Factors Contributing to Household-Food Security in Twale Lovation, Tigania, West Sub-County, Meru, Kenia


Project Report, 2020

43 Pages, Grade: 85


Excerpt

Table of contents

Declaration

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of acronyms and abbreviation

OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.5.1 General objectives
1.5.2 Specific objectives
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 Scope of study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 Household Food Production
2.3 Food insecurity in Twale
2.4 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO HOUSEHOLDS FOOD INSECURITY
2.4.1 Factors contributing to Households food insecurity in Africa
2.4.1.1 Natural Hazard factors
2.4.1.2 Population growth
2.4.1.3 Conflicts
2.4.2. Factors contributing to household’s food insecurity in Kenya
2.4.2.1 Marketing and credit systems
2.4.2.2 Access to social services
2.4.2.3 Household economy
2.4.2.4 Knowledge and information systems
2.4.3 Factors contributing to households Food insecurity in Twale Area
2.4.3.1 Land fragmentation
2.4.3.2 Access to infrastructure
2.4.3.3 Rural- urban migration
2.4.3.4 Crop based system
2.5 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
2.5.1 Based- rights approach to food insecurity
2.5.2 Fresh approach to food insecurity
2.6 Research gap

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 Research design
3.3 The study Area
3.4 Target population
3.5 Sampling techniques
3.6 Sample Size
3.7 Methods of Data collection
3.7.1 Structured questionnaires
3.7.2 Observation
3.7.3 in depth interview
3.8 Ethical issues to be considered

CHAPTER FOUR
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.2 Household Demographic information
4.2.1 Household size
4.2.2 Education Level households Heads

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusion
5.4.1 Recommendations for Policy Making
5.4.2 Recommendations for Practice

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

Dedication

This research project is dedicated to Baariu's family for the support they have given me throughout my study both morally and financially. May Almighty God bless you all.

Acknowledgement

Much gratitude goes to Almighty God for the gift of life courage and protection and good healthy throughout my research project.

I would like to extended my heartfelt gratitude to my family members especially to my parent for supporting me financially and advise wise .it couldn't be successful it were not for them. God bless you.

My acknowledgement to my lecturer Dr. Michael Chesire who provided an insight from time to time. I also appreciate the support of all lecturers who took me throughout this course. The appreciation to the Authors whose pieces of material I have borrowed and relied on in the developing of this research project.

Abstract

Food insecurity is a major development problem that is caused by a myriad of factors in national, regional and local spheres of life. Several efforts have been put in place to alleviate food insecurity globally, nationally, regionally and also even locally. Despite these efforts the situation continue to prevail and sometimes even increase in contemporary human societ.it is therefore imperative that food insecurity gets addressed appropriately. Small scale farmers play a vital role in food production especially through subsistent farming. However, their households are major casualties of food insecurity despite their efforts in food production. This research Proposal sought to investigate the factors contributing to household food insecurity in Twale area, To establish the status of household food production, determine household food consumption patterns; establish household food sources, establish the status of household food insecurity and identify coping strategies among the households in the event of food shortage, and to identify the theoretical framework of food insecurity. The research design to be employed in the study is cross sectional research design which sought to obtain information that was to describe the existing status of household food insecurity and coping strategies among the households. A total of 15 households will be systematically sampled from the total population of 40 households in the area .Data will be collected by use of structured questionnaires. The bar graphs will be used to represent the findings of this study.

List of acronyms and abbreviation

ASAL Arid and Semi-Arid Lands

CBS Central Bureau of Statistics

FANTA Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

FFW Food for Work

GOK Government of Kenya

HFCA Household Food Consumption Approach

HFCS Household Food Consumption Score

HFIAS Household Food Insecurity and Access Scale

IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute

KARI Kenya Agricultural Research Institute

MoA&L Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock MT Metric Tonnes

NFP National Food Policy

NFSNP National Food Security and Nutrition

WFP World food programme

MDGS Millennium Development Goals

OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS

Coping strategies: ways of reducing impacts of negative events once it has occurred such as household’s insecurity.

Farming family: Households whose livelihood orientation is farming

Farmland size: Size in acres of household land under cultivation

Farm size: Size in acres of the entire household land holding

Household: A unit comprising of a group of person living together sharing from the same dietary and same source of livelihood on a regular basis.

Household dietary diversity: The number of food groups consumed by household’s members in the last 24 hours.

Household’s food consumption patterns: The patterns in terms of diversity of food consumed and pattern in frequency of food consumption in a household

Household’s food insecurity: inability of household to have enough food to provide and sustain its member’s dietary intake.

