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ELVIS - HIS LIFE AND CAREER 1
Young Elvis Post-army
THE ELVIS PRESLEY CHARITABLE FOUNDATION AND PRESLEY PLACE
ELVIS - HIS MUSIC
Rhythm and Blues
The 60s and 70s
ELVIS - HIS MOVIES
Love Me Tender 1956
Blue Hawaii [paramount]1961
Change of habit 1969
ELVIS' IMPACT ON YOUTH
Elvis - His Life and Career
Elvis Aaron Presley is born in Tupelo, Mississippi on January 8, 1935. He is one of two identical twins, but his brother, Jessie Garon, is born dead, so he is the only child.
Elvis grows up in a big working class family. Although there is little money, Gladys and Vernon, his Parents, do their best to provide their son. They are members of the Assembly Of God Church. Elvis is influenced by the preaching and religious music, but there are also influences by black bluesmen in the neighborhood and country music radio programs. In the age of 10 Elvis sings "Old Shep" at a youth talent contest and wins second prize. In 1946 Elvis gets his first guitar for Christmas instead of the bicycle he wants. Two years later they move to Memphis, Tennessee. He begins to work in various jobs while he attends the Christine School. Teenage Elvis continues to be known for singing with his guitar. He is quite different to the other kids.
At a student talent show he wins and performs an encore.
In 1953 he graduates from Humes High School. He starts working at a machinist shop and records a demo of My Happiness and When The Heartaches Begin at Memphis Recording Service (later known as Sun Studios) as a birthday present for his mother. He does various jobs and attends night school to become an electrician.
In 1954 he makes another demo at Sun Studio. The owner is so impressed by this unusual young man that he teams him up with local musicians Scotty Moore and Bill Black. They perform That's All Right and Blue Moon Of Kentucky.
They start to play in small clubs but Elvis' appearance on the Grand Old Opry doesn't go over very well, which is a painful disappointment in his early career, but the continue to record and travel. After their appearance on a live Saturday night country music radio show, they sign a one-year contract. Their popularity grows, but they can't travel much outside the south to further their career on a larger scale.
1955 Bob Neal becomes Elvis' manager. He fails to be accepted on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, a TV show.
Elvis' live appearances have special appeal for teenagers, especially the females. His unusual style, sexy moves, and good looks start to cause more and more excitement. He begins to receive national attention. He signs a management contract with Colonel Tom Parker. Elvis signs a contract with RCA Records. The Sun contract is sold for unprecedented $40.000, with a $5.000 bonus for Elvis. He also signs a contract with Hill and Range Publishing Co.
Which is to set up a separate firm called Elvis Presley Music Inc. He is the hottest new star in music business.
Two Days after his twenty-first birthday, Elvis has his first recording session for RCA, including the song Heartbreak Hotel. The single is sold over 300.000 times in the first three weeks, and later sells over one million copies, thus earning Elvis his very first gold record. In that time he gets to know the Jordanaires, a gospel quartet and country backup group. They start touring with him.
In February 1956 he makes his first national number one hit with I Forgot To Remember To Forget / Mystery Train. In March he records his first album Elvis Presley. It soon goes up to number one for ten weeks and reaches over $1mio in sales and he can earn his first gold album award. The same year he signs a seven-year movie contract with Hal Wallis and Paramount Pictures.
His performance of Hound Dog on The Milton Berle Show drives the kids wild and appalls the parents.
There is a three-appearances deal at the Ed Sullivan Show worked out for $50.000. That's the highest amount ever paid to a performer up to that time.
On September 26, 1956 Elvis Presley Day is proclaimed in Tupelo and he performs two shows. There are a hundred National Guardsmen surrounding the stage to control the crowds. By this time souvenir merchandising using Elvis' name grows. There are already more than thirty products. In December Elvis merchandise has grossed $22mio in sales, which is reported on the front page of The Wall Street Journal.
He becomes the primary symbol of the new youth culture in America and he also becomes one of the society's most controversial figures. A cycle of change in music and pop-culture starts.
In November his first movie Love Me Tender is published and becomes a smash hit.
