Impact of Urban Expansion on Tenure Security and Livelihoods of Peri-Urban Areas. The Case of Wolaita Soddo Town in Southern Ethiopia


Thesis (M.A.), 2020

70 Pages, Grade: 1


Excerpt

Table of Contents

Acronomy and Abbreviations

List of tables

List of figures

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Introduction

2. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3.1. General objective
1.3.2. Specific objectives
1.4. Significance of the Study
1.5. Scope of the study
1.6. The limitation of the Study
2. Litrature Review
2.1. Basic Concepts of Urbanization
2.1.1 Causes of urban expansion
2.1.2 Trends of urban expansion
2.1.3 The impacts of urban expansion
2.2. Land Rights
2.3. Tenure Security
2.3.1. Overview of land tenure in Ethiopia
2.4. Empirical Evidences on the Impact of Urban Expansion on Tenure Security
2.5. Impacts of Urban Expansion on Livelihood of Peri-urban Areas

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA
3.2. The Conceptual frame work of this Study
3.3. Research Strategy and Design
3.3.1 Research Design
3.3.2 Sampling Design
3.4. Source of Data
3.4.1 Techniques of Data Collection
3.4.2 Methods of Data Analysis and Presentation

CHAPTER FOUR
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Demographic and Socio economic Characteristics of Sampled Household
4.2.Impacts of Urban Expansion on Tenure Security
4.4.2 Peri-urban household livelihood income change assessment for the last five years due to town growth
4.4.3 Impacts of Urban expansion on farmers’ financial capital
A. Before Expansion
B. After Expansion
4.4.2 Impacts of Urban Expansion on Farmers’ Social Capital
4.4.3 Impacts of urban expansion on farmers’ natural capital
4.4.4 Urban expansion impact on farmers’ physical capital
4.5 Perception of Farming Community towards Urban Expansion
4.6 Strategies Adopted to Cope with the Effects of Urban Expansion

CHAPTER FIVE
5 .CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 CONCLUSION
5.2 Recommendations

6 Reference

Appendices

Acronomy and Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of tables

Table 1 Sample Distribution to Each Study Kebeles

Table 2 Demographic and Socio economic Characteristics of Sampled Household

Table 3 Peri-urban farmers tenure security assessment

Table 4 Farmers Tenure Rights on their Holdings

Table 5 Impact assessment of Soddo town expansion on peri-urban community specially by displacing farmers from their origin

Table 6 Impact assessment of soddo town growth on alternative livelihood system of peri­urban households

List of figures

Figure 1 Map of the study area

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of urban expansion

Figure 3 Tenure security level of peri-urban farmers in the study area (n=120)

Figure 4 Respondents’ view on whether there has been a change in their income in. Error! Bookmark not defined.

Figure 5 The total annual income of displaced farmers before urban expansion

Figure 6 An average annual income of peri-urban households currently

Figure 7 Average possession of oxen household before town expansion (n=120)

Figure 8 an average possession of oxen after town expansion

Figure 9 an average possession of cows by household before urban expansion

Figure 10 an average possession of cows by houshold after urban expansion

Figure 11 an average possession of sheep by household before urban expansion

Figure 12 an average possession of sheep by household after urban expansion

Figure 13 an average possession of poultry by household before urban expansion

Figure 14 an average possession of poultry by household after urban expansion

Figure 15 Urban expansion impacts on farmers social capital

Figure 16 Social relationship or value level after/now town expansion

Figure 17 L and holding size before urban expansion

Figure 18 land holding size after urban expansion

Figure 19 Estimated value of permanent plantation in ETB before town expansion

Figure 20 Estimated value of permanent plantation in ETB after town expansion

Figure 21 House room in number these households had before

Figure 22 House in room number these households have currently

Figure 23 Peri-Urban community agreement level on Soddo town growth(n=120)

Figure 24 Respondents’ view on what farmers resort to when they lose their

Acknowledgment

First of all, my thanks go to the Almighty God for making it possible for this thesis to become a reality.

