"ISO 14001" and the "International Business Environmental Barometer" Jean-Thomas de Dobbeleer, Marie-Laure Demoutiez


Seminar Paper, 1999
22 Pages

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CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ISO

2.1. ISO - An Abbreviation?

2.2. What is the ISO 14000 Series?

2.2.1. ISO 14001 - Specifications for an Environmental Management System

2.3. The requirements

2.3.1. Section 4.1 Environmental Policy

2.3.2. Section 4.2 Planning

2.3.3. Section 4.3 Implementation and Operation

2.3.4. Section 4.4 Checking and Corrective Action

2.3.5. Section 4.5 Management Review

2.4. Conclusion

2.4.1. Opportunities for the Environment

2.4.2. Risk of the ISO 14001

2.4.3. Opportunities for Companies

3. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTAL BAROMETER

3.1. Introduction

3.1.1. Definition

3.2. Mission of the BEB

3.3. The Strategy to Accomplish the Mission Involves

3.4. The Structure

3.4.1 First Part: Environmental Challenge

3.4.2. Second Part: Environmental Management:

3.4.3. Third Part: Relationship between Environmental and Economic Goals.

3.5. Treatment and Interpretation of the Data

4. APPLICATION TO BELGIUM :

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Managers' Attitudes towards the Environmental Issues

4.3. Companies' Actions

4.4. Environmental Management Systems

4.5. Conclusion

5. FINAL CONCLUSION

6. APPENDIX

REFERENCES

Abstract:

On the following pages we want to talk about the "ISO 14001" and the "International Business Environmental Barometer". Furthermore we will show some opportunities of those two concepts for companies, society and the environment.

1. Introduction

The environment has become one of the principal challenges of our society in the second half of this century. The question of this subject has come up in the 1960's but for the companies it became an important preoccupation in the 1970's and 1980's and then they realized their social responsibility against the environment.

During the time it became a public concern and more and more actors had been involved in questions of protection of the environment (e.g. trading partners, local population, employee, financial organizations and the media), so companies were forced not only to think about pollution but to act.

In this situation the companies answered this growing pressure with a kind of "green strategies" They were obliged to rethinking their growth economic purpose and to integrate the environmental preoccupations. By the time companies realized that questions of environment are not an obstacle but also an opportunity.

Certain companies have used these questions to develop new strategies to reach a new form of competitiveness. In the following we will present two forms of tools for companies to use: the "ISO 14001" and the "International Business Environmental Barometer".

2. ISO 14001

2.1. ISO - An Abbreviation?

In the beginning of our century, more precisely 1906, a standardization process started in the electrotechnical field by creating the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In 1926 the new founded International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA) continued to set standards also in other fields but mainly in the mechanical engineering sector. During the Second World War the ISA stopped its work and later on 25 nations decided to build up a new international organization "the object of which would be to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards". This has been the so-called ISO a non-governmental organization (International Organization for Standardization). The ISO has taken up its work on 23 February 1947. Then four years later ISO proudly presented the first published standard: "Standard reference temperature for industrial length measurement".

In its first decades the ISO had mainly concentrated on setting up standards for the industry and we can say thanks for example the ISO film speed code, the format of telephone and banking cards and so on.

In January 1998 the ISO has consisted of 128 national standards bodies, one from each country (85 member bodies, 34 correspondent members and 9 subscriber members). The operational expenditures for ISO work are estimated with approximately 550.000.000 NOK. 80 % is financed directly by member bodies and 20 % through member body subscriptions, and publications income covering the costs of the Central Secretariat.

Nowadays the ISO is known because of the ISO 9000 series (quality management) set up in 1987 and the ISO 14000 series (environmental management systems (EMS)) set up in 1997. So we can see that the development of standards of protecting the environment has come up pretty late. During the last ten years the ISO was nearly able to double the number of published International Standards from 6.789 to 11.258.

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Source: http://www.iso.ch/infoe/aboutiso.htm

In the moment just 3,2 % of all publications of ISO consists of the technical field of environment (e.g. 359). In the year 1997 the number has been increased by 46 published International Standards.