Household’s food production: food crop cultivation and food harvest in households

Household principal caregiver: The person who is either responsible or oversees food preparation

Small scale farmers: Farmers whose agricultural orientation is mainly subsistence and cultivate land not exceeding 10 acres.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Household Size

Table 4.2 Education Levels of Household Heads

Table 4.3: Sizes of Household Farms

Table 4.4: Main Sources of Food Items

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2.1: factors contributing to household food insecurity

Figure 4.1: Meal Patterns among the Households

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Food insecurity has been seen as a common phenomenon in the worldwide as in African continent. The situation at hand is also found in Kenya. Therefore this chapter explains more about the food insecure households, the global and regional overview of household’s good insecurity, the statement of the problem, purpose of study, the objectives and the significance and scope of study.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Globally, despite growing attention in the world media and expanding aid efforts by many organizations, the world household food insecurity continues to worsen as many communities struggle with daily hunger and starvation (Project Concern International, 2009). A myriad of factors have been responsible for the continuing world food insecurity. One factor is the rise in prices of the world staple foods (wheat, rice and corn). It is established that inflation of wheat is 120% and rice is 75% (ibid). Another factor is poverty. An estimated 100 million people have fallen into poverty in the last two years -for instance in 2007, Afghanistan households were spending 75% of their income on food (World Bank, 2008). Dependence on food imports also influences the global food insecurity. A case in point is Haiti where over 80% of staple rice is imported. The result of it is that over half of the country’s population is under-nourished and24% of children. The World Food Summit of 1996 described food insecure households as those whose members do not have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (Aiga & Dhur, 2006). Despite the right of every man, woman and child to be free from effects of food insecurity (including household food insecurity) being declared during the World Food Conference of 1974 (GOK 2008a), these effects linger in the global society.

Various countries in Africa have experienced the devastating effects of household food insecurity. For instance, Cameroon in West Africa, Egypt in Northern Africa, Ethiopia in the Eastern Africa and South Africa in the extreme Southern Africa. The World Food Programme (WFP) describes Cameroon as a food insecure country, and has further demonstrated that food intake in households is lower now than in the early 1980s. The result of this is that 19% of young children in the country are underweight and child mortality rate is rising rather than falling (Oneworld.net (US), 2009Ethiopia experiences serious household food insecurity. Over 7 million people out of Ethiopia’s population of 76.9 million people are classified as food insecure; and a further 10 million people are identified as prone to drought. High population growth rate in the country increases the food insecurity further (Chu, 2009). Although South Africa produces bumper harvests especially in the 2007/08 season, it has been affected by high food prices in the declining world economy. High food prices are causing hardship particularly among the poorest family households who spend a huge proportion of their income on food (Oneworld.net (US), 2009). Household food insecurity is one of the major catastrophes in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya 10 million persons and their households are highly food insecure, with 3.2 million food insecure persons living in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of the country (WFP, 2009).The Kenya Vision 2030 and the National Food Security and Nutrition Policy (NFSNP) stipulate that the Government of Kenya (GOK) has consistently emphasized on local food production as one of the means of alleviating household food insecurity (GOK, 2008; GOK, 2008b). However, despite the formulation of the strategic plans, household food insecurity continues to persist since there is marked reliance on relief supplies by the poor, and in Kenya, 53% of the people in rural areas are overall poor while 51% are food poor. Household food insecurity in the country is attributed to factors such as decline in agricultural productivity resulting from continuous land fragmentation. Most of the original large scale farms in Kenya have been sub-divided beyond economically sustainable agricultural production. As a result of the fragmentations, some 89% of the households in Kenya are living in less than 7.5 acres of land while 47 % live on farms less than 1.5 acres (Gitu, 2004).According to WFP (2009), farm family households in ASAL areas practice livestock production to mitigate crop losses. However, low numbers of livestock and their poor body conditions (as a result of extended trekking in search of water and pasture) has caused a 50% decline in their value. Furthermore, these households are also depending on undesirable mitigation strategies against their household food insecurity, such as charcoal production, which further degrade the environment and endanger future food production (ibid). Gitu (2004) observes that there is abandonment of indigenous drought resistant crops in ASAL areas due to changes in food tastes and preferences constraining drought resistant crop cultivation to mitigate crop losses. According to FAO’s (2007) study, there are few households in developing countries where gardens act as a major source of food to meet household consumption requirements. A study carried out in Umbumbulu in Kwa-Zulu Natal province of South Africa to investigate household coping strategies against food insecurity revealed that most households obtained foods through purchases (93%), followed by own food production (4%), gifts and payments. Households from Umbumbulu did not consume particularly among the poorest family households who spend a huge proportion of their income on food (Oneworld.net (US), 2009).particularly among the poorest family households who spend a huge proportion of their income on food (Oneworld.net (US), 2009).

