2. Review of Literature
3. Materials and Methods
4. Result and Discussion
5. Conclusion and Recommendation
This is to certify that the final report on UGC Minor research project entitled “LIMNOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MAJALGAON RESERVOIR OF MARATHWADA, MAHARASHTRA STATE ” is a record of bonafide research work carried out by Dr. PAWAR RAJKUMAR TUKARAM, Assistant Professor of Zoology, Department of Zoology, M.S.P. Mandal’s - Majalgaon Arts, Science & Commerce College, Majalgaon. A copy of the final report of Minor Research Project has been kept in the library of Zoology Department and an executive summary of the report has been posted on the website of the College.
I hereby declare that the Minor Research Project work completed in the form of dissertation entitled “Limnological studies of Majalgaon Reservoir of Marathwada, Maharashtra state” is an original work and has not been submitted or published before in any form for the fulfillment of any degree, diploma or any other similar title.
I express the deep sense of gratitude to the Joint Secretary and Head WRO, UGC, PUNE, for sanctioning the minor research project under XIIth Plan period.
I acknowledge with gratitude for the co-operation and guidance extended to me by Dr. S. S. Solanke, Principal, Majalgaon Arts, Science and Commerce College, Majalgaon.
I am grateful to the management of our college for the full co-operation and guidance extended and for providing facilities, to carry out research work.
I have great pleasure in expressing my heartfelt thanks to former Principal, Dr. B. D. Rathod for inspiration and co-operation during my work.
I would like to place on record my sincere thanks to Mr. G. K. Sanap, Head of Mathematics Department for inspiration and encouragement.
I deeply express my sense of gratitude to my wife Miss. Shubhangi R. Pawar and daughter Rangana Pawar for their love and affection in making my attempt true and successful.
I express my sincere thanks to my friends and all colleagues for providing raw material, guidance, kind support, encouragement and help.
CHAPTER - 1
The world seems to be unanimous in acknowledging that water is rapidly becoming the most critical factor in economic development, and that water scarcity is increasing due to rapid expansion of human population and its water requirement for agricultural, urban and industrial growth. This is reflected in the United Nations declaring 2003 as International Year of Freshwater, followed by the International Decade for Action: Water for Life (2005-2015). The Human Development Report (2006) focuses on global water crisis. One would expect that limnology will play a central role in finding a solution to this ‘global crisis’ because it is the only science that seeks to integrate different water-related disciplines and takes a holistic view of inland waters ecosystems.
Limnology is the science of inland water bodies particularly rivers, ponds and lakes, including their biological, physical, chemical and hydrobiological aspects. The main aspect of Limnology is the biogenic material balance of natural waters. Water maintains an ecological balance between various group of living organism and their environment. Limnology has come a long way since the time Forel (1892) in understanding the dynamic of a standing water bodies subsequently, Limnology was studied with reference to the organism specially plankton Hensen (1887) and Fritsch (1907).
The industrial and agricultural progress of the country largely depends on its water resources, particularly rivers and reservoirs (Desai and Shrivastava, 2004). Reservoirs are of high ecological, economic and recreational importance. A large number of reservoirs have been constructed in India during the last five decades, with the primary objective of storing river water for irrigation and power generation. All man-made impoundments created by obstructing the surface flow, by erecting a dam of any description, on a river, stream or any water course, have been reckoned as reservoirs (Sugunan, 1995). Fish Seed Committee of the Government of India (1996) termed all water bodies of more than 200 ha in area as reservoirs (Desai and Shrivastava, 2004). It has also been agreed to classify uniformly reservoirs of the country into small (<1000 ha), medium (1000 to 5000 ha) and large (>5000 ha) based on their hectarage. In India, medium and large reservoirs are fewer in number but small reservoirs are numerous. By the end of year 1995, the country had 19,370 reservoirs covering more than 3 million ha of reservoirs which included 19,134 small reservoirs with an area of 1,485,557 ha, 180 medium reservoirs covering 507,298 ha and 56 large reservoirs with a water surface area of 160,511 ha (Sugunan, 2011).
Reservoir Fresh water bodies are specialized ecosystems which perform important ecological functions and have many ecological, socio-economic and cultural values. One of the very important functions of the fresh water bodies is to provide suitable habitat for the breeding of local birds as well as a wintering ground for short and long distance migratory water birds.
The increasing industrialization, urbanization and developmental activities, to cope up the population explosion have brought inevitable water crisis. The health of lakes and their biological diversity are directly related to health of almost every component of the ecosystem (Ramesh et al., 2007). The aquatic environment can generally be characterized as a dilute aqueous solution, containing a large variety of organic and inorganic chemical substances dissolved and in suspension and including a variety of plant and animal life. Knowledge of the qualitative and quantitative composition of this system is the first approach towards revealing the nature of the particular environmental problem. The significant role played by different water resources in almost all the developmental programmes of the country hardly needs any elaboration. These resources not only serve the purpose of water supply for domestic and industrial use, but also for the development of agriculture, fisheries, power etc.
Limniology deals with the biological productivity of inland water and with all its causal influences which determines its causal influences involve Physical, Chemical and Biological factors, which determine the quality and quantity of Biological production. Physicochemical analysis indicates the changes in different factors and their influence on biological status of the system. In the present investigation an attempt has been made to study certain limnological feature of fresh water Majalgaon reservoir.
CHAPTER - 2
Review of Literature
Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset and hence its use needs appropriate planning, development and management. Due to tremendous development of industry and agriculture, the water ecosystem has become perceptibly altered in several respects in recent years and as such they are exposed to all local disturbances regardless of where they occur (Venkatesan, 2007). The health of reservoirs and their biological diversity are directly related to health of almost every component of the ecosystem (Ramesh et al., 2007). In freshwater bodies, nutrients play a major role as their excesses lead to eutrophication. Monitoring and assessment provide the basic information on the condition of water bodies and which is the first step that can lead to management and conservation of aquatic ecosystems. It is also true that the management of any aquatic ecosystem is aimed to the conservation of its habitat by suitably maintaining the physico-chemical quality of water within acceptable levels. Water quality of the water bodies are determined by studying the physico-chemical characteristics in them.