Next, foremost deepest gratitude goes to my dear advisor Achamyeleh Gashu (PhD) who helped me in directing the proposal and research to have its own structure and formalities and correcting my mistakes and giving me his invaluable advice.

Third, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my office colleagues, Dereje Kassaye(M.Sc), Ermiyas Galcho(M.Sc),Meseret Meskele(M.Sc) helped me in their respective disciplinary advice and correction via devoting their time and energy with me.

Also I would like to extend my sincere thanks to my cherished brother, Israel Lemma, for all his positive comments.

Also, I would like to extend my great appreciation for my beloved wife, Jerry, for her exceeded commitment and strength of mind in dealing with all my concerns.

Finally, I am also very thankful to Wolaita Soddo Finance and Economic Department who were helped me in providing the necessary data and information for my thesis work..

Abstract

This study is carried out to assess the impact of urban expansion on tenure security and livelihoods of peri-urban areas. Tenure insecurity and livelihood problems due to urban expansion is more significant in the developing countries than the developed countries in the urban periphery. Ethiopia have created mounting competition for peri­urban land located adjacent to towns and cities by people of diverse backgrounds. As a result of these; pressures and rapid socio-economic problems has been occurred. Therefore, this paper is aimed to assess the impacts of urban expansion on tenure security and livelihoods on the communities around Wolaita soddo town. Descriptive research desi gns as well a qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed. Both probability and non probability sampling method were used to get potential respondents and sample size was determined using sampling distribution of proportion method, hence 120 HHs were selected (85% (102) male and 15% (18) female HHs). Based on collected data the analysis was done using software like SPSS and Microsoft Excel and data were p resented by different data presentation tools like tables and graphs. The results from the study revealed that the expansion of Wolaita Soddo town has presented constraints and opportunities to people living in peri-urban areas. About 94 percent household responded as there is tenure insecurity. Due to having insecurity in their farm, there income from farm has decreased. Similarly, the study revealed us, because of town expansion peri­urban community, felt under malti-faceted livelihood problems; like loss of assets due to periodic land displacement, reduction farm land and under a great fear. On the other hand, increase in non-farm job opportunities and infrastructure development in the study areas are noteworthy. The development of new livelihood activities has culminated in the adoption of both farming and non-farm livelihood strategies were as livelihood means which selected by peri-urban community in the study area to cope with the effects of peri­urbanization.

Key Words:-Livelihoods,Tenure Security,Urban expansion,Impacts and Farmers Perception, Urban and Peri-urban areas

CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY

Urbanization is the process of urban expansion, may involve both horizontal and vertical expansion of the physical structure of urban areas. It leads to spatial expansion due to the demand for development and housing growth, as well as facilities areas to serve human life. The process of urban expansion is a worldwide phenomenon, recorded in the history of all urban centers ( Firew ,2010). It started with the earliest human civilization of Babylonians’ (Cemea ,1997). Over the world, the cities cover only about one percent of the earth’s surface, but most of the issues happening in the cities greatly impact on the environment and global change (Tran Thi Van ,2008). In addition to that urbanization can result in loss of agricultural land, natural beauties, range lands, parks and sceneries (Minwuyelet,2004).

For case in point, urban centers of countries like England and USA expanded horizontally with loss of agricultural land. Impacts of horizontal urban expansion include not only the loss of agricultural land but also displacement of peasants and change of their livelihood. According to (Cemea ,1997), 10 million peoples were displaced globally because of developmental activities per year and among those displaced, 6 million are attributed to urban expansion. Although multifaceted, the main cause of urban expansion is population pressure. The increase in African population is surprising. However, more surprisingly, their urban growth rate is higher than the growth rate of national population in almost all countries of the continent. Among other factors like peri-industrialization, informal settlement, infrastructural development; the population pressure, as (Birhanu,2005) argues, caused horizontal expansion of African cities.