In March 1957 Elvis buys Graceland Mansion for himself, his parents and grandmother. In April Elvis performs the first time outside the US, in Canada. In July his second movie, Loving You, premiers and gets into the top ten. One month later he performs his last concert outside the US, in Canada again. In October one of his best acting performances, Jailhouse Rock premiers and reaches top five soon. It is the classic of "Rock Opera" and it is recognized as the "grandfather of rock music video". It is just surpassed by King Creole, which appears in 1958. It makes him a respected serious actor.
In March 1958 he is inducted into the US army.
In August Gladys Presley dies of acute hepatitis in the age of 46. Elvis is devastated.
In October Elvis arrives in Germany. He is stationed in Friedberg for 18 Months.
Through a mutual friend Pricilla Ann Beaulieu is invited to a Party at Elvis' home in Germany. She is fourteen and came to Germany with her stepfather Captain Joseph Beaulieu and her mother Ann.
In March 1960 he is officially discharged from active duty. He has served his country like any other GI with no special privileges.
He does some recording work for his album Elvis Is Back, which hits Billboard number two. He tapes a special Welcome Home Elvis edition of Frank Sinatra's ABC-TV variety show, for which he is paid the record sum of $125.000.
In July Elvis' father Vernon gets married to Davada Stanley a divorcee and mother of three sons. They live nearby Graceland.
Although the movie starts just one month later, the soundtrack of his 5th movie GI Blues goes number one of the billboard album charts, it's one of his most successful albums. The film prompts the Mexican government to ban Elvis movies.
Elvis performs some benefit shows for Memphis-area charities and the building of the USS Arizona Memorial, which is completed one year later.
In December 1962 Priscilla visits Elvis for the first time after his army-discharge. She spends Christmas in Graceland and returns to her parents briefly. In early '63 she moves to Graceland to finish high school there.
Elvis becomes bored and frustrated with his film and recording career. He donates for different funds. He continues filming and records for the soundtracks.
In summer of 1965 Elvis meets the Beatles and they have an informal jam session.
In 1967 Elvis buys a ranch in Mississippi where he spends much time. He starts horse riding which is a happy diversion to his frustration about his career.
In March he receives his first Grammy Award for his second gospel album, How Great Thou Art.
On May 1, Elvis and Priscilla are married amongst a small group of family and friends in Las Vegas. They honeymoon for a few days in Palm Springs. During the production of Speedway, news of Priscilla's pregnancy is released.
On February 1, 1968 Lisa Marie is born.
In 1968 Elvis appears at a show for the first time since 1961. Pop culture has changed in that time when he was just acting in films. He was no more a real part of the pop scene. In this TV special he performs and jams with his former band members Scotty Moore and D.J. Fontana. He is better than ever before and the show becomes one of the biggest TV hits of the year. He goes back to his roots - to real Elvis, the musician. The soundtrack goes up to number eight on the pop chart.
In summer he records his twenty-ninth movie Charro!. It is the first movie in which he doesn't sing on camera.
He quits his movie contracts and gets back to the concert stage. A new area begins and his superstardom reaches its climax. The next year he films and records his 31st and last movie Change Of Habit.
In summer of '69 Elvis breaks all Las Vegas records when he performs fifty-seven shows at the International Hotel. He performs classical Elvis-hits, new material and covers of current and past hits of various artists. These sessions are recorded for Elvis' first live album. In September he gets his last number one hit Suspicious Minds.
He performs in Vegas a second time in winter 1970 and breaks his own records again. In fall he has his third engagement there and MGM shoots a documentary film about him off stage and called Elvis - That's The Way It Is, which gets good reviews. RCA releases an album with the same title. Elvis has a five days tour - his first one since 1957.
In December 1970 he visits president Nixon at the white house. In January the US Jr. Chamber of Commerce names him One Of The Outstanding Young Men Of The Nation. This is a sign that he is accepted and respected for his work and the kind of person he is. He cancels a recording session in Nashville because of problems with his eyes, which are diagnosed as glaucoma.
The same year a first biography by Jerry Hopkins is published and his birth house is opened to the public for tours. In Memphis a street gets officially Elvis Presley Boulevard. When he has an engagement in Vegas again, he gets the Bing Crosby Award from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, it will later be recalled The Lifetime Achievement Award. He gets his second Grammy Award for the album He Touched Me.
Elvis goes down in entertainment history by performing four sold-out concerts in New York Madison Square Garden.
In spring 1972 Elvis and Priscilla are separated and he starts meeting Linda Thompson.
