strategy was the signing of a collective agreement in 2017 between the Maltese Government and educators where both parties committed themselves to improve the education given to students and provide them with better learning opportunities (MEDE, 2017).

This collective agreement entitled educators to salaries and allowances increase over five years, assured them that working conditions will improve and promised the availability of essential resources. Furthermore, it gave educators numerous opportunities for continuous professional development (MEDE, 2017).

Although there was a high expectancy that this agreement will highly contribute to increase educators’ motivation and job satisfaction (MEDE, 2013), a study by Attard Tonna and Calleja (2018) confirmed a prior research by Bezzina and Portelli (2005) which observed that Maltese teachers are worried about their social standing and that the educational sector is still finding difficulties to achieve higher levels of motivation and job satisfaction amongst its educators.

Moreover, Maltese educators’ organisational commitment (OC) has been recorded as very low and when teachers were asked what they see themselves doing as a job in five years only 35% answered they see themselves educating (Attard Tonna & Calleja, 2018). A high rate of educator’s attrition rate due to resignations and retirements has been recorded with low levels of job motivation and job satisfaction identified as the main cause (Attard Tonna & Calleja, 2018; Sansone, 2019; MEDE, 2019b).

Apart from the educators themselves, this has negatively affected the learning process quality and the overall development of the educational system. A World Bank document reported that over a third of fifteen-year-old Maltese students do not have the basic level of mathematics and reading while 20% of Maltese youths are leaving school early, putting Malta after most EU countries (Ridao-Cano & Bodewig, 2018).

It seems that educational administrators are facing a big challenge in developing highly motivated and satisfied educators who are ready to commit themselves to their profession. All this is quite serious, and it is upon this background that this study aimed to determine what are the levels of educators’ motivation, job satisfaction and OC and by which factors are motivation and job satisfaction influenced.

1.2 Aims and Objectives

This research study has the following aims and objectives:

- Determine the levels of motivation, job satisfaction and OC of teachers, KE’s and LSE’s.
- Rank in order of importance the factors that mostly affect motivation and job satisfaction in teachers, KE’s and LSE’s.
- Discover if there is a relationship between educators’ motivation and job satisfaction.
- Discover if there is a relationship between educators’ motivation and OC.
- Discover if the educators’ motivation varies between different age groups.
- Discover if the educator’s motivation varies between different genders.
- Discover if the educators’ motivation is different for each grade.

1.3 Research questions

RQ1: What are the levels of motivation, job satisfaction and OC of Educators in Maltese state schools and by which factors are motivation and job satisfactions mostly impacted? RQ2: Is there any relationship between educators’ motivation, job satisfaction, and OC and does the motivation level differ between the age, gender, and grade category?

1.4 Hypotheses

While the first research question (RQ) was satisfied by the participants’ direct responses collected by the study’s research instrument, the second RQ, needed the testing of the following hypotheses:

H1: There is a positive relationship between motivation and job satisfaction.

H2: There is a positive relationship between motivation and OC.

H3: The motivation of educators varies between different age groups

H4: The motivation of educators varies between different genders.

H5: The motivation of educators is different for each grade.

1.5 Research Justification

The scarce literature about motivation, job satisfaction and OC and their effects amongst educators employed in MSS showed that a need for this study was indispensable. This study contributed to gain a better perspective of the topics and increased the understanding of the Maltese education sector. This research apart from being the first study to investigate the relationship between motivation, job satisfaction and OC for the three largest categories of educators in MSS, assisted in reducing the literature gap on these subjects. This study significance and the gains derived from it are summarised in the points below:

- It was the first study conducted among all sectors of educators in MSS, that determined the present levels of motivation, job satisfaction and OC, apart from ranking the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect motivation and job satisfaction.
- It determined if educators’ motivation varies between age, gender, and category.
- It gave LSE’s and KE’s employed in MSS a first-time opportunity to express their feelings and views about the subjects.
- It improved the present knowledge and reduced the literature gap about motivation, job satisfaction and OC amongst educators in MSS.
- It helped policymakers, administrators, educators, parents, and guardians to become knowledgeable about factors that improve the education quality which may result in better students’ academic performance and better human resources management.
- The findings and recommendations of the study can be a source for educators’ unions and associations to understand more the needs of their members and hence be able to make better proposals for them.
- This research project gave valuable information that can trigger other researchers to start further studies related to other categories of educators or improve the same study.

1.6 Methodology

The methodology’s primary aim for this research was to identify the levels of motivation, job satisfaction and OC in addition to identify the factors that contribute to motivation and job satisfaction amongst educators in MSS. Initially, the author reviewed accessible literature about research methods and concluded that the study’s purpose, the research questions (RQ’s), and the hypothesises pointed towards the philosophy of positivism. Therefore a deductive approach was viewed as the most suitable to achieve the research aims and purposes (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009; Creswell, 2013).

The strategy implemented included a close-ended questionnaire for quantitative data collection due to cost-effectiveness, data reliability and copious quantities of data collection. However, the challenge was to apply a correct population sampling technique (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009). The author selected three different population samples from each educators’ category (Teachers, KE’s and LSE’s) using a stratified random sampling technique and each participant was sent an e-mail with a link to an online survey. As already detailed, it was crucial to effectively employ this method to limit the fact that individuals may not give truthful answers and instead respond to what is socially acknowledged (Rose, Spinks, & Canhoto, 2015). Furthermore, the required steps were taken to eliminate any bias in the questions for data validity and reliability (Galdas, 2017).