The unprecedented growth of the urban population in Africa and other parts of the developing world is causing an exceptionally rapid increase in the demand for urban land. The horizontal expansion of cities are, however, at the expense of prime agricultural lands and agricultural productivity which of both are the main livelihoods of peripheral communities.

Urbanization and urban growth are considered as a modern way of life manifesting economic growth and development. However, urbanization and urban development in Ethiopia faced a number of socio-economic problems (Tegenge,2000). According to (Eyasu ,2007) the Ethiopian urban centers are expanding in unexpected rate and resulting to peasant displacement with concomitant loss of agricultural land, loss of agricultural production and change of their livelihood.

Wolaita Soddo town is one of the fast growing urban centers in the SNNPRS. This ongoing expansion process captures the views of peri-urban farmers who forced to leave their rooted land and property. Therefore, the effect of this process of urban expansion on the surrounding farming communityneeds to be clearly known in order to reduce the negat ive effect. Hence, the expansion of the town becoming irregular, fast and creation of tenure insecurity and displacement of farming community. So this study analysis socio-economic problems related with land tenure security and livelihood situation of peri-urban community of Wolaita soddo town.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Urban centers across Africa are becoming the future habitat for the majority of Africans (Achamyeleh,2014). As (UN-Habitat,2010) statically data reveals, "Population projections show that by 2030 about 50% of the population of Africa will inhabit urban centers”. The unprecedented growth of the urban population in Africa and other parts of the developing world is causing an exceptionally rapid increase in the demand for urban land. The rising demand for urban land therefore tends to be met primarily by converting peri-urban agricultural land at the periphery of existing built-up areas (UN-Habitat, 2010, Toulmin, 2006). Generally, urban expansion is spontaneous phenomenon that leads to spontaneous growth by displacing rural farming community.

Comparatively, displacement attributed to urban sprawls is more significant in developing countries than developed ones. The underlying reason for this is that majority of the people in developing countries are highly concentrated in peri-urban areas and their livelihood based on peri-urban agriculture with fragmented land holdings. Therefore, urban expansion inevitably results to displacement of peri-urban peasant with small scale economy then by necessitating compensation.

Tenure insecurity and livelihood problems due to urban expansion are more significant in the developing countries than the developed countries in the periphery of urbans. Peri­urban areas, where there is a rising demand for land for non-agricultural or urban land uses, are at the receiving end of urbanization and thus form tenure hotspots (Achamyeleh, 2014).

According to ( Eyasu ,2007), the Ethiopian urban centers are expanding in unexpected rate resulting to peasant displacement with concomitant loss of agricultural land, loss of agricultural production and change of their livelihood. It is increasingly evident that peri­urban areas are becoming places where a lot of changes and activities occur due to rapid urbanization and population growth (Wehrmann,2008), (Cotula and Neve,2007).

Although planned displacement has occurred in urban areas, there is its own negative effect on the livelihood and the post displacement life of the affected community. In devel oping countries like Ethiopia where land ownership belongs to both public and government, the amount of compensation paid to displaced farmers depend on government’s good will and commitment of program implementers. The way of paying and not paying commensurate compensation to displaced land holders is one factor to determine the tenure security. This is also what should be identified and recognized to pursue the sustainable and comprehensive urban development (Tegegne,1999).

Personal observation indicated that the peri-urban community of the Wolaita Soddo town is prone to displacement, tenure insecurity and socio-economic problems due to urban expansion of the town. While land is the highest value and physically fixed asset, hence it is base for the lives and livelihood of community. The expansion of the Soddo town seems to result to a significant Change in their way of life, production, distribution, consumption and social structure.

In general, the critical questions that was assessed in this research were, how does urban expansion affect tenure security and livelihood situation of peri-urban community of soddo town? What are the attitudes of the adjacent rural farmers towards the urban expansion? What are the future views of peri-urban community on tenure security? and What coping mechanisms had the affected community used to adopt themselves with urban way of life? Therefore, this research will be expected to assess the existence of tenure insecurity, livelihood problems around the study area and to assess coping strategies adopted by peri­urban residents.

