Aerobic Exercise on Health Related Physical Fitness Component on Sedentary Male Workers

The Case of Bistima Town Administrative Office Workers


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2020

61 Pages


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES IN THE APPENDIX

LIST OF FIGURES IN THE APPENDIX

ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1.Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1. General Objective
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
1.4.Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.5. Significance of the Study

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2 .1.Aerobic Exercise and Its Benefit
2.1.1.Aerobic Exercise
2.1.2. Benefits of Regular Aerobic Exercise
2.2.Sedentary Life Style and its Effect
2.2.1. Sedentary Lifestyle
2.2.2.Effect of Sedentary Behavior
2.3. Type of Aerobic Exercises
2.3.1. Specific Exercise Tips for Adult People
2.4. Studies on Aerobic Exercise
2.5.Physical Fitness and Components
2.5.1.Health Related Physical Fitness
2.5.2. Component of Health Related Physical Fitness
2.6. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Health Related Physical Fitness
2.6.1.Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cardio Vascular Endurance
2.6.2. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Flexibility
2.6.3. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Body Composition
2.6.4.Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Muscular Endurance
2.7. Health Related Physical Fitness Tests
2.7.1. Strength and Endurance
2.7.2.Cardio Vascular Endurance
2.7.3. Flexibility

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1. Description of the Study Area
3.2.Experimental Materials
3.3. Source of Data
3.5.Treatment, Study Design and Training Protocol
3.6.Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.7. Method and Procedures of Data Collection
3.8. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
3.9.Experimental Measurements
3.9.1 Medical Examination
3.9.2.Lifestyle Questionnaire
3.9.3. Step Test
3.9.4. Push up Test
3.9.5.Sit up Test
3.9.6. Sit and reach test
3.9.7. Body Mass Index
3.10.Method of Data Analysis
3.11.Data Quality Control
3.12. Protocol and Ethical Consideration

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1.Overview
4.2. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cardio Vascular Endurance and Body Composition
4.3. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Muscular Endurance and Strength
4.4.Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Flexibility

5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1.Summary
5.2.Conclusions
5.3 Recommendations

6. REFERENCES

7. APPENDICES
Appendix A:-Participant information, Life Style and PAR-Q
Appendix -B:-Health Related Fitness test consent form
Appendix-C Record Sheet
Appendix-D:-Description of the study design
Appendix-E:-Training Schedule of 3 Months (12 Week) Exercise Program
Appendix-F:-Test Protocols/Norms
Appendix-G:-Raw data of Paired sample t test
Appendix-H:- Map of the Study Site

DEDICATION

I dedicated this thesis manuscript to Shewarega Assegidew who passed away this year, to my beloved mother Yeshiwaget and to my wife Gete.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

The author was born in December 1990 G.C in Northern part of , Ethiopia specific place Zemero. He attended his primary and junior school at Zemero Primary School. He attended secondary school in Meha lMeda Secondary School and Preparatory school. On 2009 he joined Bahir Dar University and graduated with Bsc degree in Sport Science in 2012 G.C. Then, he served as a Sport Science teacher for the last 6 years in South Wollo Mehal Saint and Worebabo Woreda in two high schools ( Densa and Worebabo Secondary School) as physical education teacher .

Finally, in July 2015 G.C he joined Haramaya University postgraduate program to pursue his MEd degree in the field of Teaching Physical Education.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to the Almighty God who makes everything exciting in my life.

I feel great pleasure to express my sincere and profound gratitude to my Major Advisor, Dr. Abinet Ayalew and Co-Advisor Dr. Shemelis Mekonnen for giving me the direction from the beginning of proposal initiation and their immense support and useful advises and comments, encouragement and excellent cooperation which inspired me to work hard and bring this study to completion.

I am deeply indebted to all my teachers in the sport science department, Haramaya University for their commitment comments and follow up from the initial conception to the end of this work. I am also highly indebted to Mr. Hussien Yimam, Mr. Abdu Lemma, Mr. Getasew Gashaw and all my friends for their cooperation in technical assistance during the fieldwork and proposal writing until the final thesis.