In January 1973 he makes history again with his Aloah From Hawaii special. It is sent all over the world via satellite. It is seen in more American households than the first man on the moon. It is one of the greatest moments of his career. The soundtrack gets on Billboard's number one and stays there on various positions for a year.
In October Elvis' and Priscilla's divorce is granted but they continue to be close friends.
He gets hospitalized for pneumonia and hepatitis. He has been battling health problems for some time, including his increasing depency upon prescribed drugs.
In March '74 he does four shows in Memphis and records another live album, which brings in his third Grammy Award in `75. Although his healthy and performances worsen he goes on touring and recording. The album From Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis, Tennessee hits number one on the country album charts.
In November 1976 Linda and Elvis split up, but he soon gets to know Ginger Alden, who is his steady girlfriend until his death.
I June 1977 some of his last shows are videotaped for a TV special. The camera shows shocking pictures of his poor health, but his voice is strong. It is just shown after his death. His last show is performed on June 26 in Indianapolis.
On August 16, 1977, after a late-night visit at the dentist, Elvis relaxes with his family and takes care of tour details. Around 7:00am he rests for his evening flight to Portland, Maine. By late morning Elvis Presley is dead for heart failure.
It is registrated by shock around the world.
The Elvis Presley Charitable Foundation and Presley Place
To continue Elvis Presley's tradition of generosity and to honor his memory, Elvis Presley Enterprises, Inc. created the Elvis Presley Charitable Foundation in 1985. This foundation has quietly supported numerous charities through the years, especially focusing on arts, education and children's programs. The foundation created the Elvis Presley Endowed Scholarship Fund at the College of Communication & Fine Arts at the University of Memphis to assist students majoring in areas that relate to Elvis' own career: music, film, television, theater, etc. The foundation also has a long-standing relationship with one of Elvis' favorite charities, Goodwill Homes, a Memphis facility that provides counseling and services for abused children and their families. Now, the Elvis Presley Charitable Foundation is involved in its greatest endeavor of all - the creation of Presley Place, a transitional housing development in Memphis, Tennessee. The foundation's initial commitment is approximately $1.4 million for the building of Presley Place and to support its ongoing operational needs.
Presley Place will provide homeless families up to one year of rent-free housing, child day care, job training and counseling, financial guidance and other tools to help them break the cycle of poverty and gain self-esteem and independence. Phase One of Presley will be a 10- 12-unit residential facility, which could be in operation as early as the fall of 2000. It is the next in a series of similar developments that have been created and managed by the Metropolitan Inter-Faith Association (MIFA) in Memphis, all under their widely acclaimed Estival Communities program. A special added feature for the Presley Place edition of Estival Communities will be the Elvis Presley Music Room, where the youngsters of Presley Place and other Estival properties may enjoy access to musical instruments and instruction and participate in special related programs.
In addition to the Elvis Presley Charitable Foundation's quieter efforts, they wanted to select a major commitment that would establish the identity and purpose of the foundation more widely. They wanted that choice to reflect their deep sense of appreciation and respect for Elvis Presley's own feelings and personal history and one that would be a source of pride to everyone who ever admired him. More than anything they wanted their choice to lead to a meaningful contribution to people's lives in Elvis' hometown and be one that we could feel with perfect certainty Elvis Presley himself would approve of with all his heart. They found all this in MIFA's Estival Communities program.
Elvis - His Music
Rhythm and Blues
Elvis is called The King Of Rock'n'Roll, but his roots lie in Rhythm's' Blues, which was a mixture of Country, the white folk music, and Blues, the black folk. It was influenced by Swing and Bop, the sound of big bands. These kinds of music began to die because of two reasons. The big bands were too expensive, and the "record-strike" in the thirties started a decrease of selling. So a new sound had to be created: Rhythm and Blues.
Firstly it sounded very "bluesy" but in the mid-40's rhythm became more important. There was a big number of new colored artists like Ray Charles, James Brown and The Ravens. Some of their songs could be accepted as Rock'n'Roll songs already. In the beginning of the fifties it was already well known among the black audience.
Just slowly white listeners began to be interested in it, because it was not often played on white radio-stations. Just after they started producing cover versions, it became popular in white society. One of those covers was Hound Dog, which was interpreted by Big Mama Thornton first and became a million-seller by Elvis in 1956.
