Future India using Embedded Systems in Technology


Bachelor Thesis, 2019

66 Pages


Free online reading

CONTENTS

Declaration

Certificate

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Need of Project
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Key Features over Existing System
1.4 Scope
1.5 Overview

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Smart Automation
2.2 Smart Street Lights
2.3 Smart Irrigation System
2.4 Blind, Dump and Speech Disabled Persons (MopDop and Blind Stick)
2.5 Smart Car Features
2.6 DustMobin (Smart Dustbin)
2.7 Smart Barrier

3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
3.1 Short Description of various Problem Statements
3.1.1 Smart Irrigation System
3.1.2 Smart Automation
3.1.3 Smart Street Light
3.1.4 Smart Car Features
3.1.5 MopDop
3.1.6 Smart Blind Stick
3.1.7 Smart Barriers
3.1.8 Gesture Control Laptop
3.1.9 DustMobin
3.2 Hardware & Software Required
3.2.1 Hardware
3.2.2 Software

4. PROBLEM SOLUTION
4.1 Flow Charts
4.2 Block Diagrams
4.3 Use Case Diagram

5. Testing and Results
5.1 User Interface

6. Conclusion
6.1 Advantages
6.2 Future Scope

REFERENCES

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Project Report entitled “Future India using Embedded System” which is submitted by Ashutosh Deshwal (1506810086) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B. Tech. in Department of computer science and engineering of Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, is a record of the candidate’s own work carried out by him under my supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the B. Tech Project undertaken during B. Tech. Final Year. I owe special debt of gratitude to Miss Nidhi Chaudhary, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut for her constant support and guidance throughout the course of my work. Her sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for me. It is only her cognizant efforts that my endeavors have seen light of the day.

I also take the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of Professor Pradeep Pant, Head, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut for their full support and assistance during the development of the project.

I also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all faculty members of the department for their kind assistance and cooperation during the development of our project. Last but not the least, I acknowledge my friends for their contribution in the completion of the project. Signature Name:-Ashutosh Deshwal

ABSTRACT

As per the growing rate of the population and technology both results in the spontaneous consumption of the resources. As the new technology is developing and come in daily life it enhances the life of the peoples. As technology is taking place very rapidly in the world, peoples are busy in their daily life and want everything around them smart which is autonomous. Simply they want to switch over from manual operation to autonomous.

This project aims to make people friendly with the technology and raise the India’s ranking in terms of technology throughout the World. The idea of all the prototype models is to overcome the problems that can be solve by usage of technology.

The problem that led me to go for this application is some social problem that are arising in our country like garbage, groundwater, irrigation, wastage of electricity and resources in street lights, manual operations, blind and dump peoples, crimes and others. In this project the idea is to keep in mind all such problems and creating their prototype models and if some of them are implementable, implementation of that problems.

This project aims to make people friendly with the technology and to raise the India’s ranking in terms of technology usage throughout the World by making new innovative projects. The idea of all the prototype models is to overcome the problems or ratio of crime or accidents that can be overcome by using technology. The Future India will be the dream India of every citizen in terms to technology. It is the network of physical objects or things embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.

Keywords:- Autonomous, Future India, Innovative, Resources, Social problems, Technology.

LIST OF FIGURES

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 NEED FOR PROJECT

We all are familiar about our country that here citizens are facing lots of problems. We all knows that India is a developing country but in spite of that having an area of 3,287,240 Km sq. with total population of 1,354,051,854 (2018) ~= 1.35 billion (2018) and a density (P/Km sq.) of 455 (2018). We also know that the engineers graduating every year are 1.5 million. But despite that India is lacking in the technology usage in the world and has a higher rate in terms of crime. But with the help of technology we can reduce the crime rate.

This is the main consideration for this project. In this project the prototype models are designed into the consideration for all type of peoples like for say Today, India grades second worldwide in farm output. Allied sectors (like fisheries and forestry) and agriculture accounted for 13.7% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in 2013 and about 50% of the workforce. The pecuniary share of agriculture to the India’s GDP is steadfastly reducing herewith the country’s broad-based economic growth (Wikipedia contributors, 2019).

1.2 PURPOSE

This project aims to make people friendly with the technology and to raise the India’s ranking in terms of technology usage throughout the World by making new innovative projects. The idea of all the prototype models is to overcome the problems or ratio of crime or accidents that can be overcome by using technology. Another main purpose of this project is to design the prototype models for the social problems in India and implementing some modules. The Future India will be the dream India of every citizen in terms of technology. Future India described in this project will be the network of physical objects or things embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.

1.3 KEY FEATURES OVER EXISTING SYSTEMS

Future India using Embedded System is accompanied with numerous features that make it different from the existing system. Major ones are listed below:

1.3.1 COST EFFECTIVENESS

Low cost components used in the project makes this project cost effectiveness.

1.3.2 EASY TO IMPLEMENT

The simple circuitry of the project helps it to implement easily.

1.3.3 USER FRIENDLY

The APIs of the android mobile application to control the hardware parts are designed user friendly so that any user can access them easily.

1.3.4 USAGE OF TECHNOLOGY

The project uses almost the latest technology like Internet of Things (IoT), Arduino, Cloud, IFTTT, MIT App Inventor and Adafruit IO.

1.3.5 ACCESSABILITY

The project is designed accessible so that all the things are accessible to all peoples (whether they have a disability or not).

1.3.6 EXTENSIBILITY

The project is designed in such a way that allows the addition of new capabilities or functionality in any sub module.