2.2. Physicochemical Parameters of Majalgaon Reservoir
Many studies were conducted on physico-chemical characteristics of different water bodies particularly in lakes, dams and reservoirs . Variations in the physico-chemical parameters due to seasonal changes were mainly attended in these studies. Talling (1987) studied the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Victoria (East Africa) and according to him, in tropical and sub tropical lakes, fluctuations in total radiation and water temperature are not as high as those observed in temperate regions. Hart et al. (1987) in a detailed study in the Magela creek wetland System in Australia reported that the rain water had a great influence in the quality of water in freshwater bodies. Similar findings were reported by Sondergaard and Jensen (1979) from Kalgaard lake, Denmark. Khan and Chowdhury (1994) studied the limnology of Lake Kaptai, Bangladesh and they revealed that higher transparency occurred during winter and summer was due to the absence of rain, runoff and flood water as well as gradual settling of suspended particles. Sifa and Senlin (1995) studied the Chinese reservoirs and reported that the transparency was closely related to the amount of sandy clay, detritus and organic matter suspended in water and quantity of dissolved elements in water. Ibrahim et al. (2009) assessed the physico-chemical parameters of Kontagora reservoir, Nigeria and some marked variations in the physical and chemical parameters were observed between sampling stations and seasons. The mean dry season values of transparency, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, phosphate, phosphorus and total dissolved solids were found higher than those of rainy seasons in this study. Demas (1985) studied the limnology of Lake Bruin, Louisiana and found concentrations of DO vary considerably with depth, location and season. Alkaline pH was noted by Bhatt et al. (1999) in Taudaha lake, Katmandu. Comin et al. (1983) investigated the limnology of Gallocenta lake in Spain and stated that high nitrate concentrations in lake is related to inputs from agricultural lands. Kennedy and Hain (2002) reported that the nitrate-nitrogen increases with surface run-off and at deeper depths when they carried out investigations in Verkhne Viiskii reservoir, Russia. Kolo and Oladimeji (2004) investigated the water quality and some nutrient levels in Shiroro lake, Nigeria and recorded higher water hardness during the dry season than the rainy season. While assessing the physico-chemical properties of Moro lake, Nigeria, Mustapha and Omotosho (2006) stated that the interactions of both the physical and chemical properties of water play a significant role in composition, distribution and abundance of aquatic organisms. Akin et al. (2008) examined the physico-chemical, toxicological and ecological parameters of Gokcekaya dam lake’s water, Turkey where it was seen that while the quality had no certain differences, the level of the nutrients in the water was low. The different characteristics of the coming water enriched the varieties of algae in this reservoir. Devi et al. (2008) investigated the siltation and nutrient enrichment level of the Gilgel Gibe hydroelectric power dam in Ethiopia and it was found that siltation and nutrient enrichment were the major problems in this reservoir. Janjua et al. (2009) studied the limnology and trophic status of Shahpur dam reservoir, Pakistan and recorded highest water turbidity during the monsoon months. Variations in the water quality of fresh water bodies due to human intervention were also been examined by several workers. Palma et al. (2010) assessed the ecotoxicological characterization of the surface water of Alqueva reservoir, Portugal and evaluated the influence of anthropogenic sources of pollution and their seasonal variation in its toxicity. The physicochemical parameters and the pesticide concentrations in the reservoir indicated that the water quality was worse in the north part of the reservoir system. Akomeah etal. (2010) studied the physico-chemical characteristics of Ibiekuma dam, Ethiopia and recorded slightly acidic mean pH values due to the high carbon dioxide concentration occurring from organic decomposition. Edward and Ugwumba (2010) examined the physico-chemical parameters of Egbe reservoir, Nigeria where nutrient levels observed was generally higher during dry season than wet seasons. Shah et al. (2011) investigated the environmental variables of eight lakes and one reservoir in Nepal and found that the DO was negatively correlated and conductivity was positively correlated with the increasing pollution level of water bodies. DO was found reduced due to sewage discharged into dam in the study conducted by Ural and Ozdemir (2011) in Keban dam lake, Turkey.
Fresh water bodies in India were also been studied by several workers. Ayyappa and Gupta (1991) studied the limnology of Ramasamudra tank, Karnataka and they recorded the minimum water temperature during June and maximum in the month of May. Khan et al. (1986) studied the limnochemistry and water quality aspects of Upper lake Bhopal during the winter season and showed that the physico-chemical characteristics varied from reservoir to reservoir due to their geological setting. Thirumala et al. (2011) studied the physico-chemical characteristics of Bhadra reservoir of Karnataka and observed high EC and low BOD during rainy season. Jain et al. (1996) observed the diurnal variations in temperature in the Halai reservoir (Madhya Pradesh) and which influence the aquatic life and concentration of dissolved gases like CO2, O2 and chemical solutes. Swarnalatha and Rao (1998) conducted a study on Banjara lake (Andra Pradesh) with reference to water pollution and observed that the temperature was high during summer season due to clear atmosphere, greater solar radiation, and low water level.
Higher values of phosphate in monsoon period were reported by Murugavel and Pandian (2000) in Kodayar reservoir, Tamil Nadu. Shastri and Pendse (2001) studied the hydrobiology of Dahikhura reservoir of Rajasthan and observed high temperature in summer season due to high solar radiation. Fokmare and Musaddiq (2002) investigated the physico-chemical characteristics of Kapsi lake of Maharastra and observed higher values of COD during summer season. Reduction in dissolved oxygen due to high temperature was reported by Shanthi et al. (2002) in the study conducted in Singanallur lake, Tamil Nadu. The physico-chemical parameters in surface waters of Shahpura lake, Madhya Pradesh were studied by Tiwari et al. (2004) and declared the variation in the water temperature during the present investigation was due to the difference in sampling time and the effect of season.