My gratitude also extends to Worebabo Bistima Secondary School administration for giving me permission for final research work.

I would like to express my gratitude to my parents, brothers, sisters for their moral Support during the study.

I would like to express my very special thanks to all study subjects that without their cooperation this study would have not been possible.

Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to the Ministry of Education (MoE) and Haramaya University for funding and fully sponsoring me for this study.

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ACSM American College of Sport Medicine

AET Aerobic Exercise Training

BMI Body Mass Index

CVE Cardio Vascular Endurance

DTT During Training Test

HRPF Health Related Physical Fitness

MD Mean Difference

ME Muscular Endurance

MHR Maximum Heart Rate

MS Muscular Strength

PA Physical Activity

POT Post Training Test

PT Pre Training Test

ROM Range of Motion

SD Standard Deviation

SPSS Statistical Package Software for Social Science

WHO World Health Organization

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Mean and SD value of step up(beat/minute) and body mass index (kg/m2).(pre, during and post test) aerobic exercise implemented

Table 2. Mean and SD value of push up and sit up (number per minute).(pre, during, post) aerobic exercise program implemented

Table 3. Mean and SD value of sit and reach test(CM) (pre, during, post training) aerobic exercise program implemented

LIST OF TABLES IN THE APPENDIX

Table 1. Life Style Questionnaire

Table 2. Record sheet for pre, during and post training tests

Table 3. First month training schedule (November 2017)

Table 4. Second month training schedule (December 2017)

Table 5. Third month training schedule (January 2018)

Table 6. Norm of 1-Minute Push-Ups (Number of repetitions)

Table 7. Body Fat Norm Percentages

Table 8. 3-Minute Step Test Norms on 60 second

Table 9. Sit and reach test Norm(cm)

Table 10. Norms for the Sit-Up Test (Number of repetitions)

Table 11.Paired Samples Test Result of BMI

Table 12. Paired Samples Test Result of Sit up

Table 13. Paired Samples Test result of Push up

Table 14. Paired Samples Test result of Step up

Table 15. Paired Samples Test result of Sit and reach test

LIST OF FIGURES IN THE APPENDIX

Figure 1. Map of the Study Site

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Health Related Physical Fitness Component on Sedentary Male Workers: The Case of Bistima Town Administrative office Workers in Bistima Town, South Wollo, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on improving health related physical fitness component of Bistima town administrative office workers. The Purposive-random sampling technique was used to select 25 sedentary male office workers recruited as study subject from Bistima town administrative office. These 25 sedentary male subjects were assigned as one quasi experimental design and their age range were between 24-36 year .All selected subjects participated in low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 12 weeks (3month),3 days per week and 60 minute duration at 55-70 maximum heart rate (MHR) per day from November 2017-January 2018.Pre , during and post training test were conducted on selected variables of health related physical fitness components. The collected data was analyzed by paired sample t-test (SPSS v.20)to determine the mean differences value and to make comparison in between pre test and post test mean value results. The level of significant was 0.05. According to analyzed data in step test was 21.320 beat per minute (15.06%,p<0.01)mean difference were observed. The mean difference value boosted in push up performance by 5.160 number/minute (54%, P<0.001)after 12 week aerobic exercise training. In sit up and sit and reach test 6.36 number/minute(42.67%,p<0.01)and 7.680 cm(>143%,p<0.01)increment were observed respectively. But in body mass index 2.480kg/m2 (11.48%,p<0.01)decrement were observed throughout the study period. The result obtained in this study indicated that there were significant improvement in cardio vascular endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength and flexibility and there were reduction on body composition .Based on this finding, it can be concluded that 12 week low to moderate aerobic exercise have positive effect on improvement of HRPF components of sedentary male office workers. So, different responsible bodies should take considerable action on the participation of the community on a regular aerobic exercise training program to reduce sedentary activities.