1.3.7 REUSABILITY

The reusability is the ability of an item that allows it to be used repeatedly unlike a disposable item. This property also holds in this project we can make use of any module or sensor for other operation or by making few changes in the program we can use it for various different operations.

1.3.8 RELIABILITY

The project performed in the way or manner it was intended to perform in the efforts that have been deemed required of a particular sub module which makes this project reliable.

1.3.9 AVAILABILITY

All the hardware components and software used in the project are easily available in the market and internet.

1.3.10 PORTABILITY

The softwares used in the development of the project are available for all operating system; due to this the project is portable.

1.4 SCOPE

The project contains various models as per the problems across various sectors; hence scope of this application is defined below:

- Agriculture & Farming.
- In homes, offices, schools, societies, tourist places, etc.
- Commercialized Products
- Smart City’s Development
- Rural and Urban Area’s Development
- Resources and Energy Conservation
- Disability

1.5 OVERVIEW

In this project, I will show the prototypes of various social problems that may be implemented as per the need. This project helps peoples to understand that what they can achieve by using the technology and how their lifestyle can be change. This project also helps peoples to understand the prototypes that how easy they can self­implement any prototype as per their requirement. This project finally helps to raise the India’s ranking in terms of technology usage and try to reduce the crime rate in India.

The project is implemented in following modules:

- Smart Automation:-

In this module there will be different type of automation that we can implement either in home, offices, schools, colleges, societies etc. This module will help the peoples to switch from manual operation to automatic operation.

- Smart Dustbin (DustMobin):-

The DustMobin is a smart dustbin which is fully automatic. When the persons wants to throw garbage into it will open automatically and displays the amount of space left in it. When it becomes full it will alert the nearby peoples by buzzing an alarm. With the help of android mobile application one can control it with their mobile phones. The mobile application makes the dustbin to move from one place to another, the peoples now call the dustbin near to them when they required. Now there is no need to near to dustbin.

- Smart Irrigation System :-

This will help farmers to save their time during irrigation in fields and connect the farmers with technology. After implementation the irrigation system becomes fully automatic and due to its cheap price a low class farmer can also use its benefits.

- Smart Street Lights:-

This module shows how the street lights can be convert to automatic from manual operation and how we can save more consumption of electricity.

- Smart Stick for Blind Peoples:-

According a census there are 37 million peoples blind in the world out of which 13 million are from India. Blind peoples means they are dependent on other due to which most of them feel disappointed. With the help of this project they become somehow independent from others.

- MopDop for Deaf and Speech Disabled Persons:-

Disabled Population in India as per census 2011 (2016 updated) - In India out of 121 Cr population, 2.68 Cr persons are disabled which is 2.21% of the total population. Among the disabled population 56% (1.5 Cr) are males and 44% (1.18 Cr) are females. This project helps them to become independent and with the help of mobile application they can also share their views.

- Smart Barriers:-

The smart barriers can be implement either at railway gates or at any place like in gated societies. In this prototype the smart barrier is shown for a gated colony. The resident peoples of the society will have a unique key id, when they come near the entrance barrier they have show their key to RFID sensor. If the key belongs to legitimate residents of the colony the barrier will open automatically and if some vehicle wants to depart the barrier will open automatically at exit barrier of that society. In the similar way it can also be implement at railway gates, shopping malls, and similarly other places.

- Smart Car Features:-

This model helps to demonstrate that what type of smart features we can implement in any vehicle. This will help to provide more security to the users and helps to reduce accidents on roads. It will provide various features to users like detection of obstacles, detection of gasses, fingerprint security, and others.

- Gesture Control Laptop:-

As now days we know gesture and leap motion techniques are in trend. This model demonstrates how we can control out personal computers with the help of gestures. Hand gesture laptop can be used to carry out operation of the controlling media playback and volume. It is mainly aimed at reducing the effort of interaction with computers through input devices using simple gestures. It is also done to increase the interactivity with computers.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

As we all knows that now a day technology is increasing too much and more work is going upon it. Now a day almost all the work is going on innovation and manual operation is switching to autonomous. We also know that with the help of technology we can solve various problems. The government of our country also taking many steps towards it but still we are lacking in terms of technology usage. The Finland takes top spot followed by Japan. And if we talk about our country we still ranks last among BRIC countries. The main considerations in the technologies are Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness. Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent systems. Power saving is the main consideration forever as the sources of the power are getting diminished due to various reasons. As due to more demand of technology many researchers are working on some modules of this project. The related works on some of the modules are described below.

2.1 Smart Automation

In 19th century, concept of home automation came into the picture. The Electronic Computing Home Operator was developed in the April 1968 and has been enhanced from a set of spare electronics. Further X10 standard was developed to allow transmitters and receivers to broadcasting messages such as “turn ON” and “turn OFF” via radio frequency. X10 system has number of disadvantages.

In 1 architecture for home control and monitoring system using Android based smart phone is proposed and implemented. This architecture utilizes a micro web server and Bluetooth communication as an interoperable application layer for communicating the remote user and the home devices is proposed.

In 2 design and features of a Smart Home Automation System have been shown. It is Bluetooth based, hence wireless and can be flexible. It has a special feature for smart speech sense, which would decode users’ sentences into appropriate commands.

The purpose of the system in 3 is to use mobile phones’ inbuilt facility for automation. The paper describes different hardware and software units. The complete software has been designed using Android using C language.

The main problems formulated in [1, 2, 3] are:

a) The system developed in 1 uses multiple modules and services in a single system making the system more complex and results in low performance. A use of server, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth in a single system also enhances the cost of the complete system.
b) In 2 the system uses smart speech sense which would decode users’ sentence into appropriate commands. It requires strong authentication mechanism as a medium of security and a need for preventing the use of application by unauthorized user.