Khan and Khan (1985) studied the physical and chemical conditions of Seikha Jheelat, Uttar Pradesh and according to them the higher range of pH indicates higher productivity of water. Pandey and Soni (1993) had observed high values of free carbon dioxide, alkalinity and pH along with low dissolved oxygen in a highly polluted Lake Naukuchiyatal situated in Himalayas. Srivastava et al. (2009) while examining the physico-chemical properties of various water bodies in and around Jaipur, Rajastan reported that the water of Jalmahal lake was most polluted due to high pH, hardness, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide, zinc content, and a low level of dissolved oxygen. Senthilkumar and Sivakumar (2008) examined the abiotic factors in Veeranam Lake of Tamil Nadu and according to them; the highest average value of total dissolved solids in the lake may be due to the accumulation of anthropogenic activity which hampered the quality of water.
Moundiotiya et al. (2004) studied the Jamwa Ramgarh Lake with special reference to physico-chemical properties of water and water temperature was found to be lower than atmospheric temperature. Sultana and Sharief (2004) conducted the water pollution studies in the double lake (Erretal eri) and according to them, the low oxygen values coincided with high temperature during the summer months. The hydrobiological study conducted by Surve et al. (2005) in Kandhar dam, Maharashtra revealed that the water temperature increased during warmer months and decreased during colder months. Devaraju et al. (2005) studied the physico-chemical parameters of Muddur lake, Andra Pradesh where they observed low transparency and BOD values during monsoon season whereas high BOD was recorded during summer months. Similarly, Garg et al. (2006) in their study conducted in Harsi reservoir, Madhya Pradesh reported low transparency during monsoon season. Rawat and Sharma (2005) investigated the Himalayan Lake Deoria Tal (Uttaranchal) and the nutrients such as sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were observed in greater concentration during the summer season due to evaporation. However, Kar et al. (2006) could not record much fluctuations in the study conducted on the limnology of the Lake Sone in Assam. The investigation on physico chemical and micro biological studies of drinking of Paly district Rajasthan was carried out by Suthar A. K. et,al (2012). Paly is a town in Rajasthan state of western India the main purpose of present study was to analyze quality of ground water. It shows that only PH and Nitrate values lies within the permissible limit while rest of the parameters are beyond permissible limit Kamble et al. (2009) studied the physico-chemical parameters of Ruti dam, Maharashtra and observed low oxygen values coincided with high temperature during the summer months. Murthuzasab et al. (2010) studied the seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters of Hirahalla reservoir, Karnataka and recorded higher values of electrical conductivity in north east monsoon season due to agricultural run-off. Manjare et al. (2010) recorded maximum pH values during summer in a study conducted in Tamdalge tank in Maharashtra. According to them, the factors like air temperature bring about changes in the pH of water. Garg et al. (2010) studied the seasonal variations in water quality and major threats to Ramsagar reservoir and observed the lower concentration of magnesium and sodium and higher value of turbidity in monsoon season. Patil et al. (2011) studied the abiotic factors of Lotus lake (Maharashtra) and their correlation with reference to seasonal changes and altitude. The air temperature in Lotus lake showed significant variations over the seasons with maximum air temperature in summer.
Sangpal et al. (2011) assessed the physico-chemical properties of Ujjani reservoir, Maharashtra to study the pollution potential and their findings highlighted the deterioration of water quality in the dam due to industrialization and urbanization. Jayabhaye, U.M., et,al. (2008) reported that the physico-chemical parameters of a minor reservoir, Sawana, in Hingoli District, Maharahstra.Shows seasonal changes in physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, water transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, phosphates and nitrates were analyzed twice in a month for a period of two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. All the parameters were within the permissible limits. The results indicate that the reservoir is not polluted and water can be used for irrigation and pisciculture.
2.3. Zooplankton Diversity
The study of zooplankton has been a fascinating subject for a long time. In the last two decades much attention has been paid in tropical countries towards the study of biology, ecology and toxicology of zooplankton due to their important role in the rapidly emerging concepts in environmental management like Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), bio indication of pollution and biological monitoring (Salve and Hiware, 2010). Zooplankton is good indicators of the changes in water quality because they are strongly affected by environmental conditions and respond quickly to changes in water quality. Zooplankton is the intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish. Hence qualitative and quantitative studies of zooplankton are of great importance.
Silva and Davias (1986) investigated the primary productivity and released parameters in three different types of inland waters in Sri Lanka and according to them, the amount of dissolved solutes play an important role directly or indirectly to control the growth of zooplankton. Aziz and Ezz (2004) studied the temporal and spatial changes of zooplankton structure related to the ecological characteristics of Lake Maryout, Egypt which lies under stress of different types of discharged waste waters. They identified a total of 112 species, including 13 marine forms. Pociecha and Heese (2007) were examined the structure of zooplankton community and its spatial distribution in two Pomeranian reservoirs, Rosnowski and Hajka. 34 species of zooplankton were identified in Rosnowski reservoir and 32 species in Hajka. Mustapha (2010) studied the seasonal influence of limnological variables on plankton dynamics of a small, shallow, tropical African reservoir (Oyun reservoir) and 14 genera of zooplankton were identified with a total of 1709 organisms/m3 of zooplankton number. Oueda et al. (2007) studied the diversity, abundance and seasonal dynamic of zooplankton community in a south Saharan reservoir (Loumbila reservoir) and observed that Crustaceans are more sensitive to the season impacts than Rotifers. Besides the seasonal variability, the zooplankton community of Loumbila reservoir also showed variability according to depth. Sartori et al. (2009) studied the zooplankton fluctuations in Jurumirim reservoir, Brazil and identified 32 taxa of Rotifers.
