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TEACHERS TECHNOLOGY-BASED EVALUATION:
A Challenge to a Formal Classroom Observation on Instructional Supervision
NOEL P. SOBEJANA, IT.D.
Davao Del Sur State College
Classroom evaluation for teachers using technology-based system is the key objectives of this literature and study review to identify possible implementation to capture concept to be used for future research endeavor. Three specific objectives tries to explore which are (a) to obtain a clear information on the technology used in evaluating teachers in the classroom; (b) to determine the various effects of different technology used in classroom evaluation; and (c) to identify a concept to be used for future research on the implementation of technology in support to the supervisor in observing classroom. The dissertation of O’Brien in Chicago is best to use as basis of implementation in the local area.
Keywords: Classroom Evaluation, Technology-Based
In this millennial era, still a classroom is commonly known structure used in transferring knowledge and skills of an expert teacher to the learners. The students are expected to learn the subject matter that is presented in the classroom facilitated from the instruction, discussion and guidance of a teacher. Expertise of teacher in a subject matter is equally necessary and important with “HOW” to successfully achieve the process of learning. The process of this transfer is described in many ways and many forms which can be manifested through observation. Thus, a quality and standard classroom consist of teacher, learners and supervisor to observe and ensure students achievements.
As the key role of schools and to the educational system in-place, effective school leadership is essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling (Pont, Nusche, & Moorman, 2008). This is to take into consideration most especially universities that has a huge number of students because statistics shows significant relationship between leadership and student achievement (Waters & Marzano, 2006) which barely taken seriously. In Unites States, leaders are not only expected to assume a level of expertise but also with personal values to characterize the achievement of the students and teachers (Hallinger, 2012). Hence, schools all over the world are bounded with leaders that are bombarded with tasks and responsibility which the most important errands of all is the performance appraisal of teachers that can play an important role in identifying areas of needed improvement and providing targeted support to enhance and improve classroom delivery (Pont, Nusche, & Moorman, 2008).
It is ideal that supervisors are like superheroes that can fulfill religiously the process of classroom evaluation accompanied with tasks that superheroes can only do it. Meetings alone is cannot accommodate to the schedule of a supervisor especially with the president or vice presidents in the institution, staff, teachers and concerned stakeholders not to mention various committees which necessary to attend. The most important task of a supervisor which observing the performance of teacher in terms of methodology in-line with the belief of the entire institution is the aspect that sometimes neglected. Time to complete the process of evaluation and the amount of reflecting the results is not anymore being deeply assessed. Conclusively, classroom evaluation aspect in teaching must allot more time by supervisors schedule because evidently results of this process increases the effectiveness of teachers to improve student achievement (Scales & Atkins, 2011).
The tasks and responsibilities of academic leaders are the crucial part of the entire process of developing graduates based on the plans and vision of the institution. The job designated to a leader cannot be changed and it is not negotiable, therefore help to fully accomplish all the tasks is one of the major concerns to have a quality service and education for the community. Aid must be provided so that it can be an effective process on the reasons that results are being processed thoroughly to provide effective teaching and increase student achievements. In support, traditional teacher evaluation systems did not differentiate among high and low performing teachers that the major reasons of evaluation is to accurately capture teacher performance in order to make personnel decisions, such as removing and remediating low-performing teachers or rewarding excellent teachers (Sartain, et al., 2011).
The intention of this literature review is to explore the possibilities of the major and specific objectives of the change which is the implementation of a technology-based evaluation on the classroom on the performance of the teachers in the academic institution. There are specific objectives that this paper intent to explore in details which may result to a clear possibilities of implementing a technology-based classroom evaluation of teachers performance.
The following specific objectives are the following:
1. To obtain a clear information on the technology used in evaluating teachers in the classroom.
2. To determine the various effects of different technology used in classroom evaluation.
3. To identify a concept to be used for future research on the implementation of technology in support to the supervisor in observing classroom.