2.2 Smart Street Lights

The busy lifestyle of humans has led to untimely switching of street lights. As a result lot of power is being wasted. The advanced development in embedded system has set a platform for designing energy efficient systems.

Electrical Power wastage can be reduced by using two light dependent resistors as light sensing devices or light sensors to indicate day or night time. A photoelectric sensor has been used to detect the movement of humans and vehicles on the streets 4.

Automatic street light controlling can be achieved using microcontrollers and light dependent resistors [5-6]. The supply to the control unit and to light the street light is being achieved by the implementation of solar panels. Again the LDRs are used to differentiate between day and night light. The discrete analog signals sensed by LDR due to variation in its resistance are converted to digital signals. The Microcontroller is programmed in such a way that during morning and evening as the intensity changes according to which street light intensity is programmed with five intensity levels. This system is basically street light intensity control as well as switching control. A lot more amount of power is conserved as the power is conserved as the power utilization depends on the light in the streets. GSM based smart street light monitoring and control system, it is an automated system designed to increase the efficiency and accuracy of an industry by automatically timed controlled switching of street lights they are basically two modules which include the client side and the server side. The client side consists of GSM modem which is further connected to the microcontroller 7. The server side consists of java based web server.

The problem discussed above none of them gave an efficient solution to minimize the wastage of electricity wastage and the cheapest solution.

2.3 Smart Irrigation System

In India, agriculture plays an influential role for development in food mass production and also for the economy and development of a country. Hence, a need felt to design such a system which is well smart so that it can irrigate the fields as well as save the water also. Primary investigation is carried out under the following steps, such as understanding the existing approaches, understanding the requirements, developing an abstract for the system.

Izzatdin Abdul Aziz et al. (2009) 8 forward a Remote Monitoring in Agricultural Greenhouse Using Wireless Sensor and Short Message Service (SMS). In this paper authors are sending data via SMS, which makes system complex because it is not necessary everywhere cellular SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) signals may be present.

LaxmiShabadi et al. (2014) 9 put forward methodology of using Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in Irrigation Control System Using Android and GSM for Efficient Use of Water and Power this system made use of GSM to administer the system which may cost more, so to overcome this recommended system one can use arduino yun board or any similar microcontroller board which already have of in build Wi-Fi module or GSM module.

A wireless application of drip irrigation automation supported by soil moisture sensors, in this paper irrigation done by using soil moisture facts but extension of this proposed component shows to temperature and humidity values which will lead to a costly module (Mahir Dursun and Semih Ozden, 2011) 10. Dr. P. Banumathi et al. (2017) 11 displays an automated irrigation system to supply water to the plantation based on water level conditions using an android application, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) modules. These all mould the system more manifold in design and implementation. Along with this it may result into a high-priced module.

By referring all above papers it is found that no such systems are existed which explored about how to put into action the module into the practical or in complete field or more clearly in a large area.

2.4 Blind, Dump and Speech Disabled Persons (MopDop and Blind Stick)

Of the 37 million people across the globe who are blind, over 15 million are from India. They are dependent on other persons for almost all their activities. Disabled Population in India as per census 2011 (2016 updated) - In India out of 121 Cr population, 2.68 Cr persons are disabled which is 2.21% of the total population. Among the disabled population 56% (1.5 Cr) are males and 44% (1.18 Cr) are females.

To make them somehow independent no system exists so that they can feel self­dependent at a low cost. Some creates gloves or stick for the blind peoples but they are effective too much for blind peoples as well as for speech disabled and deaf persons. Some design smart goggles for blind peoples but the major problem in these are they are not effective to detect the obstacles in front of them at all possible situations. For the deaf and speech disabled persons so such system exits which can help them, they only depends upon the sign languages. The sign languages for such peoples are best but it if they have to communicate with a normal person, at that time there is a problem for them to make conversations. The reason behind that is quite straight forwarded, normal persons are not aware about the sign languages and to understand the sign languages it will be challenging for them.

2.5 Smart Car Features

Over the course of time it was observed that much of the road accidents are occurring in the country. It was surveyed that every hour 55 accidents occurs in which 17 got dead. The main reason found out for such accidents are the fast speed of a vehicle or the reckless driving by the driver. At this current era every-one wants to finish their work as soon as it possible. Due to which many of them drive in a reckless manner without following the traffic rules, which results into an accident. The other main reason behind them is the trifling participation of the officials who are in account with it. Sometimes the vehicle got fired during driving, and peoples were not aware about it and in most of the cases it results into an untoward incident.

Traffic accidents in India are a major source of deaths, injuries and property damage every year. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) 2016 report states there were 496,762 roads, railways and railway crossing-related accidents in 2015. Of these, road accidents accounted for 464,674 accidents which caused 148,707 traffic- related deaths in India.

The researchers develop the self-driven car which helps a lot, but it is also in practical use completely. And there is nothing a module where all the entire system exists in a single vehicle or module.

2.6 DustMobin (Smart Dustbin)

Sanket S. Ghate 37 et’al describes on technology like Zigbee, GSM etc. that enables the remote monitoring of solid waste bin in real time and which will inform the authorized person when the garbage bin is about to fill. These technologies are good enough to ensure the practical and perfect for solid waste collection and transportation monitoring and management for greener environment. It doesn’t have any user interaction site like websites and android application.

Narayan Sharma 38 et’al describes the application of our model of “Smart Bin” in Managing the waste collection system of an entire city. The network of sensors enabled smart bins connected through the cellular network generates a large amount of data, which is further analyzed and visualized at real time to gain insights about the status of waste around the city. This paper also aims at encouraging further research in the topic of waste management. It is difficult to implement in large cities.