Nobody can really say, when this music was born. But there was one title, which began to make it popular under this new description. It was Bill Haley's Rock Around The Clock, which was published in the film called Blackboard Jungle. It is a film about criminal teenagers and so it became a kind of hymn for aggressive and frustrated youths. That's one reason why adults equalized Rock'n'Roll, rebellion and violence. Charles Hamm said: "At no other point in the two hundred-year history of popular song in america had there been such a drastic and dramatic change in such a brief period of time. And it was an all-encompassing revolution, affecting not only musical style but also the entire music-industry and the audience for such music. Beyond that, this new music was merely the tip of an iceberg, a visible due that American life and culrure were undergoing violent traumatic changes." _But they also disliked the sexual openness, although there were no artists who could be described as sex symbols.
But in 1956 this young white man appeared. He had very good looks and he moved his body, he was the nightmare of all parents. Although he was a very silent, gentle person in private life. He had an intensive, strong and significant voice. And he had the black feeling, rhythm in his heart. He became the Idol of a generation of teens. Before he came, they were and had nothing. But now they started to be. "We are young, it's our world", that's a sentence, you never heard before. Elvis wasn't just any artist. He was the King, but not just the king of Rock'n'Roll or music; he was the representative of a whole generation, of a way of life. A new era began and many others followed.
The 60s and 70s
That was the time when the youth became free. But with the end from the fifties Rock'n'Roll began to vanish. Many of the very popular artists had accidents and died young. And Elvis performed just soft songs after his return of the army. Folk-Rock, Twist and Pop appeared with artists like Bob Dylan, Chubby Checker, Brenda Lee and Carol King.
Elvis began to disappear from charts; just little success-singles were released. He made lots and lots of nice movies, but his world was still music. The King seemed to have lost his crown. The soundtracks of his movies saved his career from being forgotten during the "British invasion" of The Beatles and The Rolling Stones.
But in the end of the 60s he began his great comeback with a TV special. He was not the same man. He wasn't the young sexy boy of the 50s. He was a man round 40, not as agile as he was before. But he still had his unbelievable charisma. He performed new million-sellers like In The Ghetto, Don't Cry Daddy, Suspicious Minds and My Way. His appearances changed too. He wears colorful overalls, broad belts and he sets himself in scene like a kind of god. He seemed to be at the top again when he performed his Aloha from Hawaii TV-special. More than one billion people watched it.
But he couldn't make his way through this new youth-culture for a long time. His divorce was a big stroke for him and his career decreased.
Elvis - His Movies
Love Me Tender 1956
For a first attempt, and co-star billing, Elvis tackled an interesting story, but a boring script. Yet for Elvis fans Love Me Tender was his first movie, and a chance for overseas fans to catch a look of Elvis walking, talking, singing, and crying. They sat anxiously awaiting the first sighting of the master, and there in the distant field, pulling a plough was the super-giant of Rock'n'Roll. It was the end of the civil war. Elvis' brother was a confederate, and with his troops, had pillaged a federal payroll, thinking that the war was still in full swing. Soon after they learned that the war was over, and instead of returning the loot to the authorities, they decided to split the spoils. Elvis had by now married his brother's fiancée, assuming that he had died in battle, and when the missing son returned home problems began. The old love is reawaken, and the authorities turn up to reclaim the stolen money. A double- cross takes place, and Elvis is shot dead. The first and only time Elvis actually dies in front of a cinema audience. Elvis being shot incited fans enough to bring about a compromise ending cooked up by Twentieth Century-Fox showing a ghostly Elvis image singing Love me Tender as the rest of the cast walk off into the Sunset.
Despite switching the film's title from The Reno Brothers to Love Me Tender in order to capitalize on the young singer's popularity, Elvis still took second billing in his big screen debut.
Blue Hawaii [paramount]1961
After a series of misunderstandings with his parents who also disapprove of his girlfriend Maile Chad Gates takes a job as a tourist guide to a schoolteacher and her four charges who are all female. After even more misunderstandings between Chad, his girlfriend, the four schoolgirls, as well as his mother - he eventually manages to sort the situation out for a satisfactory conclusion. This film has sometimes been quoted as Elvis' most successful film, but being rather a mild plot much of the success must be due to the scenery and "Elvis".