Twale location experiences bimodal rain and high temperatures. The soil type is sandy loamy soil the unreliable rainfall is the main cause of household’s food insecurity in the area the prolonged drought in the area has brought about unsteady and low crop production. The low crop production leaves a gap of 59% which exposes the area to high food prices. The poor infrastructure hinders redistribution of food to market in low potential areas. The community is highly dependent on relief supplies especially in October and December months. They are gets food aid from the Catholic diocese of Meru, world food programme (WFP) and GOK by supplying relief food, cooking oil and supplement to the affected.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Like other countries in Africa, Kenya looks towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. The first goal is of alleviation of extreme poverty and hunger and the country plans to achieve this, by reducing the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by half by 2015, (GOK, 2008b). To achieve this, implementing the millennium strategic plans at the grass root levels (such as divisions) is imperative. This will ensure reduction of household food insecurity. Household food insecurity is a critical issue in Kenya because the magnitude of household food insecurity in the country is alarming especially in ASALs that comprise of 88% of Kenya’s land area (Gitu, 2004). Twale location Meru County in the Eastern Province of Kenya is one such an ASAL area that has continued to experience frequent household food insecurity (GOK, 2009). This is despite of national food policy formulation of alleviating household food insecurity, especially among small scale farmers through local agricultural food production. Small scale farmers are important players in alleviating household food insecurity by increasing household food access, availability and utilization through their subsistent own crop production. Food shortages are due to high levels of household food insecurity in Twale predispose households to employ adverse coping strategies .Not much has been documented on the status of household food production, household food consumption patterns, household sources of food, status of household food insecurity and coping strategies among small scale farmers in Twale location . Due to the aforementioned observation, the study on household food insecurity among households in Twale area deemed to be necessary.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors contributing to households food insecurity in rural areas especially Twale location.

1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

This study is guided by general objectives and specific objectives

1.5.1 General objectives

The general objectives of this study are to establish national, regional and local factors contributing to household’s food insecurity in Twale area.

1.5.2 Specific objectives

The specific objectives are to;

a) To determine the factors contributing to households food insecurity among households in Twale area.
b) To establish the households sources of food in Twale area
c) To determine the agricultural methods used by Twale residents
d) To investigate the land size underutilization among the household in Twale area
e) To establish the households size among the households in Twale area.
f) To establish the education level of households heads in Twale area.

1.6 Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions

a) What are the factors contributing to household’s food insecurity in Twale area?
b) What are the sources of food among the households in Twale Area?
c) What are the agricultural methods used by Twale residents?
d) What is the land size used among the households in Twale area?
e) What is the household’s size in the households in Twale area?
f) What is the education level of the household’s heads in Twale area?

1.7 Significance of the study

The aim of the study is to establish the Factors contributing to household food insecurity in Twale area the findings of the study will be shared and discussed in Twale location food insecurity stakeholder meetings. This will help build capacity among the small scale farmers concerning household food insecurity and coping strategy issues. The findings will also be shared with the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock to provide relevant input in policy making in the area of household food insecurity and small scale farming practices. The findings will provide relevant data to local NGOs in planning food aid support programmes. The findings will also contribute to the body of knowledge in the academia and may provide insights on food security gaps for further academic research.

1.8 Scope of study

Twale location is the study area it is in the Eastern province. The researcher decided to use this area of study because the researcher will be able to collect the relevant information needed for analysis of data of this study that will be determining the factors contributing to household’s food insecurity in the named area.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses Households food production (globally, regionally and locally), global, regional and local factors contributing to household’s food insecurity summary of the reviewed literature are also covered in the chapter theoretical framework and research gap.