2.2. What is the ISO 14000 Series?

We can say that the ISO 14000 series is a voluntary set of standards. It tries to encourage companies and organizations to systematically address the environmental impacts of their activities. Further more the hope is to establish a common approach to environmental management systems (EMS), that are leading to improved environmental protections and reducing barriers to international trade.

The ISO 14000 series is supposed to help any company of any shape and of any size in any country to meet the goal of "sustainable development" and "environmental friendliness". The keyword here is "goal" because the ISO 14000 does not provides a performance standard but a management standard. But "goal" should not be used in the meaning that the standard requires specific environmental goals. Instead it provides a general framework for organizing the tasks necessary for effective environmental management. But the whole ISO 14000 series includes much more, for example:

- ISO 14001 - Specification of Environmental Management Systems (we will mainly speak about)
- ISO 14004 - Guidelines for ISO 14001
- ISO 14010 - 14012 - Environmental Auditing and related activities
- ISO 14031 - Environmental Performance Evaluation

Companies which are interested in an ISO 14000 certification have to meet the requirements laid out in the ISO 14001, the centerpiece. Further standards of the same series provide supporting guidance.

As an expert of the ISO 9000 can see, the ISO 14000 series shares many characteristics with its older cousin ISO 9000. For one thing, the company is free to shape its management system to fit the needs of its size, market and economic situation. Also some of the elements of a management system are the same, such as document control and statistical methods.

2.2.1. ISO 14001 - Specifications for an Environmental Management System

To get a certification, a company should start with looking at its current situation. The first goal is to seek and receive full senior management support for implementing its system. If it is already ISO 9000 certified the environmental management system will be just an expansion of its current system. But of course it is also important that the company is looking to local external environmental regulations.

2.3. The requirements

Here it starts to become concrete. Section four of ISO 14001 says "The organization shall establish and maintain an EMS..." This section consists of all the requirements a company has to meet. "Shall" means in this case the company must take this action. Thus it has to have a well-documented environmental management system that can be demonstrable to an auditor as being in conformance and effective.

The ISO 14001 environmental management system model:

- Environmental Policy
- Planing Implementation
- Checking and Corrective Action
- Management Review

follows a logical progression of steps that begin by developing a company environmental policy.

2.3.1. Section 4.1 Environmental Policy

The top management must write and make known a company's wide policy of environmental issues. This includes more than taking care of the nature around a plant. Everything is meant that has an impact on the company surrounding environment, such as noise, quality of work life, discharge, scrap, disposal of products, neighborhood aesthetics and so on. Therefor the company's environmental policy has to be relevant to the size and nature of the company and the impact it has on its environment. The company has to show that continuous improvement is one of its strategic goals and it has to say how and when it will review its system, including its stated targets and objectives. All employees have to be aware of the policy and it has to be made available to the public.

2.3.2. Section 4.2 Planning

The planning begins with defining where the company can control the environmental results of its operations, products and services. Then it has to compile an up-to-date list of environmental regulations and requirements that apply to the company. With these information targets and objectives can be set but it is also important to consider the concerns of other outside parties. Each target and objective is then assigned to a specific job title for control and continuous improvement. Now a specific timeframe has to be developed. As new projects or production methods are coming up, the environmental management system plan has to be changed or expand to include these developments.

2.3.3. Section 4.3 Implementation and Operation

Here the company has to define the employers' responsibility. Also the top management has to assign a manager as the official environmental management system coordinator. This coordinator is responsible for ensuring implementation and then regularly reviewing the environmental management system and reporting to management. Any internal company communication concerning environmental issues shall be documented. Also a formal system for recording and acting on communications received from external sources, for example customers, regulators, environmental groups and so on. Unique to ISO 14001 is also the need for a procedure to cover emergencies.

2.3.4. Section 4.4 Checking and Corrective Action

Now after identifying what will be monitored and where it will happen, the company now has to establish a procedure on how this is done. The company will need a corrective action procedure that identifies when to react, who responds and what actions are taken. At least annually the company should perform an internal audit of its complete environmental management system.