1.3. Research Objectives

1.3.1. General Objective

The ultimate objective of this study is to assess the impact of urban expansion on tenure security and livelihood situation of peri-urban community around Wolaita soddo town.

1.3.2. Specific objectives

- To assess the impact of urban expansion on tenure security of peri-urban community of the study areas
- To investigate the effect of urban expansion on the livelihoods' of peri-urban households in study area
- To assess the perception of the adjacent farmers on urban expansion and their future view on tenure security.
- To inspect coping mechanisms of the affected households developed as a new means of a livelihood.

1.4. Significance of the Study

The main importance of the study is to show the impacts of urban expansion, to assess what kinds of perception of the adjacent farmers on the urban expansion. Do they have, to know how the urban sprawl affects secure land rights and livelihood situation of per­urban residents of rural households. Thus, after the end of this research, it will be very important for urban land administration and institutions to get a better knowledge and understanding of the processes under urban expansion in the peri-urban areas in order to improve the livelihoods of peri-urban community and processes to the benefit of those concerned and urban development in general.

1.5. Scope of the study

The scope of this study was the impact of urban expansion on tenure security and livelihood situation of peri-urban community as well as on their attitudes towards the expansion of Wolaita soddo town. Especially the study was limited in peri-urban community households those are living at peri-urban areas to Wolaita soddo town.

1.6. The limitation of the Study

This study needs the support of urban land development experts and authorities in different administration levels around the study area. But, as the most common problem of whole SNNPRs region, due to allocation of few experts in the land administration sector, it was difficult to get the support of experts to introduce with adjacent households of the town and the disseminating and collection of the interview. The second area of difficulty in this study was related to the challenge to get the respondents and households. It is mandatory that, interview of sample population for the study should take place in the presence of both the households and neighbors. In addition, the topography nature of the town, time, and the challenge of getting literatures and other secondary data’s on the areas of study topic was very difficult since there was periodic breakage of internet access in the study area because such kind of study has not been common in the southern Ethiopia.

1.7. Definition of terms and concepts

Urban: in this study context, urban (opposite to rural) refers to areas characterized by denser population settlement per-unit of land, higher heterogeneity of in habitants (in terms of ethnic background, religious adhere-ship, livelihood strategies and sources, educational levels etc...), greater organizational complexities as well as higher formal social control.

Peri-urban areas: refers to rural agricultural areas located between urban built-up areas in cities and predominantly rural agricultural areas (Marian and Nischal,2007). As used in this study context, peri-urban areas are amidst between densely settlement(urban areas) and less densely settlement(rural areas).These are areas partly sharing the characteristics' of both urban and rural areas(Frew,2010).

Urban expansion: it's the process of horizontal sprawl of urban land to different direction due to the demand for development and housing growth, as well as facilities areas to serve human life

Livelihood: It is defined as a means for living. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources), and activities required for a means of living.

Land right: land rights are the rights of indigenous peoples to land, either individually or collectively.

Land tenure: is the relationship, whether legally or customarily defined, among people, as individuals or groups, with respect to land.

Tenure security: is the right of all individuals and groups to have effective protection or guaranty by the State against forced evictions, or displacement by any organ either legal or juridical person. Under international law, it can be defined as the protection from permanent or temporary removal against their will of individuals, families and/or communities from the home and/or the land they occupy without the provision of and access to appropriate forms of legal or other protection (Lasserve and Selod, 2007).

Tenure insecurity: refers to insecure of bundle of land rights, that means the farmers have no full rights to sustain his/her land.

CHAPTER TWO

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Basic Concepts of Urbanization

Urbanization can replace urban expansion, urban sprawl and it is interchangeably used. It also defined as the process of horizontal sprawl of urban land to rural lands in different direction due to the demand for development and housing growth, as well as facilities areas to serve human life. Over the world, the cities cover only about one percent of the earth’s surface, but most of the issues happening in a rural settlement becomes classified as urban or as an urban settlement's boundaries the cities greatly impact on the environment and global change (Tran Thi Van,2008). The precise demographic definition of urbanization is the increasing share of a nation's population living in urban areas and thus a declining share living in rural areas. Most urbanization is the result of net rural to urban migration. The level of urbanization is the share itself, and the rate of urbanization is the rate at which that share are changing. This definition makes the implications of urbanization distinct from those of urban population growth or those of the physical expansion of urban areas, both of which are often treated as synonymous with urbanization.