Secondary data was collected from a review of present literature to understand further different concepts and perceptions. This gave the author a further analytical tool for cross­validating data to obtain further reliability in the findings (Bryman & Bell, 2003). A more detailed explanation of this methodology including systems and equipment used for data collection and analysis, sampling techniques and access to sample are discussed in Chapter 3.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Motivation is a widely researched subject and studies on its aspects and relationships have highly contributed in increasing the current literature and knowledge about the topic (Mohsan, Nawaz, Khan, & Aslam, 2004). Although no general agreement exists on a common definition of motivation, academics agree on its key dimensions (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013). The chapter will concentrate on the notions of motivation, job satisfaction and OC. However, the focus will be motivation since the other areas cannot be discussed without referring to motivation (Kosi, Sulemana, Boateng, & Mensah, 2015).

2.2 Motivation

Latham and Pinder (2005) defined motivation as a mixture of internal and external forces, which affect one’s behaviour and influences the intensity and persistence rate while giving the required direction during a task given process. However, if persistence is missing, intensity alone will not lead to better performance which is essential to move towards the organisation’s goals (Robbins & Judge, 2008). Greenberg and Baron (2003) presented an opposing argument, by placing persistence as the least essential element and described it as a confirmation of intensity.

Williams and Burden (1997) proposed two new aspects of motivation, the initiating, and the sustaining. While initiating motivation focuses on why an individual decides to do something, sustaining motivation emphasises on one’s effort and perseverance in acting. Another perspective explored by Dörnyei and Ushioda (2013) showed that motivation is concerned about the feelings that urge individuals to act and how much they are willing to give to remain in this state.

The concept of motivation can be summarised as a theory that describes different forces that start, show direction, and affect the behaviour’s determination (Vallerand & Thill, 1993). Moreover, it is a way for stimulating, positioning, reinforcing, and supporting a person’s behaviour in his path to achieve the envisioned goals (Roussel, 2000)

Surely motivation is essential in any work-place since it is a means to encourage efficiency and productivity (Allscheid & Cellar, 1996; Broussard & Garrison, 2004).

However, it should be quantified by assessing employees on an individual basis, due to its variation between different personalities and employers. Moreover, employers should be knowledgeable that although motivation can be influenced, nobody can be forced to become motivated due to its dependence on the employee’s decision on when and where the motivation process initiates (Kumar & Sharma, 2001; Mitchell, 1982).

2.2.1 Educators Motivation

Educators’ motivation has always been a broad research area, but when the Journal “Learning and Instruction” published a whole sequence of articles related to motivational theories and their relationships with education, studies began to proliferate (Watt & Richardson, 2008). This increasing research contributed in discovering various issues related to educators’ motivation like attrition, retirements, career advancements, uncompensated efforts and low esteem (Smithers & Robinson, 2003; Richardson & Watt, 2005; Sinclair, Dowson, & Mc Inerney, 2006; Watt, et al., 2012);

Johnson and Johnson (1994) stated that motivation in educators creates a positive learning outcome since students tend to idolise educators and copy their actions. Furthermore, the educators’ motivation process aids in understanding deeper educators’ behaviour (Snowman, McCown, & Biehler, 2008). Therefore, authorities are obliged to give their utmost to support an elevated motivational level and be well-informed about this topic to attract and retain educators (Frase, 1992; Gupta & Gehlawat, 2013).

Bennel (2004) after his research on educators’ motivation defined educators’ motivation as a path of psychological developments that affect the behaviour, to reach educational goals. Additionally, Richardson, (2014) suggested that motivation in educators is composed of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which encourage them to give their best in the learning process and make them feel professionally committed. Moreover, Sinclair (2008) similar to Dörnyei and Ushioda (2013) stated that educators’ motivation has a significant role in attracting individuals to the profession and it keeps influencing them throughout their professional career.

Sylvia and Hutchinson, 1985) suggested that various aspects are linked to educator’s motivation and studies showed, that teachers’ motivation is derived from the fulfilment of higher needs. Furthermore, they stated that motivation increases if they are given autonomy to promote ideas and responsibility to control different institutional tasks. Other studies showed that educators’ motivation is positively associated with job satisfaction, job performance and job commitment (Bezzina & Portelli, 2005; Sinani, 2016).

Although there have been many studies and practises applied in this field, various educators around the world still have low levels of motivation (Sargent & Hannum, 2005) and their levels of emotional signs are higher when compared to other professions (Kieschke & Schaarschmidt, 2008). A reason may be that their dissatisfaction level is negatively affecting their motivation (Dai & Sternberg, 2004).

2.3 Job Satisfaction

To further understand the basics of motivation, the role of job satisfaction should not be neglected. Although literature presents various definitions on job satisfaction or dissatisfaction there is a consensus that it is an emotional response derived when a person compares the results achieved, with the results expected (Cranny, Smith, & Stone, 1992). A clear definition concurring this statement is that, job satisfaction creates a sense of encouragement towards one’s job and is dependable on two factors being; the feeling experienced while doing the job and how much the results achieved correspond with one’s expectations (Daft, 2015).

A similar perspective presented by Jehanzeb, Mazen, Rasheed and Aamir (2012) stated that “job satisfaction is a sensation employee have about their work environment and their expectations toward work” (p.274). Longstanding research that is still valid, described satisfaction as a mixture of the person’s physiological, psychological, and environmental surroundings which make an individual feel gratified with his/her job (Hoppock, 1935)

Although, it is widely accepted that job satisfaction is an essential element in employees’ motivation process, the two concepts are not identical. While motivation refers to the behaviour adopted to achieve organisational goals, job satisfaction is more concerned about the fulfilment derived from job actions and rewards given. Peretomode (1991) suggested that low motivated employees may feel satisfied with their job while highly motivated ones can be unsatisfied with their job.