2.3.5. Section 4.5 Management Review

At regular intervals, usually at least once a year, the top management need to review the complete environmental management system for completeness and effectiveness. This review has to consist of the results of internal audits and the management discussion of the strategic plan for the company. Then the management has to decide whether to modify or change the existing environmental management system.

2.4. Conclusion

The interesting aspect of ISO 14001 is the proposed idea of written targets and objectives. This would make improvements obvious to anyone that has the time to look at a series of charts. Employees would gather regular readings of environmental impacts. These could be charted and posted to everyone to see. The target for each chart would be noted. Thus continuous improvement would be a regular part of the environmental management system. At all achieving ISO 14001 registration is not easy. Implementing and complying with ISO 14001 takes significant time and money. Most companies need between 12 and 18 months to become registrated.

2.4.1. Opportunities for the Environment

At the point of view of the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable (NPPR) the ISO 14001 standard has several positive features. Because the standard can be seen more as an competitiveness issue rather than as a cost of compliance issue, the management of a company has an incentive to install an environmental management system. With this kind of standard an improving environmental performance is foreseen. Because all employers are involved in procedures of the standard there is a higher probability to foster innovative strategies for improving environmental performance. Another positive feature is how the standard is constructed. The ISO 14000 series is written for business by business. This makes it easy for the top-level management to understand it and capture its attention.

2.4.2. Risk of the ISO 14001

Of course there are also existing some problems in accountant with the ISO 14001:

First of all the standard is a management standard and not a performance standard which means for companies that they are not actually required to improve their environmental performance. They can abuse the ISO certification to show their commitment in protecting the environment. Also nothing is said about how goals should be set up by companies so improved environmental performance is not guaranteed.

A further aspect is that by defining "prevention of pollution" as the "use of process, practices, materials or products that avoid, reduce or control pollution, which may include recycling, treatment, process changes, control mechanisms, efficient use of resources and materials substitutions" the ISO 14001 does not distinguish between pollution prevention and pollution control. Here the NPPR and the U.S. EPA realized that this definition sets source reduction before recycling, treatment or disposal. Further more the definition also includes traditional pollution control mechanisms. This means to weaken the opportunities of the standard.

Another point to be concerned is that trade barriers may be created by requiring the ISO 14001 certification. This is the opposite way in a world of increasing globalization and cutting down direct and indirect trade barriers. Trade embargoes can be the result in extreme cases.

And last but not least the ISO 14000 series have been developed without enough influence of the environmental community and public interest organizations. Sufficient public disclosures of a company's environmental impact are not required.

2.4.3. Opportunities for Companies

Of course we have to ask what are the incentives for a company to install a environmental management system. In several articles we can find plenty of them.

1. Regulatory relief. In many countries the standard starts to replace local environmental regulations. This makes it easier for companies to install new plants and saving costs by handling all existence plants in the same way.
2. Competitive advantage. With increasing deregulation companies get a competitive advantage when making service proposals to community groups.
3. Marketing/public relations. Of course the environment management system can be used for purposes of marketing and public relations. A lot of companies have realized the importance of good community relations: may be Shell would have had been able to avoid the negative effects for their reputation caused by their plans to sink their oil-platform "Brent Spar".
4. Preferred status for insurance and banking. A lot of insurance and finical companies take the ISO standard as an indicator of reduced risk. The consequences are often better insurance rates or increased access to capital.
5. The will of customers. We can find that more and more customers in the industry want an ISO certification. By this they ensure themselves to do the best for the environment they can do. So it is again a competitive advantage. Studies in the US have shown that about 50 % of all companies with an environment management system have installed the system because of customer demand.
6. Benefits are higher than costs. Companies who have got the ISO certificate were becoming aware of inefficiencies they have not seen before. So the costs of installing an environmental management system could be compensated.

3. International Business Environmental Barometer

3.1. Introduction

Society is gaining more and more knowledge about ecological systems and how interaction might interfere with these systems. In organizations all over Europe, environmental questions are entering the business agenda. Environmental management systems, life cycle analyses are concepts that become part of management practice. Stakeholder groups influence companies to consider environmental issues and to take initiatives to decrease the environmental impacts from production and products.