Pavithra 39 The IR sensor placed inside the trash sense the level of trash and gas sensor will sense the toxic gases. Once the trash is filled, alarm rings. The RFID placed inside the trash will intimate about the overflowing of trash to the corporation office. The RFID placed at the corporation office is serial interfaced with PC. The visual display is coded with VB. The information regarding the removal of trash is sent to the respective area truck driver about the location of the field trash can. The complaint report contains the exact location of the trash can. These “strategy design models” do not work alone. Parkash, PrabuV 40 et’al proposed the system there are multiple dustbins located throughout the city or the Campus, These dustbins are provided with low cost embedded device which helps in tracking the level of the garbage bins and an unique ID will be provided for every dustbin in the city so that it is easy to identify which garbage bin is full. When the level reaches the threshold limit, the device will transmit the level along with the unique ID provided. These details can be accessed by the concern authorities from their place with the help of Internet and an immediate action can be made to clean the dustbins. There is no time stamp in which real-time clock shown to the concern person at what time dust bin is full and at what time the waste is collected from the smart dustbins.

Smart Santander 41 et’al proposes a unique in the world city-scale experimental research facility in support of typical applications and services for a smart city. This unique experimental facility will be sufficiently large, open and flexible to enable horizontal and vertical federation with other experimental facilities and stimulates development of new applications by users of various types including experimental advanced research on IoT technologies and realistic assessment of users’ acceptability tests. The project envisions the deployment of 20,000 sensors in Belgrade, Guildford, Lübeck and Santander (12,000), exploiting a large variety of technologies.

Cuff, M. Hansen, and J. Kang 42 Embedded networked sensing, having successfully shifted from the lab to the environment, is Primed for a more contentious move to the city to where citizens will likely be the target of data collection. This transition will Warrant careful study and touch on issues that go far beyond the scientific realm.

Pike research 43 The development of smart cities is now a truly global phenomenon, with considerable activity and notable projects across all regions. Working in partnership with technology and service suppliers, city leaders and central governments are realizing the benefits smart city projects can provide to increase and improve economic opportunity, sustainability, and quality of life. M. Dohler, I. Vilajosana, X. Vilajosana, and J. LLosa 44 et’al have a clear idea today about the necessity and usefulness of making cities smarter, about the potential market size, about trials and tests. However, it seems that business around Smart Cities has difficulties of taking off and thus runs short of projected potentials. This paper looks into why this is the case and proposes a clear roadmap and action plan on how to make Smart Cities finally happen. To this end, we first review involved stakeholders and the eco-system at large. Thereupon, we propose a viable approach to scale business within said eco system. We also describe the available ICT technologies and finally exemplify all findings by means of a sustainable smart city application. Over the course of the paper, we draw two major observations which are seen to facilitate a sustainable smart city development. First, independent smart city departments (or equivalent) need to emerge, much like today’s well accepted IT departments, which clearly decouple the political element of the improved city servicing from the underlying technologies. And second, a coherent 3 phase smart city rollout is vital, where inphase-1 utility and revenues are generated; in phase-2 also only utility service supported; and in phase-3 in addition a fun/leisure dimension permitted.

Vilajosana, J. Llosa, B. Martinez, M. Domingo-Prieto, A. Angles,and X. Vilajosana 45 et’al proposes a procedure to make smart cities happen based on big data exploitation through the API stores concept. To this end, we first review involved stakeholders and the ecosystem at large. We then propose a viable approach to scale business within that ecosystem. We also describe the available ICT technologies and finally exemplify all findings by means of a sustainable smart city application. Over the course of the article, we draw two major observations, which are seen to facilitate sustainable smart city development.

2.7 Smart Barrier System

Indian Railway has developed a vandal-proof warning system for unmanned level crossings which is working satisfactorily for the last three months on Coimbatore- Mettupalayam section 48. In Indian railways, there are a total of 28,607 level crossings across the country of which 19,267 are manned and 9340 are unmanned. According to the action plan, the railways is focusing on eliminating almost all the unmanned level crossing in the next 3-4 years 49.With this focus it is desirable to study various techniques to control the operation of gates at level crossings. Many journal papers are available which proposes automated railway gate system [50-54]. These papers discuss different options such as automatically controlled railway gate at the level crossing, railway track switching mechanism and the movement of the train using sensors, micro controllers for reduction of railway accidents and controller for stepper motor which operates the opening and closing of railway gates at the railway crossings. K Vidyasagar et al 55 designed a system which uses ultrasonic sensors to identify objects on the track and accordingly control signal is generated and transferred to the control room via communication protocol to control the movement of train in railway track. Pwint et al 56 describes the automatic railway gate control system using PIC microcontroller for saving precious human lives and preventing major disasters in railway track. An Arduino based control system for the opening and closing of railway gates with IR sensors for detection of train is proposed by Krishnamurthi et al 57. A detailed introduction about the technology adopted in railways is described with the disadvantages of manually operated railway warning systems at level crossings by Dewangan et al 58. Mahmud et al 59 discuss the design and implementation of an automated railway gate control system which detects the train by analyzing the reflected waves, produces alarm, controls light signal and gate.

CHAPTER 3

Problem Statement

In India there are various social problems. Some of them are shown in figure 3.1 which represents various social problems. These problems are considered on the basis of the observations, reviews, discussions, from news and similarly others.