A nation's urban population can grow from natural increase (births minus deaths), net rural to urban migration and reclassification (as what was previously are expanded, bringing into its population people who were previously classified as rural). Nations with rapid economic growth and relatively low rates of natural increase such as China over the past few decades have most of their urban population growth from urbanization; nations with little or no economic growth and high rates of natural increase (including many sub­Saharan African nations during the 1990s have most of their urban population growth from natural increase (Potts, 2009). Differences in rural and urban rates of natural increase influenced by differences in fertility and mortality rates also influence urbanization, although generally these act to reduce urbanization. The term urbanization is also used for the expansion of urban land uses. The conventional definition for urbanization used in this paper entails a shift in settlement patterns from dispersed to more dense settlement. By way of contrast, much of the expansion of urban land use is the result of a shift from dense to more dispersed settlement. In effect, the term urbanization is being used to refer to two opposing spatial shifts in settlement patterns, likely to have opposing effects on, for example, the land available for agriculture. Similarly, the concept of „sprawl’ was developed by Earle Draper in 1937 in the United States of (America J. T. Black ,1996) and this term has been used by city planners to refer to a wasteful type of urban growth (F.J. Osborn,1965). Urban sprawl is a pattern of uncontrolled development around the periphery of a city, and is an increasingly common feature of the built environment especially in the industrialized nations (Patricketal,2014).The phenomenon decreases the orderly physical development that produces economically efficient land use and management at the periphery of rapidly urbanizing cities. As cities expand, the main zone of direct impact is the peri-urban area. The manifestation and impact of urban sprawl are therefore felt most in peri-urban communities. At these peri-urban communities, development is erratic, scattered and spread out, with a tendency for discontinuity. Population increase also puts pressure on existing housing, raising prices and forcing some people out of the city because they cannot afford to live there (Sharon,2001). Some people respond to rising prices by moving to the outer fringes of the city, promoting urban sprawl. Generally, these peri-urban areas are poorly served by public transport and other community facilities, so urban sprawl involves additional motor vehicle travel to work and to community facilities. It can also mean that prime agricultural land is turned over to residential developments.

2.1.1 Causes of urban expansion

Urbanization is closely linked with transformation, industrialization, and sociological process of decision making. Most of the rapid urban sprawl in developing nations is due to rural-urban migration (Free encyclopedia,2010). According to (UN state report of the world population ,2007), urbanization occurs naturally from individual and corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in community and transportation while improving opportunities of jobs, educations, and housing and transportation statuses. However, major contributing factor is “rural flight”. In rural areas, often on small farms, it is difficult to improve one’s standard of living beyond basic subsistence’s particularly in developing countries case where rate of population growth outpaces resource production rate. To such communities, their farm is very much dependent on un predictable conditions such as drought flood and pestilences. Hence, people make decision to migrate to urban areas “rural flight”. This then contributes to urban pressure towards peri-urban lands. National wise, according to (Tagegne,2001) two most important actors leading urban expansion are in-migration (both rural-urban migration and urban-urban migration) and natural population increase.

2.1.2 Trends of urban expansion

According to the (UN state of the world population report ,2007), sometime in the middle of 2007, the majority of people worldwide will be living in towns or cities for the first time in history. This is referred to as the “arrival of urban millennium” or the “tripping point.” With regard to trends, it is estimated that 93% of urban growth will occur in developing nations with 80% of urban growth occurring in Asia and Africa. Through this process of development, the report state that, from what it was 30% in 1950s, urban population will be 70% by 2050,globally. Reversely, the rural population becomes 30% by 2050 from what it was 70% in 1950.