Ecover is a Belgian company that produces cleaning products from natural soaps and renewable raw materials. In 1992, Ecover opened a factory outside Antwerp aiming at zero emissions. The factory is built entirely with ecological materials and wind and solar energy power the water-treatment system.

Kvaerner, the Norwegian oil and gas company, invests heavily in clean technologies. This has increased energy efficiency and reduced air emissions.

Coop, the second largest food retailer in Switzerland, introduced an environmental program for organically grown food products. Within three years the sales of the « Coop Naturaplan » quintupled between 1993 and 1996.

These three examples from Belgium, Norway and Switzerland show that environmental management is taken seriously in business organizations. In the nineties, environmental management has become increasingly important, both in theory and in practice.

With the introduction of standardized environmental management systems such "ISO 14001" environmental management is entering a new phase. The nineties might be characterized as the phase of standardization in the field of environmental management. To follow up this process a number of national and international surveys on environmental management exists. But systematic international studies on environmental are missing. The "International Business Environmental Barometer" (BEB) fulfils this need.

3.1.1. Definition

The idea of the International Business Environmental Barometer is to analyze and compare the status of environmental management across countries over time. The BEB is a multinational survey, which is carried out bi-annually. It was initiated in the beginning of 1993 with the objective to stepwise expand the network each round. The first round of the BEB took place in 1993/1994 and was restricted to the Nordic countries.

The second round of the BEB, in 1995/1996, also included Switzerland and Belgium. The participating research partners were: Gothenburg Research Institute (Sweden), Norwegian School of Management (Norway), Helsinki School of Economics (Finland), University of St Gallen (Switzerland)

and Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium).

The idea is to give a view of environmental management in each country on the basis of the standardized survey. The reports focus on environmental problems, stakeholders, activities, environmental management systems, as well as the relationship between environmental and economic goals.

The main questions are the following: how do managers perceive the environmental problems along the whole product life? To what extent do stakeholders influence companies to undertake environmental initiatives? Which environmental activities are taken in the production area and other functional areas? Is there a positive or negative relationship between environmental and economic goals?

3.2. Mission of the BEB

The mission of the International Business Environmental Barometer is to contribute to the improvement of environmental management and environmental performance of business and industry through providing research-based information and stimulating dialogue related to environmental issues, and more specifically by:

- Producing multinational research
- Tracking changes in business and industry over time
- Publishing developing trends

3.3. The Strategy to Accomplish the Mission Involves

- Inviting outstanding research institutions to participate in the International Business Environmental Barometer
- Conducting national surveys on a periodical basis in accordance with the Barometer standards
- Making international comparisons
- Establishing the BEB as a benchmark for business and industry
- Widely publishing the empirical results
- Stimulating dialogue to promote improvement in environmental management and environmental performance of business and industry.

3.4. The Structure

The structure of the BEB follows a simple 3-steps progression:

The first part deals with the "environmental challenge", i.e. environmental problems and environmental stakeholders. Questions in this context include: "What are the main environmental problems along the ecological product life? How do managers perceive the influence from environmental stakeholders?"

The second part deals with the "environmental management". The main question is: "How do companies react to the environment challenge? What kind of environmental activities do they undertake? How important are environmental management systems?"

The third part explores the "relationship between environmental and economic goals".

3.4.1 First Part: Environmental Challenge

The relevant dimensions in the environmental challenge are waste, soil, water, air, noise, energy and natural resources. To find out about environmental problems the BEB survey asks the following question for instance:

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An other example of question is the following:

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The stakeholders' view of the firm argues that the survival of the compagny depends upon its ability to manage many different constituencies, wich all have an interest in the company. From this perspective all relevant stakeholders have to be taken into account, if the company wants to survive in the long run. Relevant stakeholders groups are, for example: consumers, suppliers, employees, labour unions, environmental and consumer organisations

Studies show that especially in the environmental context, public and political stakeholders are of great importance.

3.4.2. Second Part: Environmental Management:

In the BEB survey environmental management includes environmental activities in different functional areas as well as environmental management systems. In many companies, environmental activities start in the production area.