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Figure 3.1 Problems in India

3.1 Short Description of various Problem Statements

3.1.1 Smart Irrigation System

In India, agriculture plays an influential role for development in food mass production and also for the economy and development of a country. In the agriculture’s land, utilization of right mechanism of irrigation plays a paramount job. Indian agriculture is mainly subservient on the monsoon which is not a reliable source of water. Therefore there is a need for a smart irrigation system in the country which can distribute ample amount of water to fields or farms in favour to their soil’s moisture content. Numerous zones of agricultural lands are effectually higher than or beneath irrigated due to spatial fluctuation in water infiltration and runoff of rainfall and irrigation. Beneath-irrigated farmland are subjugate to water stress, emerging in production dropping, while over-irrigated zones endure from nutrient leaching and plant ailment. Pertinent soil moisture level is an obligatory called for ideal plant growth. As, water is a prerequisite element for life sustenance, hence there is a necessity to circumvent its undue handling. Irrigation is an ascendant consumer of water, which devour lots of groundwater. A requires arise to synchronize waterworks for irrigation motivation. This task ultimate suit for those regions where water amount is scant and where it have to be used in a reserved amount. Also, this prototype can also afford by another countries of the World. With the use of sensors whose cost is low and with simple circuitry this trial focuses in low-priced solution that may be acquire by a poor farmer and easy to implement.

3.1.2 Smart Automation

Automation is the trending area of the research now a day. As technology is taking place very rapidly in the world and researchers are converting everything from manual operation to the automatic operation. Peoples are busy in their daily life and want everything around them smart which is autonomous. Simply they want to switch over from manual operation to autonomous. The main thing where all the peoples spend their daily routines it is as their homes, offices, work places and similarly same places. So in this paper an attempt was made to make all the appliances of these places HiTech for current generation as well as coming next generation. In this paper all appliances are controlled by various modes so that anyone can use any mode of operation as per their choice of interest. This all leads us one more step forward along technology and due to simple circuitry it is easy to implement. In this paper the appliances designed HiTech which can be controlled either by mobile application, SMS, flipping the fingers, any remote, self-controlled and voice commands. This all can be achieved by using various types of sensors and a microcontroller.

3.1.3 Smart Street Light

In today’s world, as we all are familiar about the street lights. We can see street lights near to our surrounding’s societies, highways and at other various places. A problem was observed that at some places there are no street lights and the places where there are street lights they mostly remains turned ON even in the day time. It results in more consumption of the electricity. The present system looks like as; the street lights will be switched on in the evening before the sun sets and they are switched off the next day morning after there is sufficient light on the roads, sometimes they remained turn On all over the day. This paper gives the best solution for electrical power wastage. Also the manual operation of the lighting system is completely eliminated. In this paper only one sensor is used which is Light Dependent Resistor LDR sensor to indicate a day/night time. The microcontroller arduino uno is used as brain of the complete model to control the street light system, and arduino software is used to build sketch and to upload it in to microcontroller. Finally, the system has been successfully designed and implemented as prototype system.

3.1.4 Smart Car Features

As per the growing rate of the population and technology it results in the spontaneous consumption of the resources. As the new technology is developing and come in daily life it enhances the life of the peoples. The peoples use lot of vehicles and we also know that how much road accidents are taking place. It creates a need to develop a module to manage the outflow of the resources and to prevent these accidents. This module is proposed only to make the things more autonomous so that such type of problems can be reduced to a low extent. This module incorporates arduino uno and some related sensors. So I am working on a project in which we are using new technology which is being used to make every digital system more smart i.e., Internet of Things (IOT). The advantage of this module is the only one to make our country smart, safe and to use more natural resources. The advantage of the alerting system (using GSM module) offers the users or consumers the quickest response and the accurate detection of an emergency situation, which in turn helps in the faster diffusion of the critical situation.

3.1.5 MopDop

We all are well aware that we have lots of deaf and speech disabled persons in the world. Some of them are by birth but some becomes after some incident. Whatever the reason was, it cause very challenging for them to survive in this world. They become dependent on the others by which they feel disappointed always at some moment. During the old age a person also feels similar problem. At that age the body is not too much energetic and it was surrounded with lots of diseases and weakness. The truth is that this affects the relationship to an extent in most cases. The persons start ignoring to the old age peoples because they start finding problems similar to deaf and speech disabled persons at a low level they lies at starting phase of it.

If the deaf peoples or the speech disabled persons have to communicate they have to use the sign languages. But if some person is aware about the sign languages he/she can communicate to those persons. But what about those persons who is not having any knowledge of sign language. Here main question arises how he/she will communicate? Similarly if some person is not in condition so that he can express his/her feelings either he/she is a patient or an old age people. Same situation occurs with them, if they have to express their feeling how they will share with other peoples?

3.1.6 Smart Blind Stick

According to a given census there are 37 million peoples blind in the world out of which 13 million are from India. Independence is the building methodology in achieving dreams, goals and objectives in life. Visually impaired persons find themselves challenging to go out independently. There are millions of visually impaired or blind people in this world who are always in need of helping hands. For many years the white cane became a well-known attribute to blind person’s navigation and later efforts have been made to improve the cane by adding remote sensor. Blind people have big problem when they walk on the street or stairs using white cane, but they have sharp haptic sensitivity. The electronic walking stick will help the blind person by providing more convenient means of life.