Key Words: Aerobic Exercise, Component, Health related, Physical fitness, Sedentary.

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Study

Man was created to be active and energetic hence sedentary life style is contrary to human nature. Our grandparents were also active and engaged in vigorous muscular activities like fishing, farming, hunting, tapping and migrating from place to place hence they lived stronger, healthier and longer. Health as a quality of life is the result of diverse factors and life style is one of the most powerful determinants of health.

Rapid progress of civilization, technological advancement and increase in knowledge almost completely deprives of the opportunity to movement and physical effort. It eliminates from the everyday work all these forms based on physical activity and simple physical effort, leaving mainly monotonous activities that unevenly load the individual parts and systems of the human body. This phenomenon pertains mainly to the office workers e.g. bank officials or people employed in civil/local administration. Depending on position occupied they perform simple physical activity or supervise various technical devices (computers, photocopiers, mobile phones etc) (Smith M.J and Karsh B.T.1999).

World Health Organization is currently assessing the global burden of disease from 22 health risk factors, including physical in activity. It is clear that physical inactivity is a major public health problem that effects huge numbers of people in all regions of the world.

The term sedentary behavior has historically been used as an equivalent of lack of physical activity (SBRN, 2012).Individual can meet or exceed the public health guidelines for Physical Activity 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week, or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity activity a week (Chief Medical Officers recommendations, 2015) and still spend a considerable amount of time in sitting (Sugiyama et al. 2008; Edward son et al. 2012).

Common sedentary behaviours include sitting in motorized transport, at school/work, whilst watching television, reading and screen-based entertainment (Patel et al., 2008). The term sedentary behaviour has historically been used as an equivalent of lack of physical activity(SBRN, 2012).

Currently, it has been established that regular participation in physical activity and also reduced sedentary behaviours are lifestyles which people could adopt to enhance their health (Chief Medical Officers, 2011).

Current guidelines developed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) to promote and maintain health in adults recommend moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 minutes a day on 5 days a week, or vigorous-intensity .aerobic activity for a minimum of 20 minutes daily only 3 days a week (Blair, 1995).

Aerobic exercise and physical activities provide the individual with a number of lasting benefits as not only do they help to reduce depression and anxiety, but they also improve both physiological and psychological well-being, enhance work and recreation, and improve health.

Among young and adult people sedentary behaviour can occur in different contexts including the home, school, working place, during leisure and also when using transportation. Excessive sedentary behaviour has been found among adolescents in Western cultures (Brodersen, et al 2007; Vasques and Lopes, 2012). This trend is particularly worrisome because studies suggest that long periods of sitting have deleterious health effects independent of adults meeting physical activity is commonly found in both the developed and developing world.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Every individual needs a minimum level of each component of health related fitness in order to perform regular daily living activities, to improve each component and people should typically participate in regular exercise or other form of physical activity.

In recent years, in our country, Ethiopia most office workers spent their time by sitting on the desk and spend in sedentary behaviors activities done in a sitting or reclining posture, e.g. watching entertainment and sport TV e.g. kana TV, EBS TV, JTV, interacting through social media like facebook, whasapp, Imo, Viber… ), activities requiring sitting on working at a desk e.g computer use of Microsoft office, spread sheet, reading newspaper, playing video games, using means of transportation rather than brisk walking and all this sedentary behavior leads the office workers to develop many diseases.

Regular aerobic exercise will produce beneficial effects for any age group. Providing the exercise is specific and appropriate to the level of fitness of the individual. Progressive exercise when correctly performed, will increase the level of fitness and improve health. It will also create a sense of well-being, produce greater energy and reduce the risk of developing diseases.

From this standing point of view and lack of investigation related with the effect of aerobic exercise on sedentary life style of administrative office workers, the investigator tried to implement some health related fitness component tests to measure the effect of 12 week aerobics exercise on administrative male office workers.