Examples of activities in the production area are: saving energy and natural resources, reducing harmful emissions.

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To support the implementation of environmental initiatives, there are a number of standardized environmental management systems according to which companies may certify. The International Organization of Standardization gives organizations the possibility standard ISO 14001 (see paragraph 2 ff.).

The systems require continuous environmental improvements according to the objectives set by the company. Environmental management systems standardize routines, but the environmental effects are hard to quantify. In the BEB questionnaire it is been asked for the following elements of an environmental management system:

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3.4.3. Third Part: Relationship between Environmental and Economic Goals.

Often it is assumed that environmental goals are contrary to economic goals, at least in the short term. Is this assumption reflected by the answers of the respondents and across countries? To explore the relationship, the BEB survey asks:

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3.5. Treatment and Interpretation of the Data

Since the BEB is used for international comparisons, the standardization of the questionnaire and sample are important. The core questionnaire was developed in English, and thereafter translated into the respective European languages. The random sample is taken from a population of companies with more than 10 employees, in all sectors. The questionnaire is addressed to the Chief Executive Officer. In addition to the core questions, each country is free to add questions that they consider being of national importance.

It is important to keep in mind that BEB survey is a survey in exact sciences and shows attitudes, beliefs and perceptions, the BEB presents results regarding managers' claims. The BEB does not study the impact a company has on the environment, but perceptions and what exists behind managers' decisions.

4. Application to Belgium :

4.1. Introduction

The Business Environmental Barometer was applied to several companies in many European countries. The survey starts to be done also in Asia so that we can analyze the different behaviors throughout the continents. We will focus on the application of the BEB in Belgium.

BEB was applied to nearly 200 Belgian companies in 1996. The objective of the Belgian BEB is to provide information and explanation regarding environmental attitudes, actions, systems, and results in Belgian companies. It is important to note that the BEB deals with perceptions and that the survey probably gives a better environmental image of Belgium than is actually the case.

First, we will introduce some aspects that are important for a better understanding of the Belgian environmental context. Environmental decisions are taken at different levels:

- International: Belgium is submitted to a number of international obligations (like many other countries) from different supranational or non-governmental institutions.
- National: The environmental resources and competencies are allocated by the government to the three Belgian regions: Wallonie (south), Flandre (north), and Brussels (capital). However, the federal government still has some competencies.
- Regional: As we have seen above, the main responsibilities in the environmental area belong to the regions.
- Local

4.2. Managers' Attitudes towards the Environmental Issues

From the survey, it seems like environmental issues are considered strategic, not a phenomenon of fashion and not non-productive costs. Managers seem to recognize the environmental challenge. The most important incentive to act is the legislation. It appears to be very important, much more than other stakeholders pressure. The environmental legislation in Belgium is relatively recent and its impact is considered to be influential. Specific environmental projects are studied in many companies in order to adapt to future legislation (on reduction of hydrocarbon emissions, for instance).

It also appears that regulation is expected to increase in influence (particularly the importance of international regulations). Following the legislation, other incentives are lowering costs, enhancing positive image, preventing incidents and top management convictions. We can say that pressure from the society (law, environmental organizations, media, labor unions, etc.) is stronger than pressure from the market (suppliers, distributors, customers, etc.).

All this lead to the conclusion that the environment is considered to be more of an obligation than an opportunity in Belgium.

4.3. Companies' Actions

After evaluating managers' recognition of the environmental challenge, let's have a look at the companies' reactions to that challenge.

What has been implemented, to which extent and at which level in the companies?

- Environmental activities in the production area. The more frequently implemented actions are the reduction of water emissions and the reduction of solid waste. These are the two areas where the Belgian government is the most active. These actions are also directly linked to costs for companies, as well as energy savings, water savings and conservation of raw materials.
- Environmental activities in different functional areas. Production is generally the first area where environmental actions are implemented. Another important area is the Recycling/Disposal Service. Marketing/Sales and Logistics areas are less important concerned to the environmental activities. But still, actions have begun to find ways into these functional areas.
- Integrated actions. In Belgium, a great majority of companies have undertaken basic environmental actions such as the establishment of procedures of control, recycling programme, waste programme and "end-of-pipe" investments. However, there is a great proportion of companies, which have done nothing (more than 30 percent).

