The purpose of the study was establishing impact of poverty on the academic performance of school students in Bangladesh. 3 research questions were formulated to guide in the study. The study employed descriptive survey research design while data was collected from websites. Findings revealed that parents were not able to provide their children with learning materials which in turn affected their academic result. It was also found that poor children’s are not privileged with proper environment for education. One of the major findings of the study was that children’s from poor family absent in the class more frequently since they have to get involved with different types of work in home. Inadequate space in home also affect the performance of the students from poor family. 100 Students of four school in Dhaka city were participated in it among them sample of 10 students were selected through convenient sampling. Correlation of their father’s income and their academic performance was run. Based on the findings it was concluded that family’s financial condition has an impact on the children’s academic performance. It was recommend that government should make education free for the students of poor family .Since this study conducted in other countries it was important to identify the impact in Bangladesh.
1.1 Statement of the problem
Research indeed has found children living in poor background including the family have lower occupational and educational aspirations than the children from affluent family. Schools in low- income neighborhoods will have a concentration of children in poverty who run the risk of having a lower level of school achievement and motivations for achievement. For example, the inability to read is correlated with a number of social problems that affect society’s children such as poverty. Poverty create obstacle performing well in academic sector for the children. Dinajpur is inhabited by low income earners. This must have some effect on the children of their parents.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
This study aimed at identifying effect of poverty on school children academic performance.
1.3 Research objectives
1. Establish factors that contribute to low academic performance among school children.
2. Determine the extent to which parental income affects parental income in school education.
3. Determination of home related factors affect children’s academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What factors contribute to low academic performance?
2. To what extent do parental income affect children’s participation in school education?
3. How do home related factors affect children performance?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will help government on its policy on early childhood and show the importance of being affirmatively pro-poor in the early childhood education. Findings of the study will help to revising the current policy and enlargement of allocation of fund for education in rural areas.
1.6 Hypothesis of the Study
H1: The students who have more family income perform better in school than those who have lower family income.
H2: The students who have more space in house perform better in academic sector than those who live in slum or bad environment.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The major limitations of the study was that the study was limited to a particular area in Bangladesh. The result is not generalizable to other settings beyond the original settings. Lack of accessibility to data and insufficient time Limits the generalizability of the result to other population apart from the original population.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Education is a fundamental right of every person, a key to other human rights; the heart of all developments; the prerequisite for equity, diversity and lasting peace. (World Education Forum Education for all: All for Education, A Framework for Action, Dakar, April 2000). Education occupies a central place in Human Rights and is essential and indispensable for the exercise of all other human rights and for development. Article 26 of the United Nation's Convention of Universal Declaration on Human Rights, states that "everyone has the right to education." Article 28 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, (UNCRC), sets out the right to education to which every child is entitled. Article 29 of the Convention also attaches importance to the process by which the right to education is to be promoted (United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2005).
2.1 Effects of Poverty on Pre-school education
Despite the many declaration on education of children, majority of children are still out of school. Poverty has been one of the factors that has caused the above phenomena. One of the most pernicious aspects of poverty is that it is self-reinforcing. For example, it at once magnifies the power of educational success as a means of social mobility and interferes with the probability of such success occurring. Because poor children have lower rates of achievement in the core curricula of the educational system, they are less able to obtain the high-status academic credentials that have become necessary for securing well-paying, stable jobs in the modern American economy and, therefore, are more likely to face economic hardships as adults (Duncan et al., 1998; Mayer, 1997).
Notwithstanding the large body of research in the US on the effect of poverty on children, Canadian data are sparse. Systematic intervention to address the low reading levels of children in poverty or low-income homes is especially rare in Canada (Mayer, 1997). Children from poor families begin elementary school with lower levels of achievement in core curricula than their peers from more affluent backgrounds and, from this lower starting point, post fewer gains in learning over the following three years. Thus, they enter school at a disadvantage that widened over time, a vivid example of cumulative disadvantage. For the most part, the cumulative risks to early learning posed by family poverty are a function of concomitant family characteristics, especially the tendency for poor parents to be less educated than other parents (Mayer, 1997).