Based on the above reason the investigator will try to testify the following hypothesis:-

Ha1: There is significant improvement in cardio vascular endurance after aerobic exercise applied on administrative office workers.

Ho1: There is no a significant improvement in cardio vascular endurance after aerobic exercise applied on administrative office workers.

Ha2: There is a significant improvement in muscular strength (MS) and muscular endurance (ME) after aerobic exercise applied on administrative office workers.

Ho2: There is no a significant improvement in muscular strength (Ms) and muscular endurance (ME) after aerobic exercise applied on administrative office workers.

Ha3: There is significant improvement in flexibility (ROM) and body composition (BMI) after aerobic exercise applied on administrative office workers.

Ho3: There is no a significant improvement in flexibility (ROM) and body composition (BMI) after aerobic exercise applied on administrative office workers.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

1.3.1. General Objective

The General objective of this research study was to investigate the effects of 12 week aerobic exercises on improving health related fitness components of bistima town administrative office workers.

1.3.2. Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of the study were:

- To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on improving Cardio vascular endurance (CVE) before and after 12-week aerobic exercise.
- To evaluate changes induced by aerobic exercise on improvements of Muscular strength (MS) and Muscular endurance (ME) after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise.
- To measure the change on Body composition (BMI) and Flexibility (BMI) before and after 12-week aerobics exercise.

1.4. Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study was studied in Bistima town. This study is employed on effect of exercise on health relate fitness which can improve the fitness level of Bistima administrative office workers. This study was covered the selected 25 administrative office workers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on health related component on sedentary behavior administrative office workers. However due to time and budget constraints and to setup the study in manageable manner not all health related fitness components were selected but five main components was focused. The study was conducted only on administrative office workers at Bistima town which is located on south Wollo Amhara regional state.

As a beginner, the investigator faced with some difficulties these are:-Unable to control extraneous variables such as dietary habits, Subjects lifestyle, lack of internet connection and Weather condition was limitation of these study.

1.5. Significance of the Study

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of aerobic exercise on health related physical fitness components and to reduce sedentary activity time of bistima administrative office workers. The outcome of this research is not only restricted to bistima town and in addition to this the study would intend to signify the following importance:-

- It helps to motivate and encourage sedentary community to engage in aerobic exercise to improve their physical fitness level.
- It helps to decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease and other diseases and can promote healthy life style to our community
- It helps to understand the effect of aerobic exercise training to all human being
- It helps to alleviates symptoms of depression and stress
- It will help for others as research work for depth studies on the problem undertaken.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1. Aerobic Exercise and Its Benefit

2.1.1. Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that makes you sweat, causes you to breathe harder, and gets your heart beating faster than at rest. It strengthens your heart and lungs and trains your cardiovascular system to manage and deliver oxygen more quickly and efficiently throughout your body. Aerobic exercise uses your large muscle groups, is rhythmic in nature, and can be maintained continuously for at least 10 minutes.

Aerobic exercise is the type of moderate intensity physical activity that you can sustain for more than just a few minutes with the objective of improving your cardio respiratory fitness and your health."Aerobic" means "in the presence of, or with, oxygen."You know you are doing aerobic exercise when your heart's thumping and you are breathing faster than you do at rest but you can sustain the activity for extended periods of time. I recommend the cue "warm and slightly out of breath" to determine if your activity level is aerobic(Marty Copeland 2010).

Aerobic activities should be used to develop cardio respiratory endurance. Basically aerobic activities are those in which a sufficient amount of oxygen is available to meet the body's demands. During the performance of elevated level for an extended period .this activity typically involve vigorous and repetitive whole body or large muscle and movements that sustained for an extended period. Popular aerobic activities including running, walking, rowing, swimming cycling aerobic dancing, jogging, tread mill and somewhat continuous in nature the intensity of work load can be easily regulated by controlling the pace ( Shemelis, 2010).