3.1.7 Smart Barriers

There are many railway crossings which are unmanned due to lack of manpower, needed to fulfil the demands. Hence, many accidents occur at such crossings, since there is no one to take care of the functioning of the railway gate when a train approaches the crossing. In everywhere at level crossing between railroad and highway there are so many railway accidents happening due to the carelessness in manual operations or lack of workers. When we go through the daily newspapers we come across many railway accidents occurring at unmanned railway crossings. There are also many other available barriers present at gated societies, shopping malls, toll barriers and similarly others which are unmanned due to lack of manpower. The main problem faced here is that the guards have to open the barrier at each time and due to lack of manpower lots of accidents took place. These all enhance the crimes like robbery, murder and all. So it is also very important to make these barriers more secure, so they help to reduce the crime rate at an extent.

3.1.8 Gesture Control Laptop

As now a day we know gestures and leap motion techniques are in trend. This model demonstrates how we can control our personal computers with the help of gestures.

3.1.9 DustMobin

In the recent decades, Urbanization has increased tremendously. At the same phase there is an increase in waste production. Waste management has been a crucial issue to be considered. In most of the cities the overflowed garbage bins are creating an unhygienic environment. This will further lead to arise of different types of diseases. This will degrade the standard of living. To overcome these situations an efficient smart waste collection system has to be developed.

3.2 Hardware and Software Required

3.2.1 Hardware

Various hardwares are used for the implementation of the modules. They contain different microcontrollers, shields, sensors, actuators and others. The main hardware parts are described below.

1 Arduino: Arduino is an open source microcontroller which is used to perform the required action. In the market there are different types of arduino boards available but in this project arduino uno and arduino nano are mostly used. The arduino boards have both digital and analog pins which are used to connect different type of sensors and actuators. The figure 3.2.1 displays the different types of arduino boards i.e., arduino uno, arduino mega, arduino nano, arduino pro-micro, lilypad etc.

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Figure 3.2.1: Arduino Boards

2 NodeMcu: The nodemcu is also a type of microcontroller. It is esp8266 WiFi board which used in making Internet of Things (IoT) projects. It mostly used when we want to use internet connectivity in our projects. It also contains digital and analog input pins to connect sensors and actuators. The figure 3.2.2 displays the nodemcu board.

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Figure 3.2.2: Nodemcu Board

3 Finger Print Sensor: The finger print or biometric sensors are used to match the fingerprints of the persons. It is mostly used for the security purposes to verify the authentication. The figure 3.2.3 displays the finger print sensor or finger print scanner module.

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Figure 3.2.3: Finger Print Sensor

4 Ultrasonic Sensors: Ultrasonic Sensor (transducers) is a type of sensor that uses sound waves to detect an object or target. It works on similar principle of radar or sonar which generates high frequency sound waves and evaluates the echo which is received back by the sensor. Sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object. The figure 3.2.4 displays the ultrasonic sensor.

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Figure 3.2.4: Ultrasonic Sensor

5 Relay: Relays are remote control electrical switches that are controlled by another switch, such as a horn switch or a computer as in a power train control module. Relays allow a small current flow circuit to control a higher current circuit. Several designs of relays are in use today, 3-pin, 4-pin, 5-pin, and 6pin, single switch or dual switches. Relays which come in various sizes, ratings, and applications, are used as remote control switches. The figure 3.2.5 displays the 2 channel relay board.

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Figure 3.2.5: Relay Board

6 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD): The liquid crystal displays (LCD) are used to display the text on the screen. They help to read the text or a data over it. There are various types and size of LCDs available in market like 16*2, 20*4, OLED display and others. The figure 3.2.6 displays the 16*2 lcd display.

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Figure 3.2.6: Liquid Crystal Display

7 Buzzers: The buzzers are used to notify the persons. They produce a sound of a frequency and use for alarming purposes. They are also of different sizes but mostly are of two types smaller and bigger in size. As per their size they also produce the sound of different frequency. The figure 3.2.7 displays the buzzer or piezo speakers.

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Figure 3.2.7: Buzzers

8 Bluetooth Module: The bluetooth module used to provide the bluetooth connectivity. In most of the project we want sometime connectivity; to provide the connectivity we use various modules like wifi module, bluetooth module, Ethernet shield and others. Among all those the mostly favourable is bluetooth module because of its easy connectivity and cost. The figure 3.2.8 displays the HC-05 bluetooth module.

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Figure 3.2.8: Bluetooth Module (HC-05)

9 Motor Drivers: If we want to run a motor using arduino board, we cannot use it directly. To resolve this issue we want a motor driver that helps to run and control the motors. The motor shields are also available in the market and various drivers are also available. The figure 3.2.9 displays the motor shield and H-bridge motor driver for arduino.

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Figure 3.2.9: Motor Drivers

10 Motors: There are various types of motors available that can be used with arduino. Most of the commonly used motors are dc gear motors, servo motors, brushless motors, unipolar and bipolar motors, inrunners and outrunners brushless motors and many more. The figure 3.2.10 displays the different types of motors connected with the motor shield of the arduino.

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Figure 3.2.10: Motors

11 Soil Moisture Sensor: The soil moisture sensors are used to detect the moisture level from the soil. The sensors contain two probes which uses resistance to detect the moisture level. The figure 3.2.11 displays the soil moisture sensor.

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Figure 3.2.11: Soil Moisture Sensor

12 Real Time Clock Module: The real time clock (RTC) module is used to detect the time and temperature with high precision. It contains a battery which helps the module to save the data even when the power supply removed from the circuit. The figure 3.2.12 displays the real time clock module.

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Figure 3.2.12: Real Time Clock Module

13 Light Dependent Resistors: The LDR is a resistor and its resistance varies according to the amount of light falling on its surface. When the LDR detect light its resistance will get decreased, thus if it detects darkness its resistance will increase. The figure 3.2.13 displays the light dependent resistors.