Kozak and Gołdyn (1995) studied the zooplankton versus phyto and bacterioplankton in the Maltański reservoir, Poland and 63 taxa of Rotifers were detected. Sampaio et al. (2002) investigated the composition and abundance of zooplankton in the limnetic zone of seven reservoirs of the Paranapanema river, Brazil and taxonomic dominance of Rotifera was reported. Zooplankton community structure of Asartepe dam lake in Turkey was examined by Buyurgan et al. (2010) and Rotifera was found to be the dominant group with 43 species, followed by Cladocera with 3 species and Copepoda with 2 taxa respectively. Edward and Ugwumba (2010) studied the physico-chemical parameters and plankton community of Egbe reservoir, Nigeria and Copepods were found to be most abundant during the dry season while Cladocera was the least abundant during dry season.
Four genera of Rotifera and Cladocera and two genera under Copepoda were observed by Agrawal (1980) when he studied some aspects of limnology of Ramaua dam, Madhya Pradesh with special reference to phytoplankton and zooplankton. Ramakrishna and Sarkar (1982) studied the plankton productivity in relation to certain hydrobiological factors in Konar reservoir, Bihar and observed that the simultaneous presence of dissolved oxygen and hard water favoured the production of zooplankton during the summer. Similar results were also reported by Bhati and Rana (1987) when they studied the zooplankton in relation to abiotic components in the Fort moat of Bharatpur. Masood (1987) noted zooplankton species with their maximum values during summer and minimum in winter when he studied the bimodal peak of zooplankton in Kashmir lake. Bais and Agrawal (1995) conducted a comparative study of the zooplanktonic spectrum in the Sagar lake and Military Engineering lake and according to him the summer population maxima of zooplankton were co-related with higher temperature, lower transparency and a high standing crop of primary producers leading to greater availability of food. Their investigation in Sagar lake revealed that the fresh water flood from the upstream caused great depletion of zooplankton population density during rainy months. Walujkar and Hiware (2006) studied the seasonal variation in zooplankton population of Shirsatwadi reservoir, Maharashtra and observed that low zooplankton counts in the reservoir during monsoon season due to dilution. Salve and Hiware (2010) studied the zooplankton diversity of Wanprakalpa reservoir, Maharashtra and recorded 17 genera of zooplankton belonging to four major groups Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda. Chauhan (1993) investigated the seasonal fluctuation of zooplankton in Renuka lake of Himachal Pradesh and observed maximum number of Copepods during summer and minimum during winter.
Pathak and Mudgal (2004) studied the biodiversity of zooplankton in Virla reservoir of Madhya Pradesh and observed five genera in respect of Protozoans and Copepodans. Jayabhaye and Jadhav (2009) studied the population dynamics of Cladocerans and Copepods in Sawana dam, Maharashtra and recorded 9 species of Cladocerans and 4 species of Copepods with maximum density of Copepods during summer. Rao and Durve (1992) studied the structure and dynamic of zooplankton in Rangasagar lake, Udaipur and observed that the Cladocerans contributed 22.31% of total zooplankton collection and were represented by 13 species. Rajashekhar et al. (2010) investigated the seasonal variations of zooplankton community in a freshwater reservoir at Gulbarga district, Karnataka and recorded 6 species of Cladocerans in the reservoir. They observed maximum density of Cladocera in monsoon season while low density in summer season. According to Chattopadhyay and Barik (2009), the abundance of Rotifera in Krishnasayer lake was probably because of their ability to withstand and survive in varying limnological conditions prevailing at different seasons.
Shashikanth and Vijaykumar (2009) studied the seasonal distribution and diversity of zooplankton in Karanja reservoir, Karnataka and according to them, Ostracoda represented very low population diversity compared to other groups. Mahor (2011) assessed the diversity and seasonal fluctuation of zooplankton in Tighra fresh water reservoir (Madhya Pradesh) and observed 38 species of zooplankton with the highest density of Ostracoda during summer season and minimum during rainy season. Sirsat and Jogadand (2012) studied the zooplankton of Domri reservoir, Maharashtra and recorded maximum density of Ostracods during summer season.
2.4. Ichthyofaunal Diversity of Majalgaon Reservoir
Reservoirs, the most important freshwater resource, have the potential to substantially augment the inland fish production of the country. To formulate sound scientific management measures for augmenting fish production in reservoirs, information on the fish yield potential is necessary which would help in setting targets for such water bodies. Many studies were undertaken to know the role of reservoirs in the fish production in India and abroad.
Gophen et al. (1983) studied the impact of fish introduction into the Lake Kinneret, the only natural freshwater lake in Israel and found that the introduced fish actually displaced local fish in this lake and that the increase in yield is attributed to improved fishing techniques and not to the introduction of a multitude of different fishes. Castro (1997) studied the fish diversity in Barra Bonita reservoir, Brazil and reported 35 species of fishes in the reservoir.
Henry and Nogueira (1999) studied the fish diversity of Jurumirim impoundments and observed 28 species of fishes. Araujo and Santos (2001) investigated the distribution of fish assemblages in Lajes reservoir, Brazil and reported 15 species of fishes belonging to 14 genera and 9 families. According to their study, the seasonal environmental variables of temperature, pH, transparency and water level did not show a clear association with fish occurrence in Lajes reservoir. Study on the fish community and the status of the fishery of Chenderoh Reservoir, Malaysia was carried out by Kah-Wai and Ali ( 2001) and 42 species from 13 families were observed in contrast to 63 species observed 7 years earlier. Mustapha (2002) surveyed the flora and fauna of Oyun lake in Nigeria and eight fish species representing six families were obtained. Carol et al. (2006) studied the effects of limnological features on fish assemblages of 14 Spanish reservoirs and found that the most eutrophic reservoirs were dominated by common carp (Cyprinus carpio) whereas the oligotrophic reservoirs presented other fish species in tolerant to pollution rather native. Despite clear changes in species composition, there was no significant effect of water quality on overall fish richness. Mancini et al. (2009) evaluated the specific richness and diversity of ichthyofauna in La Viña reservoir, Argentina and 7 species distributed in 5 orders and 5 families were observed. Bala et al. (2009) studied the ichtyofauna of Daberam reservoir, Nigeria and 7 genera comprising 11 species of fish were identified. A total of twelve species from eight families were reported from Ilorin reservoir, Nigeria and the Cichlids were found to be the most abundant (Achionye-Nzeh and Isimaikaiye, 2010). Wandera and Balirwa (2010) studied the fish species diversity and relative abundance in Lake Albert, Uganda and a total of 40 fish species belonging to 26 genera in 12 families were recorded. According to them, over exploitation, bad fishing methods and gears, habitat degradation and oil and gas exploration are the major threats to fish abundance and diversity in this lake. Montenegro et al. (2012) investigated the ichthyofauna diversity of Taperoá II reservoir, Brazil and a significant negative correlation between precipitation and number of individuals was observed.