2.1.2. Benefits of Regular Aerobic Exercise

Regular aerobic exercise improves your cardiovascular fitness by increasing your capacity to use oxygen. It does this by increasing your heart’s capacity to send blood and hence oxygen to the muscles.

You will get many health and fitness benefits if you perform regular aerobic exercise.

- Burns calories and Reduces body fat
- Reduces the risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes
- Lowers moderately high blood pressure
- Improves bone density (particularly weight-bearing activities like walking)
- Reduces the risk of certain cancers (breast, colon)
- Improves the likelihood of surviving a heart attack
- Alleviates symptoms of depression (in some cases as effectively as medication or psychotherapy)
- Can improve balance and performance of activities of daily living (for example, shopping, cleaning,)
- Can reduce the pain and swelling of arthritis
- Increase HDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol)
- Decreased blood triglycerides
- Improve weight control
- Improve glucose tolerance and reduce insulin (http://www.emedicine health.com/slideshow, pictures and fitness article-em-html)

2.2. Sedentary Life Style and its Effect

2.2.1. Sedentary Lifestyle

Sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity. A person living a sedentary lifestyle is often sitting or lying, while reading, socializing, watching television, playing video games, or using a mobile phone, computer for much of the day. A sedentary lifestyle can contribute too many preventable causes of death. Screen time is the amount of time a person spends watching a screen such as a television, computer monitor, or mobile device. Excessive screen time is linked to negative health consequences(Olds, T. Ridley K., J.2006).

Sedentary behaviors (from the Latin sedere, “to sit”) include sitting during commuting, in the workplace and the domestic environment, and during leisure time. Sedentary behaviors such as Television viewing, computer use, or sitting in an automobile.

2.2.2. Effect of Sedentary Behavior

Long periods of physical inactivity raise your risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. In January 2010, British experts linked prolonged periods of sitting to a greater likelihood of disease. And that same month, Australian researchers reported that each hour spent watching TV is linked to an 18% increase in the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease perhaps because that time is spent sitting down (James Levine, 2010).

After surveying more than 3,300 government employees, Australian researchers found that men who sat for more than 6 hours a day at work were 90 percent more likely to feel moderate psychological distress like feeling nervous, restless, hopeless, or even tired than men who sat for less than 3 hours a day. What is more, other types of sedentary behavior like watching TV or playing electronic games can increase your risk for anxiety, according to a recent meta-analysis of nine studies published in Public Health. That might be because if you are spending your time on those pastimes, you’re probably not fitting in enough physical activity, the researchers say.

A German meta-analysis of 43 different studies including more than 4 million people found that sedentary behavior significantly increases your risk for several types of cancer. People who logged the most sitting time experienced a 24 percent higher risk of developing colon cancer, a 32 percent higher risk of endometrial cancer, and a 21 percent higher risk of lung cancer(Nelson and Rejeski, 2012, et al) Large studies have consistently shown that higher levels of body fat can spike your cancer risk. That’s because chronic local inflammation can attack your body’s cells, leading to cancer-causing DNA damage over time, according to the National Cancer Institute. Even if you’re at a healthy weight, your blood sugar levels can rise if you’re parked in a chair for too long, according to a recent University of Florida study. In fact, sedentary adults were more likely to have blood sugar levels at 5.7 percent or above in an A1C test, which is high enough to be considered pre diabetes by the American Diabetes Association, the researchers note. While these people maintained a healthy weight, they had a higher ration of fat to muscle, with an average of 25 percent body fat or more for men. This “skinny fat” condition leads to various metabolic issues, like higher blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels, the researchers say. If you’re in the pre diabetes range, losing 5 to 7 percent of your body weight (about 10 to 14 pounds for a 200-pound guy) and making time for 150 minutes of exercise a week can delay the onset of full-fledged diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

In January 2010, British experts linked prolonged periods of sitting to a greater likelihood of disease. And that same month, Australian researchers reported that each hour spent watching TV is linked to an 18% increase in the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease. perhaps because that time is spent sitting down (http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3xsum.pdf accessed 2010, Jan 18).