This literature and studies review is to explore the different possibilities in the context of classroom evaluation used. The major query of this review is to investigate the various methodologies in implementing the classroom evaluation of teachers. Significance of this paper is to support the interest of the author to incorporate the classroom evaluation by teacher to technology. This is also one way of providing critical analysis on the topics that might help clarify the significance and importance of the indicators (Classroom Evaluation and Technology) applied to the academic services as an aid to hardworking supervisor.
Technology is being used in almost all operations nowadays. Particularly, information technology has now become a key component in the global business strategy to compete with the trends in globalization (Lawlor, 2007). Technology in terms of education provides a great role that played in many different aspects which not only improved communication but also to research advancement and has also brought about an easy access to different learning resources (Krishnan & Fashid, 2015). This could only mean that there are many possibilities that concept that the author tries to explore can be addressed that can provide a researchable topic in terms of innovation in the field of evaluation in assessment of teachers in the classroom using technology. The result may be used in the future exploration of various researchers that has also interest in these two factors.
The figure illustrates that this paper focused on the three methods of classroom evaluation for teachers’ implementation namely the traditional, evidence-based and technology-based process. Each method is described based on its process, importance and the effectiveness that resulted to specific teachers’ performance and students achievements.
Traditional Evaluation System
The evaluation for teachers using traditional way is being used mostly in institutions that there are no available tool because of its easy implementation as per used from the past. Traditional evaluation system is characterized as a single time point with single observer for observation in the classroom and mainly uses checklist tools that only evaluate the strength or weakness of the teachers (Sartain, et al., 2011). Using this system of evaluation incipient culture preclude a situation whereby most teachers end up being rated high performance ratings scale which loses the main objective and purpose of the evaluation (Sartain, et al., 2011; OECD, 2009). Such as the system does not include the students’ participation in the process of evaluating teachers (Sartain, et al., 2011) which the objective of the assessment is being set-aside. Because the result is based on a single supervisor alone who forced to collect data, use instruments and act the manner that allows for summative evaluation of performance reliable. Therefore the ultimate challenge in the evaluation of the supervisor is the relationship between the existences of the mutual trust with the teachers (McGreal, 1982).
It is very clear that the effects of using the traditional evaluation systems or in the status quo mode of the institution can results to more questions and even criticized the result that can provide high score to teacher with no specific student achievements (Daley & Kim, 2010; Sartain, et al., 2011). Stated as the result that compared to the traditional evaluation for teachers there is more effective with only minimum quality of effort than evaluating only once a year or once in a semester (Campbell, 2013). Also one effect of evaluating using traditional which clearly that tool are being assessed according to its mean score results can led to the de-professionalization of teaching and discouragement within the profession (Franzinger, Burris, Cody, Koonlaba, & Martinez, 2016). Therefore, though it is effective to the accomplishments of the supervisor the challenge is that it is not anymore clear in terms of interpretation because of a quantitative analysis on the results.
Teachers are more vigilant on the results nowadays especially when it is a performance to be evaluated which also the means of living to live and sometimes survived. Yet the nation still lacks a practical set of standards and assessments that can guarantee that teachers, particularly new teachers, are well prepared and ready to teach (Darling-Hammond, 2010). As mentioned in one literature that according to Donaldson and Peske that the problems associated with these traditional evaluations include are poor evaluation instruments, little school district guidance on the substance of teacher evaluations, the lack of time for evaluators to conduct evaluations, the absence of high quality feedback to teachers in the evaluation process, and few positive or negative consequences attached to the evaluations (Hightower, et al., 2011). The thing is there are documented lists of inadequacies and challenges inherent within traditional evaluation systems (Mulligan, 2015).
Students’ achievements are the ultimate proof of the teachers’ performance in terms of delivery in the classroom which is not significant in nature when the evaluation is not being considered. Thus, traditional methods of evaluating teachers that typically do not include objective measures of teacher performance provided inadequate information about teacher effectiveness in the achievements of the students (Reform Support Network , 2011). The results show that teacher effects are dominant factors affecting student academic gain but in value-added evaluation used as an assessment (Wright, Horn, & Sanders, 1997). Traditional teacher evaluation systems relying solely on principal observations of teacher practice did a poor job differentiating teacher effectiveness so it is not merely the effects on the students’ achievements (Steinberg & Donaldson, 2014). Thus, traditional educational evaluation strategies that have been useful in evaluating programs that support the delivery of new services, instructional strategies, or curricula are not directly applicable in to majority (Frechtling & Gross, 1995).