Particularly, currently African average level of urbanization is 34% while the Ethiopia’s is 18% which is even very low in Africa. Different studies have projected that the proportion of urban population in Ethiopia will reach 23% by the year 2030 (MEDAC ,2002); (CSA, 1994). On the other hand, Ethiopia’s urbanization rate is one of the highest in Africa. The average annual rate of growth from1960-1991 was 4.8 percent and this figure grew to 5.8 percent per-annum from1991-2000. This rate of growth puts Ethiopia among the 23 rapidly urbanizing counters of the world (Tegegne,2001).

2.1.3 The impacts of urban expansion

Urban expansion may involve both horizontal and vertical types of the expansion. The former refers to the extension of the Physical structure of the urban areas. Such process of urban expansion is a worldwide phenomenon which can be seen in the history of all urban centers as to results in the loss of range posture and agricultural lands and natural beauties (Minwuyelet,2004).

Urbanization and urban growth are considered as a modern way of life and centers of varieties of human opportunities which all can highly contribute to socio-economic growth and development. However, as (Tegegne ,2000) argues, horizontal expansion of urban areas in Ethiopia causes a number of socio-economic problems including tenure right violation. As to (Eyob,2010), urban expansion in Ethiopia impedes the livelihood elements and strategies of peri-urban farmers’ and hence leads them in to vulnerability compounded from trends, shocks and/ or their combination in a given context.

From these scholar findings, we can generalize that, while well planned and managed urban expansion may enhances the common benefits of stakeholders, otherwise, the process leads to high negative externalities particularly to those peri-urban farmers by affecting their livelihood portfolios and strategies.

Hence, whether negative or/and positive it is, urban expansion obviously has impact on natural, social, human, physical and financial assets (livelihood) of the peri-urban community as (Cemea,1997) discusses.

2.2. Land Rights

In a wider context, land rights are shown as rights to occupy a homestead, to use land for crops, to make permanent improvements, to bury the dead, and to graze animals, have access for gathering fuel, fruits, grass and minerals. Moreover, land rights can be defined as rights to transact (manage), give, mortgage, lease, rent and bequeath areas of exclusive use and rights to exclude others from the above-listed rights, at community and/or individual levels. In addition, it can be referred as, rights to enforcement of legal and administrative provisions in order to protect the rights holder (Adams and Cousins,1999).

According to (Deininger,2004), land rights are illustrated as “Social conventions that regulate the distribution of the benefits that accrue from specific uses of a certain piece of land” A number of arguments support public provision of such rights. In the first place, the high fixed cost of the institutional infrastructure needed to establish and permanently maintain land rights favours public provision, or at least regulation. Second, the benefits of being able to exchange land rights will be realized only in cases where such rights are standardized regulated and can be easily and independently verified. Finally, without central provision, households and entrepreneurs will be forced to spend resources to defend their claims to property, for example through guards, fences, etc. which is not only socially inefficient but also extremely disadvantages the poor, who will be the least able to afford such expenditures (Deininger,2004). Therefore, land rights are the rights of an individual or group of individuals which includes to use the land for crop production, transfer the land through bequeath, lease and excluding others from those rights. (FAO,2002a,p.7) posit that land tenure rules define how people access rights to land and define property as the right that a person exercises over an object. Rights over land are thus referred to as property rights and they define what can be done on land (Dale & McLaughlin,1999). Land rights are perceived as being either formal or informal. Formal land rights have official government recognition and have their basis on legal rules set up within a county while informal rights do not have government recognition. Land rights are seldom held by one person, often multiple rights to the same piece of land are held by different people (FAO,2002b).This view is consistent with the bundle of rights concept which likens land rights to sticks in a bundle. The sticks vary from time to time in number (representing the number of rights), in thickness (representing the quantum' of each right) and in length (representing the duration of each right (Simpson,1984, p.7). In areas under the common law, freehold is the highest form of land ownership thus freehold land owners hold the complete bundle of rights (Dale and McLaughlin,1999).