2.2 Household Food Production

In the year 2000, the food available for Kenyans was 1965 calories per capita per day, which was below the recommended 2250 calories per day and the source of calories comes mainly from maize, which accounts for 36% of foodstuff. The food availability has been declining largely because maize production was down by 44% on per capita basis in 2000 compared to 30 years before due to local staple food production being outstripped by a relatively high rate of population growth (Gitu, 2004). The major cereals produced in Kenya are maize, wheat, and to a limited extent rice in higher potential areas while traditional food crops such as sorghum, millet, cassava, vegetables, and fruits are mainly cultivated in ASAL areas (ibid).In normal rainfall years, the country produces about 2.7 million MT of maize, 270,000 MT of wheat, and 50,000 MT of rice while the production levels of cash crops that contribute to food security are coffee, tea, sugar and cotton, and the annual production for these commodities is 100,000 MT of clean coffee, 294,000 MT of processed tea, 420,00MT of sugar and 40,000 MT of cotton lint (Gitu, 2004). Maize production during long rains ranges from 26 to 30 million 90 kg bags out of which smallholder farms produce 75 percent whereas average maize yield is 2 MT per hectare. A myriad of factors have been responsible for the continuing world food insecurity. One factor is the rise in prices of the world staple foods (wheat, rice and corn). It is established that inflation of wheat is 120% and rice is 75% (ibid). Another factor is poverty. An estimated 100 million people have fallen into poverty in the last two years -for instance in 2007, Afghanistan households were spending 75% of their income on food (World Bank, 2008). Dependence on food imports also influences the global food insecurity. A case in point is Haiti where over 80% of staple rice is imported. The result of it is that over half of the country’s population is under-nourished and 24% of child-suffer chronic malnutrition. Fresh food exports, for instance the export of horticulture produce from Ghana to Europe for monetary gains has resulted in the country importing a significant proportion of its staple food such as rice, ultimately leaving the country exposed to the spiraling world food prices. Moreover, the climate change due to global warming has influenced world household food insecurity. El-ninos and La- ninas hamper good crop production in Latin America and the Sub-Saharan Africa. Droughts caused by La-ninas have caused household food insecurity especially in Ethiopia where 7 million people are classified as food insecure and a further 10 million classified as prone to drought, (ibid). Other factors that contribute to household food insecurity in the world include: Shift to more non-agricultural technology, politics, environmental degradation, insecurity and high population growth. Several consequences of global household food insecurity have manifested themselves. Demand for food aid is a serious consequence of the food insecurity. Each year, 10% of Burundi’s population requires food aid, (FAO, 2008). Another consequence is poor health status exemplified in Benin, whereby almost a quarter of children below 5 years are underweight, (ibid). There are also increased malnutrition rates globally whereby in 2004, the global malnutrition was 15%, (WHO, 2004). World household food insecurity has also increased poverty among the global population. Food Insecurity in Kenya Household food insecurity in Kenya is caused by inadequate farming area. It is only 18% of Kenya’s territory which is suitable for farming. Another cause is poverty. The 2007/08 United Nations Human Development Report noted that almost 24% of Kenyans are living on less than one dollar a day, therefore not food sustaining (CBS, 2009). Droughts in ASAL areas of Kenya have brought about a decline in crop and livestock production among households in these regions. Moreover floods cause displacement of people making them vulnerable to household food insecurity. It is estimated that the 2006 floods affected 700,000 people in the country; most of them cut off from food help due to impassable roads (ibid). The 2008 post-election violence disrupted the March/April agricultural production. The World Food Programme reported that 50% of farmers were not sufficiently prepared for farming due to the post-election turmoil. In addition, erratic rainfall exacerbates household food insecurity in the country. Poor rains in 1996 prompted the GOK to declare a state of national disaster on January the 28th (IRIN Humanitarian Report, 1997). The GOK has assisted farmers in crop production by providing farm input subsidy, by granting a 10% price reduction for seeds. The Citizen News reported that the government has also imported fertilizer thus bringing down the cost from an all-time high of Ksh5,

2.3 Food insecurity in Twale

Twale area situated in the lowlands of Meru region, it experiences bimodal rains and high temperatures. The soil types range from sandy loamy soil Twale area is situate was 8,014 metric tones against the estimated annual demand of 16,906 metric tones. The failure of short rains in the subsequent two years decreased crop output dismally. The low food production leaves a gap of nearly 50% which exposes the area to high food prices. The cost of beans escalated from KSh40 in the early 2008 to KSh80 in 2009 (GOK, 2008e) Poor markets infrastructure hinders redistribution of food to the markets in the low potential areas of the district. Transportation is costly and constrained by poor transport and communication systems. This often results in high food prices and ultimate household food insecurity due to poorly integrated markets (GOK, 2008d)Poor Nutritional Status is one of the effects of the household food insecurity in Twale In 2007, the area had 153 cases of underweight children attended to and 5 cases of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) observed and attended to (GOK, 2008c). The limited health facilities in the area are not easily accessible due to poor road infrastructure. Moreover, the doctor to patient ratio is low – 1:100,992. Malaria is the most frequently. Treated disease in the health facilities and contributes to high death rate especially among children below five years of age. The district has a morbidity rate of 18% and about 76 children die before their fifth birthday every year. This results into overutilization of health facilities. The district malnutrition increased from 5.7% in May 2008 to 6.2% in June 2008 among the children between 12 to 59 months which was attributable to household food insecurity situation in the year. It was also reported that out of the 1,027 assessed children across the region, 64 of them showed signs of malnutrition (ibid).