Research on job satisfaction is affluent especially on features that impact its level like, the demographics of age and gender and the factors of interpersonal relationships and workplace environment (Locke, 1976; Spector, 1997). Another research found that work conditions, interpersonal relationships, responsibility, recognition, and status are the main contributors for job satisfaction (Seidman & Watson, 1940). Although this research has been conducted in the 40’s the results may be still applicable today.

Hackman and Oldham (1975) proposed that every job/task should have five features which are variety, autonomy, feedback, identity, and meaningfulness. Furthermore, they described that succeeding in creating processes that grow these aspects will trigger three emotional states in an employee which are the feeling that their work is needed, the feeling of being more responsible and the need to search for the job results. By undergoing these experiences, a higher level of job satisfaction and motivation is obtained.

2.4 Organisational Commitment

OC in a school scenario is valuable for both educators and educational management because if an employee’s feels identified, satisfied and secure within the organisation, the employer will gain in terms of low turnover rate and fewer disruptions in its staff management. The concept of OC is considered a recent subject in organisational management However it is regarded as a particularly important attitude to be studied in the fields of human resource management and organisational behaviour (Sinani, 2016). Moreover, it is a key element required by employees to increase their ability and to accomplish organisational performance (Warsi, Fatima, Shamim, & Sahibzada, 2009; Faerman & Choe, 2010; Allen & Meyer, 1990).

OC is defined as a strong emotional attachment to the organisation together with a high disposition to apply substantial efforts to reach organisational goals and a great desire to remain in the organisation (Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974). Furthermore, OC is also described as the rational, emotional, and ethical commitment that a person has about the organisational goals and values (Ahmad & Noranye, 2010). The three- dimension model composed of affective, continuance and normative commitment is considered as the primary model when it comes to OC research (Meyer & Allen, 1997).

Affective commitment is a type of commitment related to emotive bonds that an employee develops towards the organisation after experiencing positive work-related events. Continuance commitment is associated with one’s commitment based on the economic and social costs, that he/she can incur in the eventuality of leaving the organisation. Normative commitment reflects the commitment based on the feeling of obligation and the sense of being indebted towards the organisation. Researchers widely used this model to foresee vital outcomes related to employee turnover, cultural behaviour, and work performance (Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch, & Topolnytsky, 2002).

The literature revealed similarities between motivation and OC especially in their definitions since both include forces and behavioural consequences. While Pinder (2008) defined motivation as energetic forces, Meyer and Herscovitch (2001) referred to OC as a force resulting from a person’s action. However, motivation is a much wider concept than OC since commitment is only one of the factors that affects motivation. Still, the influence of OC on motivation should not be excluded (Scholl, 1981).

Other empirical research proposed an opposite view about the relationship presented by Scholl (1981) and stated that it is the motivation that influences OC and not vice-versa (Warsi, Fatima, Shamim, & Sahibzada, 2009; George & Sabapathy, 2011). Similarly, other studies described OC as a variable which is highly reliant on motivation (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Cooper-Hakim & Viswesvaran, 2005).

2.5 Theories of Motivation and Job Satisfaction

2.5.1 Needs-Hierarchy Theory

Maslow’s Theory also known as the Hierarchy of Needs Theory is regarded as the mother of all theories in human motivation area (Maslow, 1943). Maslow was one of the first academics to develop a theory which describes how individual behaviour is satisfied by human needs (Kreitner, Kinichi, & Bluelens, 1999). This theory was founded on the hypothesis that needs influences individual behaviour until the person becomes satisfied, presenting the want for satisfaction, as a key motivator for each human (Steers, Porter, & Bigley, 1996).

Maslow (1943) categorised these needs in a hierarchical order of five levels being physiological, safety, belongingness, social esteem and self-actualization (Figure 1) and posited that when a need has been satisfied, it will not remain a motivator since the individual will begin a process to satisfy the next higher need (Luthans, 1995). The process to move upwards the hierarchy occurs when the individual feels deprived of something and directs his/her behaviour to fulfil this need. In this process, all higher needs are neglected and the feeling for them emerges once the present need is satisfied. This cycle is repeated until the top of the hierarchy is reached (Steers, Porter, & Bigley, 1996).

Physiological needs are the hierarchy’s base and are associated with basic survival needs. Putting these needs in a workplace environment they translate into adequate work-space and light and pay for work. These needs are the first that an individual wants to satisfy and once there is fulfilment, any effect on the individual’s motivation is lost and the person moves to the second tier of the hierarchy (Maslow, 1970).

Safety needs are concerned about protection and are mostly associated with a person’s physical and emotive parts. Once an individual feel that this need requires fulfilment, the person becomes a safety-seeker with an urge to satisfy this necessity (Maslow, 1970). In terms of employment, factors that fall in this category are job security, safe working conditions and financial benefits (Cherrington, 1989).

Belongingness and Love needs are related to being part of a group and feeling loved by the others around you. This need is satisfied by interactions one has with his co-workers, good interpersonal relationships and being a member of associations related to the profession (Hilgert & Leonard, 2001)

Esteem needs are the feelings of being valued, recognised, capable and useful. These needs appear and trigger the need for higher status, power, recognition, respect, and achievement (Maslow, 1970). Vecchio (2000) claimed, that an individual can satisfy this level by having a respectable job title and by being allowed to give feedback.