Screen-time (TV and computer) increases our risk of mortality and cardiovascular events, (Dunstan DW, Barr EL, Healy GN, et al, 2011).

2.3. Type of Aerobic Exercises

Aerobic exercise is usually categorized as high or low intensity. High intensity aerobic exercise is further classified as high or low impact. Examples of each include the following:

- Low to moderate-impact exercises: Walking, swimming, stair climbing, step classes, rowing, and cross-country skiing. Nearly anyone in reasonable health can engage in some low to moderate-impact exercise. Brisk walking burns as many calories as jogging for the same distance and poses less risk for injury to muscle and bone.
- High-impact exercises: Running, dance exercise, tennis, racquetball, squash. Perform high-impact exercises no more often than every other day, and less often for those who are overweight, elderly, out of condition, or have an injury or other medical problem that would rule out high-impact.

Common Aerobic Exercises

- Walking

Walking is one of the simplest and most available aerobic exercises. You can vary the intensity to match your fitness level. Other than walking shoes, it does not require any special equipment. You can walk almost anywhere: outdoors or indoors (malls, indoor tracks, or a treadmill). This makes walking easy to continue throughout the year. Walking is a good choice for starting their first exercise program or finds other exercises too hard on their joints. (http://www.nytimes.com/health/guidelines/special topic/physical activity/references.html.)

- Cycling

Cycling is another type of aerobic exercise with wide appeal and value. You can use a stationary or regular bike. Cycling may be ideal for individuals who, due to arthritic or other orthopedic problems, are unable to walk for an extended period of time without pain or difficulty. A program that combines walking and cycling may provide cardiovascular benefits without inducing the limiting pain as quickly. Cycling is also a good choice for people who are greater than 50 pounds overweight. It helps the heart without the mechanical stress on the back, hips, knees and ankles that walking can cause.

- Swimming Activities

Swimming is an excellent aerobic exercise, but considerations should be made before starting a program. For the exercise beginner, low-fit, or non-swimmer it might be a difficult activity to maintain the appropriate intensity for the recommended 30 to 60 minutes. Also, because the focus of swimming is on the smaller upper body musculature and swimming is a less efficient activity than cycling or walking, one can easily exceed their target heart rate range with swimming. Therefore, those with heart conditions should address a swimming program with their physician before starting. Water aerobics and water walking are good alternatives for those with joint pain. The buoyancy provided by the water eases stress on the joints.

- Jogging and Aerobic Dance

These can be safe and beneficial exercise for the highly fit person. Both can be done indoors, which makes them year-round activities. Anyone with orthopedic problems or who experiences symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath should not engage in these activities.

2.3.1. Specific Exercise Tips for Adult People

Studies continue to show that it is never too late to start exercising. Adults who exercise three days a week can significantly increased their body strength, flexibility, endurance, cardio vascular endurance and there is improvements in physical fitness and activity for prolong life and independent living. (http://www.nytimes.com/health/guidelines/special topic/physical activity/references.html).

The following tips for exercising may be helpful:

- Any adult person should have a complete physical and medical examination, as well as professional instruction, before starting an exercise program.
- Start low and go slow. For sedentary, older people, one or more of the following programs may be helpful and safe: Low-impact aerobics, gait (step) training, balance exercises, tai chi, self-paced walking, and lower legs resistance training, using elastic tubing or ankle weights. Even in the nursing home, programs aimed at improving strength, endurance, and flexibility have significant benefits.
- Strength training assumes even more importance as one age, because after age 30 everyone undergoes a slow process of muscular weakening (atrophy). This process can be reduced or even reversed by adding resistance training to an exercise program.
- Flexibility exercises promote healthy muscle growth and help reduce the stiffness and loss of balance that accompanies aging. (http://www.nytimes.com/health/guidelines/special topic/physical activity/references.html).