Ramakrishniah (1980) investigated the fishery of Nagarjunasagar reservoir and observed that the percentage of carps in total catch varied from 22% to 27% and catfishes from 64% to 73% during the study period. Rao et al. (1999) studied the limnology and status of the fishery of Nelligudda reservoir, Karnataka and found that the reservoir harbours around 20 autochthonous fish species of which the exotic Oreochromis mossambicus contributes more than 80% to the commercial fishery. Piska (2001) studied the fisheries of Shathamraj, a minor reservoir with 25 ha of water spread is located in Hyderabad and observed the total fish production of 513.13 kg/ha/yr. 24 species belonging to 18 genera were found in this reservoir. Juyal and Chaudhary (2003) studied the status of fisheries of Rana Pratapsagar reservoir, Rajasthan and a total of 46 fish species were reported. Mohapatra (2003) evaluated the present status of fisheries of Hirakund reservoir, Orissa and recorded abundance of catfishes in the reservoir; total 43 species were present in which 18 were commercially important. Krishna and Piska (2006) recorded 31 fish species from Lake Durgamcheruvu of Andra Pradesh. Desai et al. (2007) studied the fishes of Ravishankar sagar reservoir (Madhya Pradesh) and recorded a total of 48 species from the reservoir. Of these 48 species, while 22 species were placed on the record for the first time, 26 species were found in common with those of earlier two reported. Vinod et al. (2007) investigated the ichthyyofaunistic diversity in Umiam reservoir of Meghalaya and in all, 29 fish species were recorded among which 21 were native fish species. Srinivas (2007) investigated the fisheries of Edulabad reservoir in Andhra Pradesh and the average fish production recorded from the reservoir was 208.83 kg/ha/yr. Thirumala et al. (2011) studied the fish diversity in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of Bhadra reservoir of Karnataka and 33 fish fauna were identified. Among them, family Cyprinidae was the most dominant in the assemblage composition with 54.55%. Rao et al. (2011) investigated the icthyofauna of Pocharam and Wyra lakes of Andhra Pradesh and found that these lakes are dominated by Cyprinid and Cobitid species (Cypriniformes) followed by the species of Perches (Perciformes).
Shaikh et al. (2011) studied the ichthyofauna diversity in upper Dudhna project water reservoir in Maharashtra and confirmed the occurrence of 27 species belonging to 7 orders, 9 family and 15 genera. The order Cypriniformes includes 15 species and this order was found to be dominant. Shinde et al. (2009) reported the ichthyofauna of Harsool-Savangi dam, Maharashtra and recorded a total of 15 fish species belonging to 3 orders, 4 families and 12 genera. In this reservoir, the order Cypriniformes found dominant with 11 species, followed by Perciformes (3 species) and Siluriformes with 1 species.
Sakhare (1999) investigated the fisheries of Yeldari reservoir; Maharashtra 25 fish species were recorded. Sakhare (2001) studied the ichthyofauna of Jawalgaon reservoir in Maharashtra and reported the occurrence of 23 fish species belonging to 7 orders. The fishes belonging to order Cypriniformes were found dominant with 11 species to be followed by fishes of order Siluriformes with 4 species, while orders like Osteoglossiformes, Perciformes and Channiformes were represented by 2 species and the rest of orders by single species. Sakhare and Joshi (2002) studied the ecology of Pallas-Nilegaon reservoir in Maharashtra and observed 28 fish species including 9 species of carps, 5 of cat fishes 2 of feather base, 5 of live fishes and 7 belonging to miscellaneous fishes. Sakhare and Joshi (2003) also studied the water quality of Migni (Pangaon) reservoir, Maharashtra and its significance to fisheries and reported 34 species of fishes.
Salasker and Yeergi (2004) recorded 10 main fish species from Powai lake in Maharashtra. Sakhare (2005) studied the ecology and fisheries of Manjara reservoir in Maharashtra and 28 species of fish belonging to 19 genera falling under 4 orders were identified. Of the 4 orders Cypriniformes dominated with 12 species of fish. Hiware and Pawar (2006) recorded 43 fish species from Nathsagar dam of Maharashtra. Pawar R.T. (2014) studied The fish diversity is represented by 42 fish species belonging to 29 genera, 15 families and 9 orders of Majalgaon Reservoir, Maharashtra.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1. Majalgaon Reservoir:
Majalgaon Reservoir is one of the ancient, historical reservoirs constructed on Sindhfhana River. The Majalgaon Reservoir is perennial and lies between 160161- 210261 N Latitude and 770441 – 700151 E longitude. Majalgaon Reservoir was built on Sindphana river in the basin of Godavari River. The reservoir is located approximately 3 km northwest of Majalgaon Thasil Maharashtra, India. This reservoir is a multipurpose used for different activities like drinking water supply, irrigation, fisheries, Cattle etc.