Self-Actualisation was described as the hierarchy’s peak which every person should reach to develop his full potential as an individual (Maslow, 1970). In organisational terms, an employee will reach self-actualisation if challenges, achievements, and opportunities for advancement are present in the job (Steers, Porter, & Bigley, 1996).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs adapted from Organisational Behaviour: The Management of

Individual and Organisational Performance by D. Cherrington J, 1989, Boston: Ally & Bacon. Variations and Criticism of the Needs-Hierarchy Theory

Other academics made attempts to build further or apply variations to Maslow (1943) theory. For instance, Porter (1961) presented another stage between the esteem and self­actualization levels which he named autonomy, positing that persons in authority have diverse needs from the esteem factors mentioned by Maslow. Alderfer (1972) revised Maslow’s theory by combining in one level the physiological and safety needs, renaming them into Existence and amalgamating belongingness and esteem to form the Relatedness level. Also, self-actualization was replaced by Growth. This theory became known as the ERG theory of motivation. Furthermore, Lawler and Suttle (1972) flattened further the hierarchy and proposed two stages; the physiological stage as the first stage and a combination of the remaining levels to form a second stage named higher needs.

This theory has been criticised by both scholars and practitioners. Goebel and Brown, (1981) claimed that the theory is vague, and managers find it extremely hard to adjust it according to their organisations. Moreover, Steers, Porter, and Bigley (1996) stated that the concept that an individual focuses on satisfying only one need at a time rather than diverse needs simultaneously lacks straight-forwardness, while Sackett (1998) specified that the notion that an individual inevitably moves up the pyramid once a need in a level is satisfied, is not entirely reinforced by research and suggested that self-actualisation can be achieved without lower needs fulfilment.

Kiel (1999) posited that the close-end pyramid is a bad example of human needs and that self-actualisation is not the highest hierarchy level since the human potential is infinite. Furthermore, an individual can effectively remain in the same hierarchical level and become motivated and satisfied more than others searching for higher needs (Koltko- Rivera, 1998). Other researchers suggested that Maslow’s theory is unfeasible since it puts all individuals and conditions at the same level and neglecting that the study was conducted in a US culture. Therefore, it cannot be a universal concept since diverse cultures may place differently in the pyramid levels (Graham & Messner, 1998; Cianci & Gambrel, 2003).

Nevertheless, this classic theory is still present in current work environments and remained a contributor to studies on workplace motivation (Luthans, 1995). Udechukwu (2009) defined it as the backbone of motivational theories and concepts Since management finds it easy to understand and put it into practice, various approaches based on it have been implemented by organisations resulting in benefits associated with motivation enhancement, higher productivity, and more profits (Sadri & Bowen, 2011).

2.5.2 Two- Factor Theory

This renowned theory in the management field, also known as the motivation and hygiene factors theory describes aspects that promote job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction. This concept was theorised after a study was conducted on a sample of engineers and accountants to discover when they experience positive and negative feelings. Subsequently, the findings were grouped into two categories named hygiene (extrinsic) factors and motivation (intrinsic) factors (Herzberg, 1968)

Hygiene factors are comparable to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs and result from extrinsic factors related to workplace environment. They include company policy, interpersonal relations, working conditions, pay, status, and job security (Ruthankoon & Ogunlana, 2003). When these aspects fall below the employee’s acceptable level, job dissatisfaction becomes present. Moreover, satisfying hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction feelings and job performance stays acceptable (Herzberg, 1968)

On the other hand, motivators or job satisfaction factors derive from intrinsic factors related to the job itself and include achievement, responsibility, recognition, advancement, and growth possibilities. These motivators lead to self-actualization due to the aspects of achievement and advancement (Steers, Porter, & Bigley, 1996). Hence, motivators are the sole possibility for employees to become satisfied (Herzberg, 1968).

Herzberg (1968) stated that the factor groups are diverse from each other and the removal ofjob dissatisfaction elements may not result in higher motivation, but only to settle down a situation that may have arisen. However, increasing promotion opportunities, showing recognition, giving responsibilities, and promoting personal growth will increase motivation (Robbins & Judge, 2008)

Studies before Herzberg research regarded satisfaction as the opposite of dissatisfaction. Instead, Herzberg opined that factors promoting satisfaction are dissimilar to factors leading to dissatisfaction. Moreover, motivators’ absence and hygiene factors existence will not result in job dissatisfaction but only push the satisfaction to a neutral point. In other words, the contrary of satisfaction is zero satisfaction, whereas the contrary of dissatisfaction is zero dissatisfaction (Herzberg, 1968).

The process to reach job satisfaction initiates by first satisfying the employee’s hygiene factors, so a neutral state is reached and then satisfy the motivators to move from the neutral level to a positive one (Herzberg, 1968). This idea is summarized in Figure 2.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2: Herzberg Motivation Perspective adaptedfrom Organisational Behaviour: The Management of Individual and Organisational Performance by D. Cherrington J, 1989, Boston: Ally & Bacon.

This theoretical concept has been regarded as a high contributor to managerial studies since, it clearly explains what affects employees’ behaviour. Also, it stimulated further research which contributed to the subject knowledge increase (Whitsett & Winslow, 1967). George and Jones, (2005) stated that managers should be in line with Herzberg’s theory especially where it concerns motivators. Moreover, organisations should, focus on designing better jobs that increase employees’ duties and responsibilities, to increase motivation and satisfaction. There is a wide agreement amongst researchers on Herzberg’s reasoning that motivators and hygiene factors are different to each other but not opposites (Centers & Bugental, 1966; Schermerhorn, Hunt, & Osborn, 2003).