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Figure 3.2.13: Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)

14 RFID Module: RFID Reader Module, are also called as interrogators. They convert radio waves returned from the RFID tag into a form that can be passed on to controllers, which can make use of it. RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. The figure 3.2.14 displays the RFID module.

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Figure 3.2.14: RFID Module

15 IR Sensor: An IR sensor is an electronic device that emits and/or detects infrared radiations in order to sense some aspect of its surroundings. When an object is close to the sensor, the light from the IR transmitter led bounces off the object and received by receiver led. The figure 3.2.15 displays the Infrared sensor.

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Figure 3.2.15: IR Sensor

16 MQ2 gas sensors: MQ2 is one of the commonly used gas sensors in MQ sensor series. MQ2 gas sensor works on 5v DC and draws around 800mW. It can detect LPG, Smoke, Alcohol, Propane, Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Monoxide concentrations anywhere from 200 to 10000ppm. The figure 3.2.16 displays the MQ2 gas sensor.

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Figure 3.2.16 MQ2

17 MQ3 gas sensors: This module is made using Alcohol Gas Sensor MQ3. It is a low cost semiconductor sensor which can detect the presence of alcohol gasses at concentrations from 0.05 mg/L to 10mg/L. The sensitive material used for this sensor is SnO2, whose conductivity is lower in clean air. The figure 3.2.17 displays the MQ3 alcohol gas sensor.

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Figure 3.2.17: MQ3

18 Flame sensors: The flame sensor can be used to detect fire source or other light sources of the wave length in the range of 760nm - 1100nm. It is based on the YG1006 sensor which is high speed and high sensitive NPN silicon phototransistor. Due to its black epoxy, the sensor is sensitive to infrared radiation. The figure 3.2.18 displays the flame sensor.

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Figure 3.2.18: Flame Sensor

19 Memory Card Module: The micro- SD Card Module is a simple solution for transferring data to and from a standard SD card. SD Card module has various applications such as data logger, audio, video and graphics. The figure 3.2.19 displays the SD Card Module.

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Figure 3.2.19: SD Card Module

20 Universal IR Sensor: A miniaturized receiver for infrared remote control and IR data transmission. Pin diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame. The epoxy package is designed as IR filter. The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microprocessor. The main benefit is the operation with high data rates and long distances. The figure 3.2.20 displays the universal IR receiver.

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Figure 3.2.20: Universal IR Sensor

21 Sound Sensors: The sound detector is a small board that combines a microphone and some processing circuitry. It detects the sounds of door knocks, claps, voice or any other sounds loud enough to pick up by the microphone. The figure 3.2.21 displays the sound sensor.

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Figure 3.2.21 Sound Sensor

22 Temperature Sensor (LM35): The LM35series are precision integrated-circuit temperature devices with an output voltage linearly-proportional to the Centigrade temperature. The LM35 device is rated to operate over a -55 degree centigrade to 150 degree centigrade temperature range, while the LM35C device is rated for a -40 degree centigrade to 110 degree centigrade range (-10 degree with improved accuracy). The figure 3.2.22 displays the LM35 temperature sensor.

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Figure 3.2.22 LM35 Temperature Sensor

23 Neo 6m Module: The NEO - 6M GPS module is a well-performing complete GPS receiver with a built-in 25 x 25 x 4mm ceramic antenna, which provides a strong satellite search capability. With the power and signal indicators, you can monitor the status of the module. The figure 3.2.23 displays the neo 6m GPS module.

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Figure 3.2.23 Neo 6M GPS Module

24 GSM 900A: The SIM900A is a complete Dual-band GSM /GPRS solution in a SMT module which can be embedded in the customer applications. Featuring an industry-standard interface, the SIM900A delivers GSM /GPRS 900 /1800MHz performance for voice, SMS, Data, and Fax in a small form factor and with low power consumption. The figure 3.2.24 displays the SIM 900A GSM Module.

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Figure 3.2.24: GSM 900A Module

25 Voice Recognition Module: Voice Recognition Module is a compact easy­control speaking recognition board. It is a speaker-dependent module and supports up to 80 voice commands. Any sound could be trained as command. Users need to train the module first before recognizing any voice command. The figure 3.2.25 displays the voice recognition module.

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Figure 3.2.25 Voice Recognition Module

3.2.2 Software

The softwares used for the completion of projects are described as follows:

1 Arduino IDE: The arduino integrated development environment is a cross-platform application that is written in the programming language Java. It is used to write and upload programs to Arduino compatible boards, but also, with the help of 3rd party cores, other vendor development boards.

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Figure 3.2.26: Arduino IDE

2 Python IDLE: IDLE (Integrated Development and Learning Environment) is an integrated development environment (IDE) for Python. The Python installer for Windows contains the IDLE module by default. IDLE can be used to execute a single statement just like Python shell and also to create, modify, and execute Python scripts. The figure 3.2.27 displays the IDLE of python.

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Figure 3.2.27: Python IDLE

3 IFTTT: If This Then That, also known as IFTTT, is a free web-based service to create chains of simple conditional statements, called applets. An applet is triggered by changes that occur within other web services such as Gmail, Facebook, Telegram, Instagram, or Pinterest.

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Figure 3.2.28: IFTTT

4 Adafruit IO: It is a system that makes data useful. Our focus is on ease of use, and allowing simple data connections with little programming required. IO includes client libraries that wrap our REST and MQTT APIs. IO is built on Ruby on Rails and Node.js.

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Figure 3.2.29: Adafruit IO

CHAPTER 4

PROBLEM SOLUTION

The Future India using Embedded System is a solution for various social problems. It is achieved using various sensors, connectivities, hardwares and softwares. It is developed several steps. Figure 4.1 represents the basic flow diagram used among most of the modules.