Change of habit 1969
A change of role from Elvis' usual playboy ones, also a higher standard of acting in this film in which Elvis plays the part of a doctor. Three nuns are sent to assist Dr. John Carpenter at his surgery in a New York ghetto with a tough mixed population. The nuns do not wear habits and Dr. Carpenter is unaware of their calling. Father Gibbons, the local priest, however, is aware of this, and does not approve of the methods used by the catholic action committee in sending the girls to this district, nor does he approve of their new ideas. Colored Irene runs into color problems on her house calls and also the local protection racket. Barbara finds she cannot come to terms with her political beliefs and her religious ones. Michelle - in close contact with Dr. John - realizes he is falling in love with her and tries to block him. The three girls organize a fiesta and after some trouble are ordered to go back to the convert. Barbara decides she cannot return and stays to help the people. Irene and Michelle is obviously attracted to Dr. john and at a service in which she goes to hear him sing her mind is obviously in conflict. The film ends with nothing resolved.
Elvis fans were shocked when the publicity stills of Charro were released showing a bearded Elvis for the first time.
Jess Wade is a former outlaw who has gone straight for almost a year. His former outlaw friends trap him and show him a victory cannon they have stolen from Mexico. Wade tells them they will be hunted down but Vince, the leader of the gang, shows him a poster they have circulated which shows that it is Jess who is wanted for the robbery. The poster describes a scar on his neck that he is supposed to have received during the robbery. The gang then scar him with a hot poker and leave him helpless in the wilderness. When he recovers he makes his way to the only town where he knows he will be safe, and where the sheriff is a friend of his. This man is Dan Ramsey, who has known wade since he was a boy, and he has refused to display the "wanted poster". The plot intensifies when Vince's brother is captured by jess after hurting the sheriff and Vince threatens to destroy the town with the cannon unless his brother is free. After some brutal fighting in which many of the gang are killed and Vince's brother is crushed to death by the cannon, jess wins through and the film ends with him taking the cannon and the outlaw back to justice.
Elvis Presley could have left one of the great fortunes of entertainment history, had he been one to worry about financial planning, rather than freely enjoying and sharing his wealth as he did. While the estate he left was by no means broke, there was a cash flow problem, especially with Graceland costing over half a million dollars a year in maintenance and taxes.
It seemed logical for Priscilla to open Graceland to the public. In late 1981, they hired Jack Soden, at the time a counselor, to plan and execute the opening of Graceland to the public and oversee the total operation. Graceland opened for tours in June 1982. In 1983, through a long- term lease, Graceland acquired the shopping center plaza across the street from the mansion. From the time the plaza was built in the sixties, it had been a typical suburban strip shopping center. However, almost overnight after Elvis' death, it became an Elvis souvenir shop, which carried mostly bootleg items not licensed by the Presley Estate. Upon assuming management of the shopping center property, Graceland began policing the bootleg activities and began an overall facelift, while continuing to honor the existing leases of the plaza tenants. By 1987, all the leases had expired and Graceland began major renovations, which continue to this day. In 1993, Graceland purchased the property. Today, all shops and attractions in what is now known as Graceland Plaza are owned and operated by Graceland. The Presley Estate already owned the land where Graceland visitor parking and the airplanes exhibit are located.
One important development for the Graceland visitor experience was the addition of Elvis' Lisa Marie jet and Hound Dog II Jet Star planes, which Elvis' father had sold in 1978. They were brought back home to Memphis in a joint venture with the current owners and opened for on-board tours in 1984. Another major development was the 1989 opening of the Elvis Presley Automobile Museum in Graceland Plaza. Graceland Crossing, a neighboring shopping center with stores that featured Elvis-related items, situated just north of Graceland Plaza, was built in the second half of the 1980's and was independently owned until Graceland purchased it in the fall of 1997 as an addition to its visitor features. The next major development was the opening of Elvis Presley's Heartbreak Hotel on a neighboring property in 1999. Continued expansion and enhancement of visitor facilities and the development of new museum projects relating to Elvis and the rock era are planned for the Graceland complex within the next few years.