However, Herzberg’s theory has also been a subject to criticism. Studies claimed that motivators are also a cause for dissatisfaction and hygiene factors can increase motivation (Friedlander, 1964; Ruthankoon & Ogunlana, 2003). Furthermore, other researchers stated that the theory is only proven right when Herzberg method of research is used (Cherrington, 1989). Also, Ghazi, Shahzada and Khan (2013) citing Brenner, Carmack and Weinstein, (1971) argued that Herzberg’s method fails to ensure valid and reliable results.

Although most critics contest Herzberg’s study consistency due to the methodology used, the theory is still regarded as a high influencer in management decisions, job development and organisational restructuring (Robbins & Judge, 2008).

2.6 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is derived from an individual’s internal need to perform voluntarily an activity without expecting any material rewards and the only motivational sources are the activity itself and the challenges associated with it. This type of motivation is enhanced with factors like gratitude, status, participation, and search for knowledge (Bruce & Pepitone, 1998). However, intrinsic motivation is initiated only by activities that inspire intrinsic attention. Therefore, activities which do not have an element of uniqueness, challenge, or attractiveness value, will not generate this type of motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Gagné & Deci, 2005).

Conversely, extrinsic motivation occurs when a behavioural action is done to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment. Therefore, the satisfaction generated is not a conse of the activity itself but more a result of the people behaviour to act because they feel pressured to do so (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Examples of extrinsic or tangible rewards are salaries, safety, and job security (Yoon, Sung, Choi, Lee, & Kim, 2015). Though intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may be regarded as incompatible in the same environment since one is considered self-determined and the other the extreme opposite, studies showed that extrinsic motivation supports intrinsic motivation (Vansteenkiste, Lens, & Deci, 2006).

2.6.1 Intrinsic F actors

Recognition is described as an important intrinsic factor and helps in reaching organisational goals since when employees experience the feeling of being recognised they perform at a higher level (Sirota, Mischkind, & Meltzer, 2005; Güngör, 2011). Furthermore, Paul (2016) suggested that when employees experience a feeling of recognition, levels of motivation and work commitment increase and employee turnover declines.

Another intrinsic factor is the search for knowledge which Parvin and Kabir (2011) suggested that it can be satisfied by implementing proper training systems which offer the required training opportunities to grow and increase skills. Lukasik (2017) research showed that employees consider training opportunities as a factor for increasing motivation and affirmed that HR Departments need to become knowledgeable on the influence that training has on the motivational development. Additionally, training is regarded as a long-term commitment towards employees by the organisation and can be transformed into OC (Meyer & Allen, 1997).

The literature is very affluent in studies about the association of intrinsic motivation and the factor of meaningfulness (Katz & Kahn, 1978; Spreitzer, 1996). Meaningful work is defined as a lifestyle that reflects a person’s determination, principles, relationships and activities and is experienced when a task assigned is meaningful and inspiring (Ramlall, 2004; Chalofsky & Krishna, 2009). Furthermore, it is claimed that this motivator satisfies the self-esteem need if the individual feels that the task given has a worth in doing it (Kumar & Sharma, 2001). Meaningful work has been classified above most extrinsic factors like promotions, salary and job security and is associated with OC since it creates a feeling of identification with the organisation (Cascio, 2003).

Autonomy is considered, a great influencer of work motivation and many different models have been recommended on its application to individual and teams to explo advantages (Hackman & Oldham, 1975; Langfred, 2000). The notion of autonomy was hardly recognised or used before the 80’s, but during the 90’s it became an accepted term and began to feature in different research studies and adopted in organisations. Almost all companies in the Fortune 1000 began to apply this concept in their processes due to its contribution to job motivation, satisfaction, and performance (Ledford, Lawler, & Mohrman, 1995; Langfred & Moye, 2004).

Achievement is considered a prevailing intrinsic motivator, which makes a person feel that the output given is creating a difference and is essential to reach the best outcome and succeed in task performed (Elliot & McGregor, 1999; Jex & Britt, 2014). McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, and Lowell (1976) suggested that individuals become motivated by satisfying this personal need rather than by being rewarded with other factors. Moreover, achievement-motivated employees normally avoid risks, search for challenging activities, feel satisfied with accomplishments and complete tasks efficiently. Employees motivated by achievement are considered as the quick learners, problem solvers and those that have a greater workplace interest with higher concern to group success and better job quality (Mohamadi, et al., 2014).

Cook and Wall (1980) defined trust as the amount of respect an individual is ready to attribute to actions taken by others and the degree of assurance they perceive from their behaviour. In recent years, the notion of trust has attracted considerable attention from researchers, and studies showed that there is a positive relationship between trust, motivation and job satisfaction (Connell, Ferres, & Travaglione, 2003; Reina & Reina, 2007). While Bijlsma and Koopman (2003) stated that trust encourages OC, Staples, (2001) found that employees’ trust level apart is linked to job satisfaction and low stress levels.

2.6.2 Extrinsic Factors

Financial rewards are often recommended as a technique to increase workers’ motivation and job performance (Bonner & Sprinkle, 2002). However, the motivation achieved by these rewards is temporary since employees tend to view them as rights after some time (Shanks, 2007). A study by Mitra, Gupta and Douglas (1997) suggested that any pay increase below 7% will get unnoticed and will not promote any motivation. Research has produced mixed outcomes about its effect on motivation and performance (Sprinkle, 2000). While some have claimed that financial incentives do not impact motivation, others showed that this factor has a positive relation with it (Locke, Feren, McCaleb, Shaw, & Denny, 1980; Camerer & Hogarth, 1999). However, many organisations failed to create a workable system grounded only on monetary rewards (Kohn, 1993).