2.2 Family poverty and academic achievement
Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children’s health, achievement, and behavior, few' measure the effects of the timing, depth, and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother’s age, and schooling) that may account for much of the observed correlation between poverty and child outcomes. Family income appears to be more strongly related to children’s ability and achievement than to their emotional outcomes (Garrett et al., 1994).
Children who live in extreme poverty or who live below the poverty line for multiple years appear, all other things being equal, to suffer the worst outcomes. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for certain child outcomes. Children who experience poverty during their preschool and early school years have lower rates of school completion than children and adolescents who experience poverty only in later years. Although more research is needed on the significance of the timing of poverty on child outcomes, findings to date suggest that interventions during early childhood may be most important in reducing poverty’s impact on children (Garret et al., 1994).
Family poverty also predicted math and reading achievement in third grade, net of first grade achievement (as well as the control variables). Again, these associations were attenuated but not eliminated by the inclusion of the other family socioeconomic characteristics. To examine the degree to which these poverty risks were channeled through family dynamics, we added the full set of family process variables. Of these, parent depression, parental divorce, reading activities, and parental involvement in education predicted math and reading achievement in first grade, net of the sociodemographic characteristics, school structural characteristics, family socioeconomic characteristics, and family poverty (Garret 1994). Parent poverty predicted math and reading achievement in third grade even when first grade achievement was controlled. Furthermore, the inclusion of these family process variables attenuated the family poverty coefficients in all models by as much as 50%. Overall, the school factors were less predictive of achievement than the family process variables, and did not attenuate the poverty-achievement associations in any model formation and instrumental support to poor children, school environments that actively engage by more than 10%. Of the school factors, teaching strategies and student body composition provided the most additive value to the achievement models and did the most to account for the achievement risks of family poverty has adverse effect on the holistic development of the child. Poor children suffer higher incidences of adverse health, developmental, and other outcomes than non-poor children. This has positive influence on their academic performance (McLoyd, 1990).
2.3 Effect of poverty on Children’s Cognitive Abilities
Children living below the poverty threshold are 1.3 times as likely as non-poor children to experience learning disabilities and developmental delays. Reliable measures of cognitive ability and school achievement, for young children in the Children of the NLSY and IHDP data sets have been used in a number of studies to examine the relationship between cognitive ability and poverty in detail (Conger et al., 1994).
A recent study using data from the Children of the NLSY and the IHDP compared children in families with incomes less than half of the poverty threshold to children in families with incomes between 1.5 and twice the poverty threshold. The poorer children scored between 6 and 13 points lower on various standardized tests of IQ, verbal ability, and achievement. These differences are very large from an educational perspective and were present even after controlling for maternal age, marital status, education, and ethnicity (Sanders et al., 1995).
Children in families with incomes closer to, but still below, the poverty line also did worse than children in higher-income families, but the differences were smaller. The smallest differences appeared for the earliest (age two) measure of cognitive ability.
2.4 Effects of Poverty on School Achievement Outcomes
Educational attainment is well recognized as a powerful predictor of experiences in later life. A comprehensive review of the relationship between parental income and school attainment, concluded that poverty limited school achievement but that the effect of income on the number of school years completed was small. In general, the studies suggested that a 10% increase in family income is associated with a 0.2% to 2% increase in the number of school years completed. Several more recent studies using different longitudinal data sets (the PSID, the NLSY, and Children of the NLSY) also find that poverty status has a small negative impact on high school graduation and years of schooling obtained (Sanders et al., 1995).
Much of the observed relationship between income and schooling appears to be related to a number of confounding factors such as parental education, family structure, and neighborhood characteristics. Some of these studies suggest that the components of income and the way income is measured (number of years in poverty versus annual family income or the ratio of income to the poverty threshold) may lead to somewhat different conclusions. But all the studies suggest that, after controlling for many appropriate confounding variables, the effects of poverty per se on school achievement are likely to be statistically significant, yet small. Based on the results of one study, the authors estimated that, if poverty were eliminated for all children, mean years of schooling for all children would increase by only 0.3% (less than half a month) (Sanders et al., 1995).
- Quote paper
- Sajjad Hossine Sharif (Author), 2018, Impact of Poverty on the Academic Performance. Selected Students in the North Bengal of Bangladesh, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/953696