Since opening to the public in 1982, Graceland has hosted millions of visitors from every state in the union and nearly every country of the world. Prior to Graceland's opening, there was minimal tourism trade in Memphis. Graceland quickly became the cornerstone of the industry for the city and the region. Today, the Memphis tourism industry is expanding rapidly with more recently developed attractions such as the Pyramid, the National Civil Rights Museum, and the Wonders Series exhibits, and with the continued growth and development of the Beale Street entertainment district, Memphis in May, and a host of other attractions, museums, and special events.
Graceland, unlike many other attractions in the city, is purely a private enterprise. It is one of the five most visited home tours in America, and is the most famous home in America after the White House. In 1991, Graceland was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Graceland welcomes over 600,000 visitors each year. Attendance ranges from a few hundred visitors on a weekday in the dead of winter to 2,000 - 3,500 visitors per day in the spring and early summer, to over 4,000 per day in July at the height of the travel season. The total economic impact on the city of Memphis from Graceland visitors is at over $150 million per year. Further benefiting the city is the intense worldwide publicity that Graceland and the Elvis Presley phenomenon continually bring to Memphis. Contributing to the local impact is the fact that Graceland employs approximately 350 people part-time and full-time year `round, a number that swells to as many as 450 in the busy summer season. The demographics of Graceland visitors are typical of most any major attraction. Graceland visitors come from all walks of life, all ages, all musical tastes, all classes, all levels of education, and all parts of the world. Over half of Graceland's visitors are under the age of 35. Graceland is a must-see for visiting dignitaries, touring Broadway show casts, touring rock stars, and people of virtually every description coming to Memphis.
Elvis' impact on youth
Elvis was loved by the youth and hated by the adults. Parents were afraid of their children's innocence and their moral. Priests called him a sinner and in Miami he was sued for being obscene. In television he was just shown from above his hips. A DDR-Newspaper said that he was a tool of the American psychological war who should infect the population with inhumanity.
But that did not bother the youth. They even wanted more of it. Elvis was their idol. He seemed to be their united wishes: He expressed all their wishes, sex, anger and independence. He caused a wave of rebellion in the American households. Children and teenagers didn't want to listen to their parents anymore. The years before, children were just guided by their parents. The adults wanted to care for them till they married and so it was very difficult for a child to find his own personality and independence.
But Elvis showed them what young people could reach. He is one of the best-known artists of the century, but not just in America. He had and still has fans all over the world that know everything about their "King". He became a myth already in lifetime.
Elvis was a quiet, polite young man, till he was on stage. When he got up there he seemed to explode. It was an interaction between Elvis and his audience: He turned them on, and when they screamed he got in top form.
Elvis did not just influence the youth of his decade. He influences youth- and pop-culture till now. His way of singing and dancing was absolutely new at that time, but today it seems to be normal. Not just the music is important anymore; it's also the person and the show. Elvis was the first artist who was "sold". There were fan articles like T-shirts, caps and so on. But he was not just an idol for American youth. In Europe a large number of artists tried to imitate his music. European fans waited for month for his first movie, Love Me Tender, to see him dancing not only on placates. He was known all over the world.
For young men in the fifties especially the movies started to be icons for their life. They began to feel free to do everything and there began to be built. A.K. Cohen wrote a study about "delinquent boys". He said that there are some youths who steel cars, break windows and so on for trying to be as cool as the guys on the screen. But they do not really want that cars, they just want to see what happens afterwards.
It seems that movies had a kind of change in awareness. It was absolutely new, that there were fewer norms than ever before. So the parents were afraid that their children could make the norms by themselves and use movie stars as heroes.
But that is one of the biggest dangers, which were created by the pop-culture that began with Elvis. It was and is very difficult for adolescents to be integrated in society. They are not a full member of the social order and so the want to create their own order. So they express themselves with music and consume goods. They identify with their star. But the "star" is just made by the producers, and some of the adolescents can't see that. The wanted to be different to the grown-ups whatever happens.
Peter Guralnick - Last Train To Memphis - The Rise Of Elvis Presley
Peter Guralnick - Careless Love - Elvis Vol.2
J. Edenhofer - Rock & Pop von A bis Z
W. Rumpf - Stairway To Heaven
R. Flender / H. Rauhe - Popmusik: Geschichte, Funktion, Wirkung und Ästhetik
- Quote paper
- Nicole Dumfart (Author), 2000, Elvis - His Life and Impact Of His Music, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/96918