Job promotion opportunities have been considered a source of employees’ motivation and job satisfaction (Lazear, 1992). Numerous studies concluded that this extrinsic factor has a significant positive association with both job satisfaction and motivation (Ssesanga & Garrett, 2005; Zainudin, Junaidah, & Nazmi, 2010). Furthermore, research conducted by Takahashi (2006) and Nabi, Islam, Dip and Hossain (2007) amongst Japanese and Bangladeshi workers found that promotion prospects highly influence work motivation. However, they suggested that job advancement opportunities should be fair since it may create demotivation.

The factor of job security has been considered a safety need (Maslow, 1943), a hygiene factor (Herzberg, 1968), a significant employee concern, and a variable that promotes motivation, especially in periods of financial recession. The fact that an employee perceives that the organisation will keep his/her employment is described as a cause of motivation (Tannenbaum & Yukl, 1992). A study by Ichino and Riphahn (2005) showed that there is a strong association between high absence and low levels of job security, research by Reisel, Probst, Chia, Maloles, and König (2010) concluded that job satisfaction is highly affected by job safety.

According to Baumeister and Leary (1995), interpersonal relationships promote belongingness, but to derive motivation these should be frequent, interesting, steady, and lasting. Furthermore, the leadership style adopted also affects relationships since resultant motivation may help or dishearten work-place relationships (Germano, 2010). Theories about motivation and job satisfaction have been discussed with workplace relationships and fairness and it was suggested that motivation and satisfaction are highly dependable on employee relationships with superiors and co-workers (Lawson, Noblet, & Rodwell, 2009). In other words, the more the relationship is negative, the less becomes the fairness. Nowicka (1999) suggested that having the opportunity to work with agreeable people can be the most valuable work-place aspect due to the positive effect on both employee and organisation.

The workplace environment is a wide subject which includes both the workplace physical layout and the job conditions (Briner, 2000). It was suggested that the quality of education given and educators’ job satisfaction are highly dependable on work conditions and workplace environment and managers should focus on improving them (Luthans, 1995; Chandrasekar, 2011). Research showed that improvements in workplace environment increase productivity and job satisfaction while lack of improvement increases absenteeism (Clements-Croome, 2000; Roelofsen, 2002).

Supplying employees with the necessary resources is crucial in supporting their OC and reducing turnover level. A study conducted by Bishay (1996) showed that resources given to educators highly influence motivation while Moleni and Ndalama (2004) stated that their availability is a key motivator for educators. It has been suggested that insufficiency of teaching resources can compromise the whole educational system since it increases early school leaving and affects negatively academic performance, students’ discipline and educators’ motivation (Okongo, Ngao, Naftal, & Wesonga, 2015).

2.7 Motivation Variances by Gender and Age

2.7.1 Gender

Today women are important players in every organisation and their involvement is constantly increasing due to the rapid changes in the social and economic sectors. Therefore, undervaluing and misinterpreting the impact of women’s motivation in any workplace can lead to underestimating their skills and miss opportunities to achieve better organisational performance (Arnania-Kepuladze, 2010).Many studies investigating motivation differences between genders are grounded on the main historical variances between the two groups and various authors suggested that many workplace motivation differences exist between male and females (Stead, 2009; Vaskova, 2006).

Demartino and Barbato (2003) stated that men are more motivated by career opportunities than women and the gap is higher when women have dependent children. Financial income, autonomy, career advancement opportunities and challenge were also associated with men while the needs associated with life-quality improvements such as interpersonal relationships, job security and work environment were typical of women (Arnania- Kepuladze, 2010).

Women unlike men tend to refuse job advancement opportunities since they perceive that failure of achieving success can lead to social rejection and make them feel inferior (Arnania-Kepuladze, 2010). Vaskova (2006) study showed that men are mostly affected by financial factors, while women put more value to interpersonal relationships.

Moreover, it resulted that due to the higher salary influence in men, their tendency to switch a job is only considered if higher financial returns are offered (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2009).

Most studies presented a difference between genders which confirmed Hofstede (2011) statement that men’s motivation depends on pay, career development and responsibility while women are more motivated by the environment, challenge, task relevance, work relationships and job safety. However, other studies showed that only minor differences exist between genders (Dubinsky, Joison, Michaels, Kotabe, & Lim, 1993; Worthley, MacNab, Brislin, & Ito, 2009). Furthermore, Pearson & Chatterjee (2002) claimed that job motivation and associated factors are similar in both genders.

2.7.2 Age

The literature presented several points of view on subjects in connection with the workplace generation gap. For example, Tolbize (2008) suggested that each age group is diversely affected by the same actions. However, when individuals from different age groups act together in a joint task, they may share similar behaviours, thoughts, and principles (Zemke, 2013). Surely a decrease in the workplace motivation is regarded as a key reason for conflicts between different generations working in the same organisation (Tolbize, 2008).

Deal (2007) stated that younger and older employees have similar opinions on the organisation management, and both are motivated by respect. However, the associations are different since the younger age group want respect by being recognised for their innovative ideas while the older generations want that their ideas are respected due to their knowledge and experience. A comparable situation appeared on the factor of training, where older employees are motivated by skills training while the younger groups are influenced by training on leadership (Deal, 2007).