2.3. Tenure Security

Tenure security is the prime concept to implement for the countries that dream to bring sustainable development. Clear and secured rights over land are vital for any development. The reality in many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, however, is different. Customary land tenure systems and statutory law often overlap, mainly in peri­urban areas. This legal pluralism hamper a smooth urban growth and development. The security that society offers to holders of land rights effects the willingness to make long term investments on land (FAO,2002a, p.3). Security of land tenure exists when individuals perceive that they have rights to a piece of land on a continuous basis, that land is free from imposition or interference from outside sources and they have the ability to reap benefits of labour and capital invested in that land either in use or upon transfer to another holder (van Asperen & Zevenbergen,2007,p.3) citing Place (et al, 1994). From the above definition (van Asperen and Zevenbergen,2007) highlighted breadth, duration and assurance of rights held over land as being key in land tenure security. Breadth relates to number of rights held, duration relates to extent of validity of rights and assurance relates to the confidence with which rights are held (ibid).

2.3.1. Overview of land tenure in Ethiopia

Because of the country’s geographical, ethnic and cultural diversity, the pre 1975 land tenure system in Ethiopia was generally noted as the most complex in the world but it was not studied in detail (Cohen and Weintraub,1975); (Gilkes,1975); (Rahamato,1984); (Dejene,1999) quoted in (Nega et al,2002). During that period a variety of classifications and approaches were employed to describe the land tenure system. Rist/ kinship, communal, private, state and church land tenure holding were the most common ones (Nega et al,2002); (Admassie,2000).The 1975 land reform measure by the „Derg’ mainly abolished tenant landlord relationships in the nation. This was designed with the aim of distributing land to the tillers, to increase agricultural production, create employment and provide a basis for expansion of agriculture. Since the 1975 land reform the right to own land is vested in the state. Article 40 of the 1995 constitution (which concerns property rights) of Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) provides that “the right to ownership of rural and urban land, as well as of all natural resources, is exclusively vested in the state and in the people of Ethiopia”. Through state appointed Peasant Associations (PA) farmers have open-ended usufruct rights (the right to use another’s property) to land in the areas where they physically and permanently live. It includes criteria like the ability to farm continuously and meet administrative dues and obligations. These use rights are inheritable (Nega et al,2002). The constitution also states (Article 51) that the Federal Government shall ratify laws for the utilization and conservation of land and other natural resources. Article 52 also states that Regional Governments have the duty to administer land and other natural resources according to federal laws. This law was enacted in July 1997 through the “Rural Land Administration Proclamation, No. 89/1997” (Nega et al,2002).

2.4. Empirical Evidences on the Impact of Urban Expansion on Tenure Security

Even though there is the limitation of literature reviews in the area of the impact of peri­urbanization on tenure security on peri-urban community, some empirical evidences help as a base stone to thise study. According to (Achamyeleh,2014), land rights in the peri-urb an areas have been shaken and challenged, which has resulted in instability and insecurity of land tenure. Thus if there is strong implementation land administration and management systems in peri urban areas,the periodic tenure insecurity problem will be managed. Also Acham revealed in his research project, the rapid growth rate of urbanization and the result ing compulsory acquisition and reallocation of land by the government has precipitated a wave of dispossession and termination of existing land rights in the peri- urban areas. To c ool down these problems around peri urban areas, having clear and secured rights over land are crucial.

The reality in many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, however, is different (Wehrmann,2008).Customary land tenure systems and statutory law often overlap, mainly in peri-urban areas. This legal pluralism hinders a smooth urban growth and development. Tenure insecurity and livelihood problems due to urban expansion is more significant in the developing countries than the developed countries because the majority of the people in developing countries live highly concentrated in the periphery depending on agriculture with fragmented land holdings (Dejene,2011).