The community is highly dependent on relief supplies especially in the October to December months. There have been persistent food shortages in the area during the mentioned months due to prolonged dry spells beginning in June to October; hence there is no food cultivation during these periods (GOK, 2008e). The food aid support is by the Catholic Diocese of Meru, the WFP, Plan Kenya and the GOK by supplying relief food, cooking oil and food supplements to the affected (ibid).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.4 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO HOUSEHOLDS FOOD INSECURITY

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 2.1: factors contributing to household food insecurity

2.4.1 Factors contributing to Households food insecurity in Africa

2.4.1.1 Natural Hazard factors

Drought and other climatic extremes are major factors contributing to vulnerability to food insecurity. In the Horn of Africa there is no year or season in which the whole region receives normal rainfall and is free from climatic anomalies such as flood or drought. Drought is the most catastrophic natural event that causes widespread periodic famine in the region, but it is by no means the only natural hazard facing the people of the area. Periodically, floods afflict localized parts of even the driest areas (as was the case at the outset of the current crisis), and the threat of locust swarms is often present. For example, during 1997/98 severe floods were observed over many parts of the region, and were followed by the drought that has persisted over parts of the Horn since late 1998. (Gitu 2004)

Drought is a fact of life in many parts of the Horn of Africa - it has been recorded from as far back as 253 B.C. Large parts of the region are arid and semi-arid, with annual rainfall of less than 500 mm and subject to a high degree of unreliability, both from year to year and in the distribution within each year. In the last 30 years there has been at least one major drought episode in each decade. There were serious droughts in 1973/74, 1984/85, 1987, 1992 to 1994 and, now, 1999/2000. In Ethiopia alone, the 1984 drought affected 8.7 million people, about 1 million died and 1.5 million livestock perished. In the Sudan 8.5 million people were affected by the same drought, and about 1 million people and 7 million livestock died. In 1987, about 2 million people in the Sudan, more than 5.2 million in Ethiopia, 1 million in Eritrea and 200 000 in Somalia were severely affected. The current drought, which started in 1998, is affecting about 16 million people Drought is, therefore, a recurring phenomenon in the region and there will always be certain locations experiencing localize situations conditions.

2.4.1.2 Population growth

The population of the Horn of Africa has more than doubled since the first of the major droughts of recent times hit the region in 1974, and it is projected to increase by a further 40 percent by 2015. The population dynamics of the region are not encouraging (see Table 1). Population growth rates have historically been high, at 2.5 to 3.5 percent, and are still at least 2 percent everywhere. The momentum for future increases in population remains strong because of the age structure and youthfulness of the population. Fertility and mortality rates are high and the low prevalence of contraception use almost everywhere means that there is little chance of a decline in fertility in the immediate future (USAID 2009).Family sizes are large, especially in rural areas, and the dependency burden 10 is high, exacerbated in many countries by the devastating impact of HIV/AIDS, which strikes the working-age population hardest Over the last 25 years, there has been considerable rural-urban migration, the rate of which is projected to increase. However, there has also been an increase in the number of people dependent on agriculture. Population increase has led to a dramatic increase in energy demand and this has been met mainly by wood (from range and forest) and organic matter such as animal manure. The natural resource base has, if anything declined as a result of land degradation and urban encroachment on arable land. To the extent that there has been any increase in the area of land being farmed, this has taken place largely in marginal areas, using systems that may not be sustainable. Shrinking land resources have not been compensated for by increases in land productivity. Average cereal yields are a mere 860 kg/ha and, where comparative data are available, statistics confirm the general impression that yields are declining. For example, in the Sudan and Uganda, average yields have dropped by 12 and 18 percent, respectively, over the last decade. The study by (FAO) shows that, the result is that, throughout the region, farmers have to cope with reduced productivity and less land from which to feed them and to supply food to the ever-expanding cities. In many parts of the region, the pressure of the human and livestock populations on the resource base has increased to the point where land use, employing currently available technology and management systems, is not sustainable. This is particularly true in the arid and semi-arid lands which make up 70 percent of the region and where the resource base is fragile.