Miscellaneous studies presented a range of factors that inspire motivation in different age groups. Results in research by Kovach (1995) on a thousand employees showed that the younger generation of employees was concerned with salary, job advancement, training, and meaningful tasks while the older valued benefits, retirement policies and job safety. This was also confirmed by a study on Japanese workers which stated that age has interesting associations with extrinsic and intrinsic factors and explained that the more the age rises the less is the need for growth an the higher is the need for job security (Worthley, MacNab, Brislin, & Ito, 2009).

A well-elaborated study by Lord and Farrington (2006) on motivational level variance between young and old age employees found that employees younger than fifty years, valued career progression, job security and interpersonal relationships, while older workers preferred autonomy. Similarly, a study by Stead (2009) confirmed that workers motivational needs change with age groups and suggested that older employees gave more value to autonomy and meaningful work than younger ones. Additionally, they felt no inspiration for job training and advancement.

2.8 Research Gap

Literature is affluent on the concepts of motivation, job satisfaction and OC amongst educators due to countless studies conducted in several countries (Hammett & Burton, 2005; Anghelache, 2015; Gokce, 2010; Han & Hongbiao, 2016). However, without weakening the high input that these studies gave in understanding better these areas, a literature gap emerged since many were focused on teachers while research on KE’s and LSE’s is extremely limited. Additionally, a higher research gap concerning educators in Maltese Schools was noted. Since most studies were based on the participants’ social, economic, and cultural backgrounds, their findings, conclusions, and recommendations may not apply to the Maltese setting.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a general overview of the methodological approach used for this study to answer the RQ’s articulated in Chapter 1. It initiates by giving a scientific explanation on the philosophy of positivism which directed the author to adopt certain methods and reject others. Besides, the research strategy and the methods chosen for empirical data collection and analysis are discussed. Furthermore, the adopted techniques are assessed in terms of reliability and validity. Finally, the research limitations and ethical considerations are presented.

3.2 Research Philosophy

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) stated that the study’s research philosophy is crucial since it determines the creation, direction, and guidance throughout the entire process. However, researchers presented different considerations of what establishes the truth, knowledge and understandings which guide our thoughts, views, and expectations about ourselves and humanity. Social researchers described all this as a paradigm (Schwandt, 2001). The author for this study decided to use the positivist philosophy for two specific reasons which are the considerable number of participants and time constraints. Positivism is concerned about the facts collected and that data acquired is related to human experiences (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009).

Crowther and Lancaster (2008) reasoned that positivist studies adopt a deductive style, and the researcher should never try to affect the results. Therefore, the author limited himself to minimal interaction with participants and his role was solely to collect and interpret data objectively, since research within this paradigm should be based solely on facts and the area researched should be regarded as external. Moreover, as this philosophy demanded data collected was quantifiable so statistics for analysation could be extracted during all processes used. The author believed that the most appropriate positivistic approach to tackle the RQ’s was by using a questionnaire (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009).

For this study, the paradigm choice was a determining factor in selecting the methods for gathering and analysing empirical data. However, this approach determined only a single perspective on the issues, relationships and impacting factors of job motivation, job satisfaction and OC. In other words, findings, and analysis from similar research by future researchers adopting diverse philosophies, may differ from those in this study. Therefore, the results of this dissertation cannot be treated as the only reality on the subjects.

3.3 Research Approach

Two main approaches, that are used when conducting a study are inductive and deductive. While the inductive approach adopts a process that is interested in forming a theory after data is collected and analysed, a deductive approach requires that a research strategy is constructed for data collection and analysis to confirm or reject a theory, that was already present before the process began (Wilson, 2010; Babbie, 2010).

It is evident that this study was based on a deductive approach since the hypotheses mentioned in Chapter 1 were already present in the study before the data collection and analysation processes began. As required by a deductive approach, these hypotheses were articulated after the author reviewed the available literature to formulate the RQ’s and consequently the hypotheses. This literature review was also essential to find factors that influence motivation and job satisfaction, that could be included in the questionnaire so study participants could rank them according to their importance (Creswell, 2013).

The author used the same approach, even in the data collection and analysis to establish motivation, job satisfaction and OC levels among educators employed in MSS and to confirm the hypotheses. The direction of the study was never changed, and the author remained loyal to both the positivistic philosophy and deductive approach throughout the entire process.

3.3 Research Strategy

The research strategy is a design on how the researcher is going to find an answer for the RQ’s developed (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009) and is reliant on the study’s purpose and data accessibility (Naoum, 2013). For this study, the author evaluated the three types of research methods being the qualitative, the quantitative and the mixed to identify the most appropriate for the research objectives (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009)

3.3.1 Research Methods and Justifications for Rejection and Selection

Lewis, Saunders & Thornhill (2003) posited that qualitative methods are non-numerical and are used to evaluate descriptive information. In qualitative studies, the researcher is required to interpret and verify data on his own and is restricted in finding relationships between variables. Surely this method is beneficial when used in focus groups due to its ability in collecting information that is freely given in a friendly environment.

However, the author rejected this method to collect primary data since it was not considered valid for this study. Since the main aim of a qualitative approach is to understand subjective experiences and participants’ insights, the method was deemed as incompatible with the positivist philosophy and the deductive approach adopted of this study. However, a similar approach to this method was adopted in Chapter 2 since the secondary data was mostly documented qualitative information.

The quantitative method is concerned about determining the validity of an issue, normally based on a theory by numeric measurements and analysations (Creswell, 2013). Similarly, Aliaga and Gunderson (2002) stated that quantitative approaches can answer RQ’s by quantifying and analysing numerical data of various variables collected through different techniques.