Evidence-Based Evaluation System
Evidence-based observation tool for teachers is the advancement in the academic processes that produce a positive output in the performance of teachers and to the achievement of students. An evidence-based evaluation uses multiple time points for classroom observation and uses rubrics as the major tool that define instructional improvement on a continuum (Steinberg & Donaldson, 2014). This system ties together three priorities that are naturally interdependent in nature. The following are the measuring of performance, recognizing outstanding work, and providing teachers and principals with focused professional development and mentoring (New York State Education Department, 2017). Because it has the characteristics of multiple observers, variation in performance ratings among teachers is being observed as varied results that links teacher effectiveness to student performance (Steinberg & Donaldson, 2014). Therefore, institutions are recommending recognizing the system as advancement to quality academic services (Sporte, Stevens, Healey, Jiang, & Hart, 2013).
Evidence-based practice is a term that was originally coined in the field of medicine to both inform and evaluate what to do and understand the various types of evidence that can be used. These different types of evidences allow stronger or weaker conclusions to be drawn that a better evidences makes more confidence to have conclusions for actions (Child Family Community Australia, 2017). The best characteristic of evidence-based evaluation is the continual improvement in the quality evaluation and ensures that information from findings is used to inform decisions and improve programs (USAID, 2016). Engaging in evidence-based practice provides a proof that the delivering services serves the clients require and that the program yields the desired outcomes for students with a good expectation (Fratello, Kapur, & Chasan, 2013).
Based on the belief that evidence collected for teacher accountability can also be used to determine the focus and strategies for professional growth for all teachers and to the expectation of the students' learning (Goe, Biggers, & Croft, 2012). It should be best to have an effect to the implementation of the evaluation to educate on the process of implementing evidence-based evaluation (Spring, Ferguson, Pender, & Starin, n.d.). Building trust and strong relationships among teachers and between teachers and evaluators is critical to ensure that teachers can benefit most from evidence-based evaluation, resulting in successful use of evaluation results for teacher learning (Goe, Biggers, & Croft, 2012).
Standards build upon as known about effective teaching practices resulted to teacher exemplary performance should be compatible with the standards for student learning. A high- quality teaching standards are the fundamental component of an aligned evaluation or professional development which evidence-based assessment system set to address (Goe, Biggers, & Croft, 2012). Despite the fact that, evidence-based evaluation has positive acceptance in many institutions this also addresses the issue on merit and credit on the students’ achievement at the evaluation process (Taylor & Tyler, 2011). The learning inside the classroom are not the basis for student achievements but it should reflect in the performance of students outside which explained that expertise of the teacher is a huge evidence which should be considered in the evaluation on the effects (OECD, 2009).
Technology-Based Evaluation System
High-quality teacher evaluation systems are seen as one lever for improving the teacher workforce and hence the outcomes of students (Tyler, 2011). An example of a quality is technology-enabled assessments that can help reduce the time, resources, and disruption to learning required for the administration of paper assessments (OET, n.d.). The evaluation basically conducting observations using mobile devices such as the iPad, purchasing software that can be used for walkthroughs, utilizing video documentation and other digital technology to support documentation, and providing timely feedback to teachers informing them of their evaluation results (O'Brien, 2014). Another way of utilizing technology is to involve leaders in web-based application that will help develop, adapt and test practical theories for identifying and supporting classroom teaching practice that fits well and promises to make contributions to educational knowledge (Halverson, 2012).