2.5. Impacts of Urban Expansion on Livelihood of Peri-urban Areas

Land is a unique, valuable, and immovable fundamental resource that is not the only most basic aspect of livelihood for many people around the world but also contains valuable compositions and natural resources on it that are important for socio-economic development (USAID,2005). Therefore, land is the important asset for socio-economic improvement especially in the poor societies where their livelihood and wealth is accompanied by access and control to land (Ibid). Land and land-based resources has been considered as a prominent resource for the overall development process since it protects the family through providing food security and material and spiritual protection (Kagwanja,2009).

The livelihood of the majority of the peri-urban rural populace in Wolyta is predominantly based on land resources and the farming system (Yonas,2011). Animal husbandry and petty trade are also other modes of survival in the area. Generally, most people are believed to be deriving their livelihood from subsistence rural economy. According to (Harris,2015), expropriating farmland deprives rural small-holders of one their most important income generating assets and forces them to find new livelihoods. Governments recognize this, and often provide households with compensation, which in some cases takes the form of a lump-sum payment. Anthony Harris also mentioned that changes to permanent wealth may also be reflected in household consumption and increasing consumption means an indication of increased wealth. His result reveals that households lose their land increase their consumption, start more businesses and increase their livestock assets. Households also shift assets away from agriculture uses and spend more time in non-farm work, although the change is not large.

The influences of compulsory land acquisition on farmers’ livelihood are multi­dimensional. Though the affected farmers’ demonstrated largely different attitudes to compulsory land acquisition and the degree of satisfaction about livelihood after compulsory land acquisition, there are common impacts on their livelihood, such as unsuccessful employment, low social welfare, and lack of supporting social network due to the compulsory land acquisition.

As pointed out by (Addisu,2015), currently the urban expansion has adverse impacts on many farm households’ livelihood sources in the peri-urban areas. The basic problem is that urban growth causes not only loss of agricultural farmlands but also displacement of farm households and causes loses of livelihoods in peri-urban territories as well as by the sub city and stakeholder institutions. Sub urban sprawl is negatively affecting the livelihood of the farming community specially the five livelihood components (financial, natural, human, physical and, social capitals are significantly reduced. Also (Shishay,2011) explained that many farm households were displaced from their farmlands with little or no means of compensation and which are presently suffering from food insecurity.

Urban growth causes not only loss of agricultural farmlands but also displacement of farm households and challenged for their livelihood sources in peri-urban territories. As explained in (Muluwork,2014), urban expansion has negatively affected the livelihood assets possessions that have been used as means of income sources for making a living.

CHAPTER THREE

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA

Wolaita Soddo town is one of the fast urbanized town in the center of Southern Ethiopia which situated in SNNPRS. The absolute location of the town is 6054'N latitude and 37045'E longitude. Relatively, the Wolaita soddo town is located west of the Great Ethiopian Rift Valley and at the eastern margin of the South Western Highlands (WZFED D,2010). Wolaita Soddo town is 390 km (via Shashemene) and 328 km (via Hosanna) away from the national capital Addis Ababa, and 170 km from the regional capital Hawasa. It is the administrative center for Wolaita Zone and has three sub cities and 20 Kebeles with including recently joined rural Kebeles.

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Details

Title
Impact of Urban Expansion on Tenure Security and Livelihoods of Peri-Urban Areas. The Case of Wolaita Soddo Town in Southern Ethiopia
College
Bahir Dar University  (Institute of Land Administration)
Course
Land Administration
Grade
1
Author
Year
2020
Pages
70
Catalog Number
V947213
ISBN (eBook)
9783346310583
Language
English
Tags
impact, urban, expansion, tenure, security, livelihoods, peri-urban, areas, case, wolaita, soddo, town, southern, ethiopia
Quote paper
Zerihun Lemma (Author), 2020, Impact of Urban Expansion on Tenure Security and Livelihoods of Peri-Urban Areas. The Case of Wolaita Soddo Town in Southern Ethiopia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/947213

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Title: Impact of Urban Expansion on Tenure Security and Livelihoods of Peri-Urban Areas. The Case of Wolaita Soddo Town in Southern Ethiopia



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