Williams (2011) described that a quantitative study process begins with a problem statement, continues with the development of hypothesis and/or RQ, reviews related literature and finally, investigates data collected by quantitative methods. This definition made the author select this method, since it made him conclude that it fits perfectly with the positivist philosophy and deductive approach assumed for this study. Moreover, the author decided that a quantitative collection tool like a questionnaire will be less time consuming to gather data and more appropriate to use with large population samples.

The mixed research method is a combination of both qualitative and quantitative approaches and is used to gain a better understanding of the research subject. All the techniques used in data collection and analysis can be done simultaneously or in different periods. However, this method for collecting data may be very time-consuming (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009).

At first, this method was considered for this study but when the author evaluated the time limitations, high study population and the philosophy already adopted in this research. the option was rejected.

3.4 Data Sources

For this research, the author needed to acquire two forms of data which were the primary and secondary.

Primary data was collected by using a structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions that was distributed to three samples of respondents from each educators’ category (Teachers, KE’s and LSE’s). The samples were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. This deductive method helped the researcher to gather quantitative primary data and was primarily selected because of its time- efficiency, data validity and cost.

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) stated that secondary data is the primary data gathered by someone during research which presently is being used by someone else to conduct a different study. The author has collected this data after conducting a deep analysis of various academic literature present in online journals and books. This step was indispensable for the author to gain knowledge and understand deeper the concepts of motivation, job satisfaction. OC, and relationships associated with them. Furthermore, it helped in finding valuable information that was later used in the questionnaire design to identify job motivation and satisfaction factors.

3.5 Research Design, Sampling and Data Collection

The literature reviewed helped in identifying factors that may impact job motivation and satisfaction and behaviours associated with OC levels. This knowledge was used as a foundation to construct the questionnaire which was later, distributed to the population samples to obtain statistics required to answer the RQ’s and test the hypotheses. The author was very meticulous in the questionnaire construction and the suggestions by Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) about the questionnaire’s layout were highly considered. Moreover, similarly to Galdas (2017) reasoning, the author was conscious that the questionnaire should be designed in a way to avoid any bias, so data collected will be honest.

The author opted to use a questionnaire due to its efficiency to collect large volumes of data. Moreover, as described by De Vaus (2002) data acquired by this method is easy to be organised and analysed. However, the format should be built in a way to collect responses from a choice of pre-set questions. The author opted to build the questionnaire in an electronic format and store it online using the platform of SurveyMonkey (2019) since it was deemed beneficial for the questionnaire design and responses’ analysis.

3.5.1 Questionnaire Structure

The questionnaire for this study (Appendix 1) consisted of six sections: - The introductory section was informative and gave an overview of the questionnaire by describing the study scope. Moreover, it explained the processes adopted to collect data and how the same data was stored to maintain confidentiality. Finally, it gave a choice to continue or exit the survey and if the latter option was selected, the participant was directed immediately to the end of the survey.

The second section was composed of a set of five questions which were required to collect general information on participants like gender, age, educational background, grade, and years in employment. These were required for the research since the author needed to evaluate different demographic perceptions.

The third section was divided into two subsections, one for intrinsic factors and the other for extrinsic factors. In each part, the participant was given a matrix table including a list of eight motivational factors presented in a statement form. The participant was asked to express his/her degree of importance with each factor by a three-point Likert scale (1- Agree, 2-Neutral, 3-Disagree). Furthermore, each answer was given a score so the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that mostly affect educators’ motivation could be determined.

The fourth section presented another matrix table including 16 weighted statements related to motivation factors and the respondent was asked to choose his/her level of agreement or disagreement with each statement from a three-point Likert scale (1-Agree, 2-Neutral, 3-Disagree). This enabled the author to identify the educators ‘motivation level and by which factors this is most impacted.

The fifth section was on job satisfaction and initiated with a direct question, where respondents needed to choose their job satisfaction level from a five-point scale. Moreover, it contained a ranking table which asked the respondents to rank in order of importance, ten factors that are considered to impact job satisfaction.

The last section presented a matrix table with a three-point Likert Scale, designed to discover educators’ commitment level. The table was constructed in a way to give the author the ability to identify which type of OC between affective, continuance and normative, the respondents were mostly attached. Moreover, questions from 5 to 8 were constructed in reverse order, to limit the respondent’s tendency to get adapted to mark in the same order.

3.5.2 Testing of Data Collection Instrument

Before distributing the questionnaire to the actual samples, the author chose to pilot test it in a real-life scenario. The reason for this procedure was to identify any errors that needed revision. This was done by sending the questionnaire to ten pilot test contributors, knowledgeable about the Maltese educational sector. They were requested to complete and evaluate the questionnaire and return feedback. The information received, helped to identify and correct mistakes in the design and language used. However, the data collected from these tests was not included with the data gathered in the real study.

3.5.3 Sampling

Since the author wanted to have an adequate sample from each educator’s category a stratified random sampling technique was used. The first step was to stratify the entire population of 6745 educators (MEDE, 2019a) in three groups consisting of Teachers, LSE’s and KE’s. Table 1 explains the population for each stratum (MEDE, 2019b).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 1: Population for each Strata (MEDE, 2019b)


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The role of motivation and its effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A study on educators employed in Maltese schools
University of Chester  (Chester Business School)
Master in Business Administration
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JOB SATISFACTION, ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT, Educators, schools, malta, motivation
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Rudolph Marmara (Author), 2019, The role of motivation and its effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A study on educators employed in Maltese schools, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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