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Figure 4.1 Common Flow Chart for all Sub Modules

4.1 FLOW CHARTS

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Figure 4.1.1 Flow Chart Diagram for Smart Irrigation System

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Figure 4.1.2 Flow Chart Diagram for Smart Street Light System

4.2 Block Diagrams

The block diagram for all the modules are shown below.

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Figure 4.2.1 Block Diagram for Gesture Control Laptop

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Figure 4.2.2 Block Diagram for Automation by various means

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Figure 4.2.3 Block diagram for Smart Banners

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Figure 4.2.4 Block diagram for Smart Car Features

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Figure 4.2.5 Block diagram for Smart Dustbin

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Figure 4.2.6 Block Diagram for Smart Stick for Blind peoples

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Figure 4.2.7 Block Diagram for smart gloves for disabled persons

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Figure 4.2.8 Block Diagram for Smart Irrigation System

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Figure 4.2.9 Block Diagram for Smart Navigation System

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Figure 4.2.10 Block Diagram for Smart Street Light System

4.3 USE CASE DIAGRAM

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Figure 4.3.1 Use Case Diagram for Smart Automation System

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Figure 4.3.2 Use Case Diagram for Smart Street Light System

CHAPTER 5

TESTING & RESULTS

Future India using Embedded System is implemented using hardwares and microcontrollers. Arduino IDE is used to make the sketch for the microcontroller and to upload them into microcontroller. The mobile applications used to make connectivity with hardware are implemented on the MIT APP INVENTOR 2 which uses the blocks to complete them. This section comprises of all the activities that a user has to deal on his/her mobile devices with their applications and while implementing the modules.

5.1 USER INTERFACE

The user interfaces of the applications are depicted as follows:

- First and foremost, the screen Figure 5.1.1 depicts the Smart Home, where users first have to connect Bluetooth connectivity with the hardware. After that they can control appliances with mobile phone.

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Figure 5.1.1Bluetooth App Layout

- The following images displays the activity starter of the voice control app and its layout.

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Figure 5.1.2 Activity Starter Screen of voice control app and layout

- Following image shows the control of home appliances with Google Assistant and the reply from Google Assistant of each command.

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Figure 5.1.3 Controlling Appliances with help of Google Assistant

-Following figure shows the layout of the Smart Dustbin.

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Figure 5.1.4 Smart Dustbin

- Following figures shows the working of the smart irrigation system.

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Figure 5.1.5 Smart Irrigation systems during irrigation and before irrigation.

- Following figure shows the working of the smart irrigation system and status of street lights.

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Figure 5.1.6 Smart Street Light Systems

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Figure 5.1.7 Status of street lights

- Following figures shows the layout of the Smart Blind Stick

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Figure 5.1.8 Smart Blind Stick

- Green House Climate Controller setup for the automatic control of all home appliances are shown in below figure.

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Figure 5.1.9 Setup of Greenhouse climate controllers

- Control of home appliances with help of sound is shown in figure 5.10. The figure shows the controlling the home appliances with help of sound like clap, flipping of fingers or by simply making a knock.

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Figure 5.1.10 Controlling appliances with help of sound

- Smart Car Features implementation on the prototype is shown below.

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Figure 5.1.11 Smart Car Features

The obstacle coming behind the vehicle can be shown on the screen which is as follows

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Figure 5.1.12 Detection of obstacles behind vehicle

- MopDop: The mopdop device and the mopdop mobile application is shown in below images.

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Figure 5.1.13 MopDop Device

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Figure 5.1.14 MopDop Mobile Application

- The smart barriers prototype is shown in below figures.

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Figure 5.1.15 Smart Barrier

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS

This proposed project is mainly to solve the social problems and to let peoples knows that how we can make use of technology in our daily life to ease our daily routines. The another main aspect of this project was to make solutions at very cheap rate that can be easily implement, which helps the India to increase its ranking in terms of technology. The project also aims to design some modules which also reduce the crime in India to some extent.

6.1 Advantages

Here are some of the advantages of the proposed system.

a) Increment the use of technology’s usage and development in India.
b) Help to reduce some crime’s initiating factors.
c) Low cost modules.
d) Modules are eco-friendly.
e) Work accurately.
f) Peoples will be in between with the technology even in their homes, office etc.
g) Help to prevent and reduce number of road accidents.
h) More cool car features.
i) Blind or handicapped peoples will feel independent.
j) Street lights will be controlled automatically.
k) Help to save the electricity consumption used in street lights.
l) Peoples can track the vehicles either public transport or private transport.
m) Help in reduction of garbage throw on streets, rivers, grounds etc.
n) Rail gate will be closed few times ago when train have to cross railway crossings, and etc.

6.2 Future Scope

Some modules of this project can be minimized so that there will be ease to use them more. In the smart irrigation module an intelligent system can be prepare which will calculate the soil moisture at particular intervals and capable to irrigate only that particular areas. In the gesture control laptop more features can be added. The common future work that can be done in most of the modules is use of artificial intelligence. After using the artificial intelligence the modules can take best self­decision as per the situations. So there will be no need to make changes in program to perform required action for each requirement.

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[...]

66 of 66 pages

Details

Title
Future India using Embedded Systems in Technology
Author
Year
2019
Pages
66
Catalog Number
V963459
ISBN (eBook)
9783346314642
ISBN (Book)
9783346314659
Language
English
Keywords
future, india, embedded, systems, technology
Quote paper
Ashutosh Deshwal (Author), 2019, Future India using Embedded Systems in Technology, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/963459

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