4.4. Environmental Management Systems

Different kinds of strategies or procedures can indicate a company's intention to act in the environmental area. Some procedures may be either defensive, or proactive. It depends on the way how companies perceive procedures of control, environmental policies, objectives and programs, responsibilities, etc.

Belgian companies work more on the short-run than on a long-run basis in the environmental area. They have environmental objectives and a general environmental program, but not in a very formal way. The majority of Belgian companies do not have a written environment policy. But still, they have measurable objectives and a program to achieve them. Most of the companies have also established procedures to evaluate the environmental impacts of their activities (like environmental auditing or reviewing). One person, who often belongs to the top management, is responsible for environmental issues. Nevertheless, we can note that no environmental report is written in most of the companies.

Another conclusion from this BEB survey is that Belgian companies are not ready to formalize their environmental involvement. More than 40% say they will not participate in ISO 14000 series. Maybe they think it is not useful, maybe the criterions are not well fixed or too severe.

4.5. Conclusion

The environment does not seem to be considered as an opportunity in Belgium; companies do not use environmental arguments in their communications. Nevertheless, environmental costs and impacts of activities are taken into account in strategic decisions. Companies take the environment into consideration because of costs and also because they are forced by legislation.

5. Final Conclusion

In our former paragraphs we have shown an instrument to measure development in environmental impacts. As we have seen in Belgium the results are not as positive as it could have been expected. But it is necessary to mention that in Belgium most companies were just forced by legislation to take care of their environmental behavior. Now with the BEB top- management could be stimulated more to think about environmental concerns. The BEB was installed in 1993 in the Scandinavian countries and after the first improvements, the responsible persons have started to spread it in Europe and since 1997 in the Asian countries. The BEB has found its way to Belgium in 1995. We suggest that it is too early to expect any positive results, but by the time the influence should also increase as in the Scandinavian countries. The survey of BEB tries to develop consciousness instead of a submission to legislation.

Further improvements should also be expected from the ISO 14000 series. It is also new but wit more and more positive feedback of already participating companies more and more companies will probably try to install an environmental management system, especially those, which have already an ISO 9000 certification.

From both the ISO and the BEB alone we cannot expect too many improvements for the environmental but together they are a tool that compensate each other weaknesses.

6. Appendix

BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTAL BAROMETER SURVEY

Please answer according to the main manufacturing site of your company.

GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT THE COMPANY

1. What is the company's main manufacturing activity?

- food products, beverage and tobacco _
- textiles and textile products _
- leather and leather products _
- wood and wood products _
- pulp, paper and paper products ; publishing and printing _
- coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel _
- chemicals, chemical products and man-made fibres _
- rubber and plastic products _
- other non-metallic mineral products _
- basic metals and fabricated metal products _
- machinery and equipment _
- electrical and optical equipment _
- transport equipment _

Other, please specify :

2. How many employees does the company have?

- number :

3. Does your company belong to a group of companies?

yes _ no _

if yes : as parent company _

as subsidiary _

4. Is the company quoted on the stock exchange?

yes _ no _

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

5. Of the following items, rank the 3 most important environmental consequences of your manufacturing processes.

(mark the most important impact `1' and the least important `3')

- generation of solid wastes _
- impacts on soil _
- waste water _
- air emissions _
- noise impacts _
- olfactory impacts _
- water consumption _
- energy consumption _
- non renewable resources consumption _
- pollutants consumption _
- landscape damage _
- risk of serious accident _

6. Considering the life cycle of your products from cradle to grave, please rank the 3 stages where environmental issues are most important for your company.

(Please refer to the product with the highest sales volume: mark the most important impact `1' and the least important `3')

- production of inputs _
- production within the company _
- transport _
- use of the product _
- disposal of consumption wastes _
- recycling of final product _

7. Assess the actual influence on the company from the following driving forces when considering/deciding to undertake an environmental initiative.