The challenge in the effect of the innovation sometimes resulted to various aspects. Such like as the result in one study that technology-based interventions tend to produce just slightly lower levels of improvement compared with other researched interventions and approaches in the field of education (Higgins, Xiao, & Katsipataki, 2012). Though still it is not fully appreciated by some teachers there were also other valued the process because according to the result teachers able to identify students’ strengths and weaknesses quickly in order to adjust instruction based on fast and easy feedback (Tallerico, 2013). As a result of a research that teachers who go through a comprehensive evaluation are more effective at promoting student achievement growth (Tyler, 2011). Also studies show that the use of technology as a tool could make a measurable positive difference in student achievement, attitudes and interaction (Bialo & Sivin-Kachala, 1996). For that reasons, a positive responses and ratings from various beneficiaries that experienced using technology in providing quality education and services.
The innovation supports the needs of teacher evaluation and coaching because based on the basic requirement that lead teaching to teamwork and collaboration (Tyler, 2011). This also supports the improvement on the quality on beginning teacher effectiveness because benefits are likely on the side of teachers (Darling-Hammond, 2010). Teachers are also appreciative in the process because it provides new avenues for self-reflection, peer reflection and feedback, and supervisor evaluation (Tyler, 2011) that resolves the issue of trust. Finally, people concerning on the usage of the process understand that technology is a tool not the evaluator because it is not improves learning if pertaining to technology which the challenge begins with defining assessment and is compounded by the complexities of people, technology, and educational organizations (Spurlin, 2006).
Students are fascinated with new ideas and interesting to learn which because of teachers’ initiatives and help of the administration a positive result is highly expected. Awareness on the part of the student that contains clearly understanding on objectives of the processes with sufficient amount of feedback to deepen their knowledge their strengths and weaknesses based on their performances (Jabbarifar, 2009). Learning faster compared to no implementation of technology (Apple, 2002) therefore an effect to the students is a wide that requires another exploration to widen the knowledge in terms of educational services on quality classroom evaluation for teachers.
To understand clearly the review in bits of information a Review of Related Literature/Studies (RLL) Map is illustrated in the next page to easily.
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Figure 2: RRLMap
The review focused on the possibilities that may come arise to address the prevailing problem in terms of classroom evaluation for teachers by supervisor in UM Digos College. The main intension of the exploration is to partially identify concept that can be used in the implementation based on the bounding topics which are classroom evaluation and technologybased system to be incorporated for future study. Initially the idea is to explore literature and study on the two major interests because assuming there are no available concept and experience that seem to be timely and very useful.
The facts gathered in this exploration answers the research objectives of this paper that has been the basis and guide of the author.
To obtain a clear information on the technology used in evaluating teachers in the classroom. The review provided a huge impact to the results of the exploration because a dissertations paper in a University in Chigago that has the same challenges with UM Digos College. There is a real problem in education which is too much data coming from too many sources and being moved around in too many different formats from different assessments, logistics, scanning, and other vendors to be evaluated an d interpreted by the supervisor (O'Brien, 2014). The implication of this result is to continue providing idea about these two topics for local educational advancement.
To determine the various effects of different technology used in classroom evaluation. The role of the supervisor is the greatest player to make possible the ultimate goal of the technology. The idea made by O’Brien in the paper that answers to the problem on supervisor schedule can be solved. Though it is overwhelming but still the supervisor should regularly remind the function of technology to the institution not technology as teacher (Jabbarifar, 2009). Effect of the evaluation to teacher and students using the tool is a best future study to explore.
To identify a concept to be used for future research on the implementation of technology in support to the supervisor in observing classroom. The concept that is established in the literature is that technology is a resources that can be incorporated with pedagogy (O'Brien, 2014). The concept used was successful therefore it should best to duplicate the effects from Chicaco to Philippines so that UM Digos College benefits the result.
In general, it is very timely, equally important and strongly recommended to solve the problems that can jeopardize not only the operations of the institution but also the quality services. The effectiveness of the teacher in the classroom cannot be argued because as human development and improvement are the basic rewards. Therefore, evaluation in various ways are the supervisors’ bible in developing teachers to have an output that reflects in the achievements of the students and graduates.
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