3.2. Field Stations:
For convenient monitoring, systematic field study and regular sampling of waters from three permanent sampling stations were fixed in the Reservoir (Photo). These stations were fixed according to differences in degrees of human interactions within different parts of the Reservoir system, and also as zones of special ecological interests. The stations were fixed after a detailed survey of the Reservoir system. These stations were designated as Station I (S1), Station II (S2) & Station III (S3).
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
3.2.1. Station I (S1): It is near to the earthen wall of the dam. Here the reservoir is deep, the water is quite clean.
3.2.2. Station II (S2): It is nearly 1.00kms away from the station I (S1). It receives agricultural surface run off during monsoon from near by field. Here the catchment area of the reservoir.
3.2.3. Station III (S3): It is situated about 1.5kms from the station II (S2). Here catchment area of reservoir. Washing and wading of cloths, cattle's and other domestic, activities load observed here.
3.3. Field visit and sample collections
Water samples were collected from all three sampling stations from January to December, 2014. Monthly samples of sub-surface water in triplicate were collected during first or second week of each month in the early hours of the day (8 a.m. to 10 a.m.). The samples were collected in wide mouthed screw capped, airtight and pre labeled opaque polythene containers and brought to the laboratory for analysis.
3.4 Field measurements
Air temperature, water temperature were measured using a glass thermometer; pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS) of water samples were measured on the spot using a portable water and soil analysis kit . pH were also measured using separate pocket testers. All the data were recorded in separate field books. The samples for DO were fixed on the spot using Winkler iodometric method (Trivedy and Goel, 1986). Transparency was measured with the help of a secchi disc-20cm diameter black and white iron plate was measured for each station. Total solids (TS), Total suspended solids (TSS) were measured by Gravimetric method.
3.5. Laboratory water analysis
DO, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Total alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride (Cl), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured titrimetrically following the method of APHA (1995), and Trivedy and Goel (1986).
3.6. Collection of water samples for Zooplankton analysis:
Collection of water samples for zooplankton analysis on monthly basis was carried out for a period Jan. 2014 to Dec. 2014 at three sampling stations (S1, S2, S3) from Majalgaon reservoir procedures adapted for study are briefly described below.
(i) Collection of zooplankton.
(ii) Fixation and preservation.
(iv) Centrifugation and dilution.
(v) Qualitative analysis.
(vi) Quantitative estimation.
3.6.1. Collection of zooplankton :
Plankton net (mesh size 25 mm) was swept through surface water (sacchi disc transparency zone). An iron tube was firmly tide to the tapering end of the net and open end of the plankton net having bottle was covered by a piece of bolting silk, tied with cotton thread so that zooplankton collected through the net could be easily transferred in to separate plastic bottle / container. For seasonal diversity (quantitative) study, 100 lit of surface water were sieved through the plankton net and collected planktons were transferred to plastic containers.
3.6.2. Fixation and preservation of zooplankton :
For qualitative and quantitative analysis the zooplanktons were preserved in 4% formalin.
3.6.3. Storage of zooplankton :
The Samples were stored in any good quality glass and plastic bottles. These bottles were placed serially in to especially designed boxes and were stored after labeling. Solutions in these bottles were checked every month as a safeguard against desiccation.
3.6.4. Centrifugation and dilution :
The sample is poured in to graduated centrifuge tube of 10ml capacity and revolved in a manual or electric centrifuge for 10 to 12 minutes at different rates of rotation (1500-2000 rpm). After which the supernatant water was removed. The whole zooplankton samples were measured (used for quantitative estimation) and diluted to a desirable concentration depending upon the density of planktonic population in such a way that they could be easily counted individually, under compound binocular microscope and the whole zooplankton concentration were measured and multiplied with the dilution factors.
3.6.5. Qualitative analysis :
For qualitative analysis a compound binocular microscope has used. As far as possible, the animals were identified up to generic level. Preliminary identification of zooplankton was made by using standard monographs and published research papers. (Chandrasekhar and Kodarkar -1995, Venkatraman - 2000, Kumar -2001). For confirm identification of different species standard keys and other literature Adoni (1985), IAAB (1998), Michael and Sharma (1988), Krishnaswamy (1973), Edmondson (1959), Pennak (1968), Dhanapathi (2000), Altaff (2004) was referred.
3.6.6. Quantitative Estimation of Zooplankton:
Enumeration (Number / L) was calculated by using Sedgwick rafter cell by taking 1ml dilute sample. By moving cell horizontally and vertically numbers of organisms were counted. Minimum 5 readings were averaged and expressed Number /L.
3.7. Fish Diversity of Majalgaon Reservoir:
For ichthyofaunal study the sampling was carried with the help of fishermens by using different types of nets (Gill net, Cast net, Ghagrajal) and hooks. The collection of fishes from local market also. After noting down the colors and other external characters, fishes are preserved in 10% formalin and identified by standard identification keys like Days (1878), Jayram K. C. (1981), Talwar and Jhingran (1991) and Datta Munsi and Shrivastava (1988). The economic importance was done by Lagler (1956).
Results & Discussion
4.1 Physicochemical parameters of Majalgaon Reservoir
Physico-chemical analysis of water is the prime consideration to assess the quality of water for its best utilization like drinking, fishing, industrial and irrigation purpose to know the pollution strength and its effect on ecology. Each ecosystem has its characteristics abiotic or biotic features and their full understanding is essential for its effective management and conservation.
The present study is aimed to investigate some of the important physical and chemical parameters. The monthly variations of physicochemical parameters are represented in Table No. 1 and 2. Physico-chemical characteristics of an aquatic system reflect not only the quality of system but also the type and density of its biota. Analysis of such parameters generates information regarding pollution pattern and magnitude of pollutant loading of aquatic system.