2.4. Studies on Aerobic Exercise

(Shenbagavalli, A and Mary, R. D 2008) conducted a study on Effect of Aerobic Training on Body Mass Index on Sedentary Obese men. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Aerobic training on Body Mass Index on sedentary obese men. Thirty obese Men were selected randomly and equally divided into two groups’ Experimental group and Control group. The experimental group was administered aerobic training program, five days in a week for a period of 8 weeks.

The control group did not involve in any fitness program or training program. Once in 2 weeks the load was increased. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was selected as variable. The collected data were analyzed by using t‘ ratio. From the findings, it is quite interesting to know that the sedentary obese men have positive influence upon their Body Mass Index due to the training program given. The aerobic training helped the subjects to decrease the weight and body mass index. It is concluded that obese men to decrease the magnitude of obesity can adopt mild aerobic training.

(Mills, Eugenia M. 1994) conducted a study on the effect of low intensity aerobic exercise on muscle strength, flexibility, and balance among sedentary elderly persons. An experimental group of 20 elderly subjects participated in 8 weeks of low intensity aerobic exercise while 27 subjects in a comparison group maintained their usual level of activity. The program consisted of stretching and strengthening chair exercises. A significant difference between the groups was found for flexibility of the ankles and the right knee.

2.5. Physical Fitness and Components

2.5.1. Health Related Physical Fitness

Health-related physical fitness consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship with good health. The components are commonly defined as body composition, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular endurance and strength.

Fitness is a condition in which an individual has sufficient energy to avoid fatigue and enjoy life. Physical fitness is divided into five health and six skill-related components. Skill-or performance-related fitness involves skills that will enhance one’s performance in athletic or sports events. Health-related fitness involves skills that enable one to become and stay physically healthy.

Physical fitness is defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity" (USDHHS, 1996). In other words, it is more than being able to run a long distance or lift a lot of weight at the gym. Being fit is not defined only by what kind of activity you do, how long you do it, or at what level of intensity. While these are important measures of fitness, they only address single areas.

2.5.2. Component of Health Related Physical Fitness

Cardio respiratory endurance (cardio-respiratory fitness)

Cardio-respiratory endurance is the ability of the body's circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity (USDHHS, 1996 as adapted from Corbin and Lindsey, 1994). To improve your cardio-respiratory endurance, try activities that keep your heart rate elevated at a safe level for a sustained length of time such as walking, swimming, or bicycling. The activity you choose does not have to be strenuous to improve your cardio-respiratory endurance. Start slowly with an activity you enjoy, and gradually work up to a more intense pace.

Muscular strength

Muscular strength is the ability of the muscle to exert force during an activity (USDHHS, 1996 as adapted from Wilmore and Costill, 1994). The key to making your muscles stronger is working them against resistance, whether that be from weights or gravity. If you want to gain muscle strength, try exercises such as lifting weights or rapidly taking the stairs.

Muscular endurance

Muscular endurance is the ability of the muscle to continue to perform without fatigue (USDHHS, 1996 as adapted from Wilmore and Costill, 1994). To improve your muscle endurance, try cardio-respiratory activities such as walking, jogging, bicycling, or dancing.

Body composition

Body composition refers to the relative amount of muscle, fat, bone, and other vital parts of the body (USDHHS, 1996 as adapted from Corbin and Lindsey, 1994). A person's total body weight (what you see on the bathroom scale) may not change over time. But the bathroom scale does not assess how much of that body weight is fat and how much is lean mass (muscle, bone, tendons, and ligaments). Body composition is important to consider for health and managing your weight!

Flexibility

Flexibility is the range of motion around a joint (USDHHS, 1996 as adapted from Wilmore and Costill, 1994). Good flexibility in the joints can help prevent injuries through all stages of life. If you want to improve your flexibility, try activities that lengthen the muscles such as swimming or a basic stretching program.