(Please tick only once for each driving force)

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8. In the last two years, the company has taken environmental treatment/remediation actions concerning

Yes No

- waste water treatment _ _
- soil remediation _ _
- landscape action _ _
- risk reduction _ _
- treatment of air emissions _ _
- solid waste treatment _ _

9. The company has taken environmental actions in the following areas Yes No

- Procurement _ _
- Research & development _ _
- Production _ _
- Marketing and sales _ _
- Logistics _ _
- Recycling/Waste disposal _ _

10. In the last two years, the company has taken environmental actions in the following areas Yes No

- improved materials or non renewable resources efficiency _ _
- substitution of environmental questionable materials _ _
- choice of suppliers by environmental criteria _ _
- urging/pressurising supplier(s) to take environmental actions _ _
- taking environmental criteria into consideration _ _
- design considerations _ _
- optimisation of processes to reduce solid wastes _ _

to reduce water use _ _

to reduce air emissions _ _

to reduce noise _ _

- use of cleaner technology processes to make savings _ _ (energy, water, wastes)
- recycling of materials internal to the company _ _
- use of waste of other companies _ _
- recovery of the company's end-of-life products _ _
- ecolabelling _ _
- environmental improvement of packaging _ _
- taking back packaging _ _
- market research on the market potential for environmentally friendly products _ _
- providing consumers with information on environmentally friendly products and/or production methods _ _
- change for more environmentally-friendly transportation _ _
- other actions taken, please specify : _________________________

11. Which routines have been established in the company in order to implement environmental management?

Yes Considering No

The company has a written environmental policy _ _ _

The company has formalised a process to identify _ _ _ and assess relevant legal requirements

The company carries out environmental _ _ _ auditing/reviewing

The company has set up measurable environmental _ _ _ objectives

The company has a program for achieving the _ _ _ environmental objectives

Responsibilities to implement the environmental _ _ _ programme have been clearly defined

The company has an environmental training program _ _ _

The company has an auditing system to check _ _ _ the functioning of the environmental program

Environmental objectives are revised periodically _ _ _ to achieve continuous improvement

The company publishes a separate environmental report _ _ _

The company includes environmental information _ _ _ in its annual report

12.Did your company implement an environmental management system?

Yes _ Under establishment _ Considering _ No _

if yes : Has your company acquired a certification in Environmental Management?

Yes _ Considering _ No _

if yes or considering : Which one? EMAS _ ISO 14001_

Did your company acquire a quality standard (ISO 9000 series or similar)? Yes _ No _

13. Assess the estimated benefits of corporate environmental actions.

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14. Assess the role played by the following obstacles for implementing environmental management in your company.

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15. What is your opinion about the following statements?

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Comments on the questionnaire or on environmental issues in general

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- Wilson, Robert C. "ISO 14000 UPDATE" Pollution Engineering, January 1998, p. 37
- Wilson, Robert C. "Objectives, Targets Sow Seed of Continual Improvement", Pollution Engineering, April 1998, p. 49 -50
- Wilson, Robert C. "Management Programs Boos Environmental Performance", Pollution Engineering, May 1998, p. 41 - 43
- Wilson, Robert C. "What Does It Take To Be an ISO 14001 EMS Auditor", Pollution Engineering, June 1998, p. 49 - 51
- http://www.p2.org
- http://www.iso14000.com/
- http://www.iso.ch/index.html

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Details

Title
"ISO 14001" and the "International Business Environmental Barometer" Jean-Thomas de Dobbeleer, Marie-Laure Demoutiez
Course
Environmental and Global ResourceManagement
Author
Year
1999
Pages
22
Catalog Number
V95343
File size
570 KB
Language
English
Tags
International, Business, Environmental, Barometer, Jean-Thomas, Dobbeleer, Marie-Laure, Demoutiez, Norwegian, School, Economics, Administration, Global, ResourceManagement
Quote paper
Achim Jürgen Sterzik (Author), 1999, "ISO 14001" and the "International Business Environmental Barometer" Jean-Thomas de Dobbeleer, Marie-Laure Demoutiez, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/95343

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