4.1.1. Air temperature:
The atmospheric temperature ranged from 25 to 39.50C. Minimum 250C temperature was recorded at all stations in December. Seasonal analysis showed that in summer season the atmospheric temperature ranged from 33 to 34 0C. High atmospheric temperature was recorded in summer, moderate in monsoon and slightly lower in winter. Similar pattern of temperature fluctuation also observed from Saroornagar Lake Hyderabad (Swarnalatha N. and A. Narsing rao (1991). Similar range of variation has been shown by Ansari et al. (2008), Chinnaiah and Rao (2011), Khan et al. (2012), Meenakshi Saxena (2012).
4.1.2. Water temperature:
Water temperature is playing an important role in aquatic ecosystem as critical factor. According to Welch (1952) the response of water temperature to air temperature depends on the size of the water body. The smaller masses of water temperature more surface area and mean depth (Munavar, 1970). It affects biological reactions, population fluctuations in water body as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. It is necessary to study temperature variations in water body, in animals ecophysiological and toxicological aspects because, water density and oxygen content are temperature related and hence temperature indirectly affects osmoregulation, respiration, behavior and metabolism of the animals.
The maximum temperature was recorded (32ºC) in May, the minimum (25.0ºC) in December. The water temperature was constantly lower atmospheric temperature. In the present investigation, the temperature values were maximum during summer and minimum during winter. Lower temperature recorded in winter due to high water level, less solar radiation low atmospheric temperature and high temperature in summer because of low water level, high solar radiation and clear atmosphere. Similarly, results have been reported by Jawale, A.K and S.A. Patil, (2009), Anita, G., S.V.A. Chandrasekar and M. S. Kodarkarm (2005), Narayana, J., E.T.Puttaiah and D. Basavaraja (2008).] recorded minimum temperature, in winter season and maximum in summer. Sharma et al (2000) observed that water temperature fluctuate between 21°C to 29°C during limnological studies of Udaipur lakes.
The maximum value was recorded (30.1 cm) in February and minimum value was recorded (28.5cm) in September to December at S1 site. In the present investigation, the transparency values were maximum during summer and minimum during monsoon. Low value of transparency in monsoon may be due to influx of rain water from catchments area, clouding, less penetration of light and high turbidity due suspended inert particulates matter. However, high valued of transparency in summer may be due to clear atmosphere and high light penetration.
The transparency of natural water is an indicator of productivity. The extent to which light can penetrate depends on the transparency of standing water column. Further, transparency of standing water is inversely proportional to turbidity, created by suspended inorganic and organic matter (Saxsena, M.M., (1987). The transparency of water body is affected by the factor like planktonic growth, rainfall, suns position in the sky, angle of incidence of rays, cloudiness, visibility and turbidity due to suspended inert particulate matter. Kadam et al (2007) also reported similar observation from Masoli reservoir of Parbhani district, Maharashta.
PH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution, the difference between pH Values at different stations in various months of the year was significant. The variation in pH is due to the presence or absence of free carbon dioxide and carbonate, planktonic density during various months. The high range of pH may be due to the biological activates. Significant changes in pH also occur due to disposal of drainages, seasonal variations may be due to variation in the photosynthetic activity which increases pH due to consumption of CO2 in photosynthetic process. The maximum pH was (8.6) recorded in summer and minimum pH was (7.3) in winter. According to Swingle (1969) water pH within the range of 6.5 to 8.5 is suitable for pond aquaculture. Sinha (2000) reported pH rang 7.0 to 8.6 in different water bodies of North Bihar where fish production has been recorded to be maximum. According to Fakayode (2005), the pH of a water body has importance in determination of water quality as it chemically reacts with remaining factors. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to pH fluctuations and their biological treatment requires pH control or monitoring.
4.1.5. Total solids:
In water bodies total solid, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids are composed mainly of carbonate, bicarbonate and chlorides, sulphate, phosphates, nitrates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium iron, manganese & organic matter, if their concentration increase beyond the normal limit the water becomes polluted.
Total solids ranged from 300 to 500mg/l. Minimum total solids were recorded in December and maximum total solids were recorded in September. Seasonal analysis states that low total solids recorded in winter season while maximum value in monsoon due to addition of solids from surface runoff. Total solids refer to the matter which get suspended or dissolved in water. Turbidity and total solids found useful indicators.
Total solids were obtained as 340 in the month of May 2013 and minimum 235 in the month of December 2012. By Pawale R.G. (2014)
4.1.6. Total suspended solids:
Total suspended solids ranged from 102 to 173 mg/l. maximum total suspended solids were recorded in monsoon months and minimum TSS in winter and to be followed by summer seasons. Seasonal analysis states that low TSS recorded in winter season while maximum value in monsoon due to addition of solids from surface runoff. Suspended solids in streams are often as a result of sediments carried by the water, whose source includes natural and anthropogenic activities in the water shed, such as natural or excessive soil erosion from agriculture, forestry or construction, urban runoff, industrial effluents or phytoplankton growth (Singh and Gupta, 2010).
4.1.7. Total dissolved solids:
Water is a universal solvent and have a large number of salts dissolved in it which largely govern the physico-chemical properties. The maximum value of total dissolved solids was recorded in rainy season 409 mg/l and minimum were recorded in winter season 164 mg/l. The high value of TDS during rainy months may be due to addition of domestic waste water, garbage and sewage etc. through the natural surface water body. Similar findings have been reported by Rao et al 2003, Kirubavathy et al 2005, Garg et al 2006b. TDS analysis has great implications in the control of biological and physical waste water treatment processes.
Total dissolved solid depends on various factors such as geological character of watershed, rainfall and amount of surface runoffs and gives an indication of the degree of dissolved substances (Driche, 2008; Siebert, 2010). According to Wilcox (1955) aquatic media classified based on the concentration of TDS.