2.4.1.3 Conflicts

The Horn of Africa has been plagued by conflict since time immemorial. Although the war between Ethiopia and Eritrea has attracted the most media attention, the region has suffered from almost continuous civil conflicts over the last 30 years in Ethiopia (as formerly defined), the Sudan, Somalia and Uganda, and these have spilled over into Djibouti. The countries of the region devote between 8 and 50 percent of central government expenditure, or between 2 and 8 percent of gross national product (GNP), to the military, totaling US$2 billion in 1997. These figures rise substantially, of course, whenever conflict flares up. Conflicts in the region undoubtedly exacerbate the famine and food insecurity triggered by drought. Even before the recent hostilities between Ethiopia and Eritrea, more than 1 million people from the region were refugees. Large populations of internally displaced persons (IDPs) were to be found in the Sudan, Somalia and Uganda. Conflict removes able-bodied men from agricultural production and, incidentally, places an extra work burden on women. It also diverts resources, directly and indirectly, from more productive and socially beneficial uses, and tests the willingness of the international community to provide assistance (ibid) Trans-boundary conflicts hit the headlines but, especially in areas where the pressure on available natural resources is intense, local conflicts abound. Pastoral areas, which are under pressure from the expansion of cropping into marginal areas and increasingly degraded rangelands, are especially susceptible to local conflict and cattle raids, which break out when people have ready access to modern weapons. Northern Kenya and northern Uganda have been particularly prone to prolonged outbreaks of such violence. Such tendencies are exacerbated when drought hits and the scramble for limited grazing and water intensifies. Poor countries, which have few resources to allocate to minorities, to the regions and to remote areas, are particularly vulnerable to internal conflict. Consequently, any measures that promote growth and reduce food insecurity are also likely to help conflict prevention.

Conflict, whether trans-boundary or internal, exacerbates the vulnerability of poor people, displacing them from their homes and depleting their assets. It makes emergency relief operations directed towards IDPs difficult and dangerous for those involved. Conflict also has a much more insidious impact on long-term development efforts, diverting scarce resources, both national and external, away from development activities and into war.

2.4.2. Factors contributing to household’s food insecurity in Kenya

2.4.2.1 Marketing and credit systems

Market liberalization has spread throughout the economies of the region over the last decade, as part of structural economic reforms. While this has undoubtedly opened up new opportunities to those farmers who have access to good land, irrigation and markets, it has virtually by-passed the resource-poor farmers and those in low-potential and remote areas. Indeed, many such farmers may well be worse off now than they were before the reform process, when some of them benefited from subsidization through the operation of pan-territorial prices for inputs and outputs which were offered by state marketing agencies. The people in these areas now find themselves in the painful position of having to pay the highest prices for agricultural inputs and consumer goods, while being paid the lowest prices for their surplus production. In the liberalized economy, fewer rural enterprises appear to be profitable, with the result that farmers retreat into subsistence production.

As with marketing, the liberalization of financial markets is gradually providing the larger and more accessible farmers with access to rural financial services. However, the poor, who are deemed to be at high risk, are the least likely to have access to formal credit and must rely on family, friends and local moneylenders when in need of a loan GOK( 2008b) Consequently, borrowing is almost always for a family celebration or emergency, and is rarely for productive investment. Institutions in the commercial financial sector are unlikely to reach down to the small farmers for many years to come because of the high transaction costs and perceived risks, thus these farmers are deprived of an important tool for development. In the meantime, small savings and credit schemes, often operated by NGOs and indigenous rotating savings and credit associations, offer the only way to enable poor households to accumulate funds and invest.

[...]

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Details

Title
Factors Contributing to Household-Food Security in Twale Lovation, Tigania, West Sub-County, Meru, Kenia
College
Moi University
Course
Community Development
Grade
85
Author
Year
2020
Pages
43
Catalog Number
V950743
ISBN (eBook)
9783346291387
ISBN (Book)
9783346291394
Language
English
Notes
This is an excellent report that describes a field trip to slums, children's home and prisons in Western Kenya. The aim is to gather data on the prevalence of HIV, drug abuse, prostitution and poverty levels.
Tags
social work, childrens home, poverty in Kenya, Field work
Quote paper
Humphrey Mutuma (Author), 2020, Factors Contributing to Household-Food Security in Twale Lovation, Tigania, West Sub-County, Meru, Kenia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/950743

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