2.6. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Health Related Physical Fitness

Aerobic exercise also known as cardio exercise, can give long-term effects to your body, especially your cardio respiratory system. Your cardio respiratory system consists of your heart, blood vessels and lungs. The effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective way to increase the endurance of your cardio respiratory system. By maintaining the aerobic phase of exercise for at least 20 to 30 minutes, three to four times a week, the cardio respiratory can improve in many ways.(http://www.harvey noman.com.au.).

2.6.1. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cardio Vascular Endurance

The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented. There is a direct correlation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Low levels of physical exercise increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases mortality it decreases in resting heart rate. Because the rigors of regular exercise require so much work from the cardiovascular system, sedentary periods become even easier for the heart by comparison.

2.6.2. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Flexibility

Whether flexibility exercises alone offer any significant benefit for chronic back pain is uncertain. Retraining Deep or Core Muscles: Studies are finding a link between low back pain and poor motor control of deep muscles in the back and trunk. According to these studies, contraction exercises specifically designed to retrain these muscles may be effective for patients with both acute and chronic pain. It is important for any person who has low back pain to have an exercise program guided by professionals who understand the limitations and special needs of back pain, and who can address individual health conditions (https://www.medicine net.com).

2.6.3. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Body Composition

Regular aerobic exercises reduce the body fat percentage without the loss of the muscle as well as important effect on anthropometric and hematologic level of obese and overweight women (Evrim et al 2010). Aerobic exercise including walking, running, and swimming has been proven to be an effective way to lose weight;. Exercise only, or exercise combined with calorie restriction, reduces body fat more than fat lost with only dieting because exercise conserves the body’s lean tissue mass ( Katch et al. 2011).

2.6.4. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Muscular Endurance

Muscular endurance, which represents multiple muscle contractions or a sustained muscle contraction over a period of time, for example during running, climbing, swimming, jogging, running on tread mill at the gym there will be muscle contraction those muscle contraction can assists the improvements of muscular endurance. During aerobic exercise, minute ventilation increases and an increased load is placed on the respiratory muscles. Both the frequency and the speed of contraction in the muscle are increased (Harms et al., 2000).

2.7. Health Related Physical Fitness Tests

2.7.1. Strength and Endurance

Right Angle Push-Up Test - upper body strength and endurance - Upper body strength and endurance is tested utilizing the right angle push up test. Subjects will begin in the down position. On a specific signal they will raise themselves to the ready position. The ready position is when the back is in a flat position, hands under the shoulders, fingers facing forward (not inward), and legs straight with student on his/her toes. One successful push up includes the student lowering his body so that the lower arm/elbow/upper arms are at a 90 degree angle with each other and returning to the up position so that the arms are straight and the body is flat.

Curl-up test - abdominal strength and endurance - Abdominal strength and endurance is tested utilizing the partial curl up test. This is not a sit up. It is a modified sit up. While staying on the cadence, students must complete as many correct curl ups as possible in a four minute time span.

Sit-up Test: abdominal strength and endurance is tested by repeating as many sit-ups as possible without rest. Make sure you define before-hand what counts as a sit-up! This process of fatiguing a muscle (or muscle group) to measure its endurance can be repeated with any body part. (http://www.topsendsports.com/testing/tests/abs strength and push up.html).

[...]

Excerpt out of 61 pages

Details

Title
Aerobic Exercise on Health Related Physical Fitness Component on Sedentary Male Workers
Subtitle
The Case of Bistima Town Administrative Office Workers
College
Haramaya University
Course
Physical Fitness
Author
Year
2020
Pages
61
Catalog Number
V956408
ISBN (eBook)
9783346300591
ISBN (Book)
9783346300607
Language
English
Tags
aerobic, exercise, health, related, physical, fitness, component, sedentary, male, workers, case, bistima, town, administrative, office
Quote paper
Menbere Girma (Author), 2020, Aerobic Exercise on Health Related Physical Fitness Component on Sedentary Male Workers, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/956408

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