The ecological significance of chloride lies in its potential to regulate salinity of water and exert consequent osmotic stress on biotic communities. The maximum value was recorded (26.5mg/lit) in March and minimum value was recorded (19.1mg/lit) in September. The Maximum values of chlorides were recorded during summer season because of scanty rain and high rate of evaporation. It has significant positive correlation with water temperature and electrical conductance. It was also observed that high level of chloride is an indication of higher degree of pollution and low level chloride content indicates absences of any substantial pollution. Similarly findings have been recorded by Muly & Patil (2006), Korai et al. (2008), Salve & Hiware (2006), Singh (2000), Mishra et al. (1989), Jhingan (1982), Joshi (2002).Similar observations are also made by Mishra & Yadav (1978), S. K. Dhamija & Yatish Jain (1995). Maximum chloride content has been correlated with high degree of organic pollution and eutrophication (Goel et al. 1980).
4.1.9. Dissolved oxygen
Dissolved Oxygen is of great importance to all living aquatic organisms. It is considered as the factor which can reveal the nature of entire ecosystem. Much characteristic of water can be learnt by series of determination of oxygen than other chemical data. The source of oxygen to any water body is mainly due to physical and biological process. It is one of the most important and limiting parameter of water quality assessment, which maintain aquatic life. It regulates the metabolic process of aquatic organisms.
The maximum dissolved oxygen was recorded (8.5mg/lit) in August and minimum dissolved oxygen was recorded (7.3 mg/lit) in May. In the present investigation it was observed that dissolved oxygen is maximum in monsson season and minimum in summer season. These results are identical to those reported by Mulay & Patil, (2006); Korai et al., (2008); Tripathi N. N et al., (2008); Martin, (2004). Dissolved oxygen concentrate was 5mg/l throughout the year the reservoir is productive for fish culture Benerjee (1967) Torzwall (1957). Rani et al., (2004) also reported lower values of Dissolved oxygen in summer season due to higher rate of decomposition of organic matter and limited flow of water in low holding environment due to high temperature.
The normal water receive carbon dioxide from various sources i.e. (1) The atmosphere. (2) Respiration of plants and animals. (3) Bacterial decomposition of organic matter. (4) Inflowing ground water. The carbon dioxide bears a correlation with pH. The increase in carbon dioxide decreases pH (acidic). Respiratory activity of aquatic organisms and process of decomposition are important sources of carbon dioxide in water bodies. Carbon dioxide value ranged from 2.2 to 3.2mg/l. 2.2 values recorded in monsson and maximum value 3.2mg/l carbon dioxide recorded summer months. Similar findings are also made by Sahai & Sinha (1969) and Sreenivasan (1971). In present study carbon dioxide showed inverse relationship with oxygen similar findings are also made by Laxminarayan (1965). The presence and absence of the free carbon dioxide in the surface water in mostly governed by its utilization by algae during photosynthesis & also through its diffusion from air.
4.1.11. Total alkalinity:
The capacity of water to neutralize a strong acid is known as alkalinity and is characterized by the presence of hydrogen ion; most of the alkalinity of water is due to dissolution of carbonate. The maximum alkalinity value (144mg/lit) in December at site 1 and it was recorded minimum (104mg/l) in June at site S3. In present investigation results show that the total alkalinity was low in rainy season and high in winter season due to evaporation of water and increase in biological activity. Similarly findings have been recorded by Muly & Patil (2006), Korai et al. (2008), Salve & Hiware (2006), Singh (2000), Mishra et al. (1989), Jhingan (1982), Joshi (2002).Similar observations are also made by Singh D. N. (2000).
4.1.12. Total hardness:
The hardness of natural water is mainly caused by the presences of carbonates, bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides of calcium and magnesium. During the study period the total hardness of water was recorded (120mg/lit) maximum in December at site S1 & S2 and minimum (86mg/lit) in April at site S2. The low values of hardness were recorded during summer season and higher values were recorded during winter season.
The total hardness is a contribution of calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in water. Normally these ions are not problematic but at higher concentration increases hardness. The high value of hardness in winter and low in summer show that the water may be suitable for the growth of the fish. Hardness is more than 20 mg / L is satisfactory for the aquatic productivity and helps to protect fishes against harmful effects pH functions, Das and Das (1997). Similar findings were reported by Kannan (1991), Rath et al., (2000), Muley and Patil, (2006), Korai et al.,(2008), Salve and Hiware (2006). Similar observations are also made by Ugale B. J. and Hiware C. J. (1999).
4.1.13. Biochemical oxygen demand:
BOD is dissolved oxygen required by microorganism for aerobic decomposition of organic matter present in water. Jain and Dhanija (2000) have considered BOD as an important parameter in aquatic ecosystem to establish the status of pollution. The observation of present study showed that highest value of BOD value during rainy season 7.10mg/l and lowers during summer season 2.31 mg/l. Prasanna Kumari et al., (2003) stated that the higher values of BOD during rainy was also due to input of organic wastes and enhanced bacterial activity. High temperatures do play an important role by increasing rate of oxidation. The BOD of unpolluted water is less than 1.00 ppm moderately polluted water 2.00-9.00 ppm while heavily polluted water have BOD more than 10.00 ppm. The BOD in different season in the present study indicates pond as moderately polluted.
4.1.14. Chemical oxygen demand:
COD determines the oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter with the help of strong chemical oxidant. Chemical oxygen demand values ranged from 4.9 to 8.43mg/l. Minimum 4.9mg/l. 4.9mg/l COD was recorded in February at site S2 & S3 and maximum COD recorded 8.43mg/l in April month at site S2. COD is an indicator parameter to know the presence of biodegradable matter in the waste and express degree of contamination.
Higher values in monsoon may be due to inflow of dead organic dead matter. The higher value of chemical oxygen demand may be due to the high temperature and rapid evaporation of water (Mathur K, et al. 1991)
The present study is aimed to the water quality of Majalgaon reservoir is useful for the drinking purpose and recreational activity is to be introduced in the reservoir. In the present investigation the physic-chemical parameters was analyzed and to obtain the range of the parameters are within the prescribed limit of WHO and ISI but it may be used for the drinking purpose it is necessary to the proper treatment before to use as drinking purpose. The range of physic-chemical parameter is suitable for the fishery activities.