The speech intention of modals and related verbs


Facharbeit (Schule), 1999

9 Seiten, Note: 1


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Modal verbs

Today I want to speak about certain verbs, modal verbs. But at first I tell you in which parts the verb is divided.

Verb: main verb e.g. play, read, work

primary auxiliaries e.g. be, do, have

modal auxiliaries or modals

What are modals?

With modal verbs one can say that sth. can, should, may, must etc. happen

Formen

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They are followed by an infinitive without “to” with the exception of “ought to”.

Difference between main verbs and modals

1. Sandra can speak French very well.
2. Can you open the window, please?
3. Jane’s husband can’t ( cannot ) drive a car.

Harry can help Judy with the cooking, can’t he?

Zu 1. the third person in the singular doesn’t have the end “s”
Zu 2. questions are build by changing of subject and modals
Zu 3. Negation is formed by: modals + not
Zu 4. in sentences with question tags modal verb are included again

Modals have only a present or a past form, but they can be used to refer to the future e.g. I must leave tomorrow. That’s why there are also substitute verbs which can form all tenses and can therefore be used for the missing tense forms of some modals e.g.

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Speech intentions expressed by modals and related verbs

Ways of expressing an ability or an inability

Forms: can

could

be able to

1. John can swim very well.

Ed is able to drive a van.

2. Difference between could and was / were able to

Janet can swim very fast for a twelve-year-old girl, can’t she? -

But at her age her mother could swim even faster.

When Janet’s mother was twelve, she was able to break the Junior Record

Ways of expressing an strong obligation or a necessity

Forms: must

needn’t

have ( got ) to

1. Religious education must be taught in all English schools.

Jerry has ( got ) to wear glasses when he’s reading.

2. You needn’t go shopping today.

Mike hasn’t got to go to bed yet. There’s no school tomorrow.

Susan doesn’t have to feed the fish. They’ve been fed.

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3. “Must“ in contrast to “ have ( got ) to”

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b) Sally has got to go now. Her train leaves in ten minutes.

It’s Jim’s birthday on Friday so I have to write to him today.

Ways of expressing obligations, instructions or orders

Forms: should( n’t ) / ought to ( oughtn’t )

Shall I…? / Shall we…?

be to

will

1. a) Reading a comic? You should /ought to be doing your homework.

b)You should / ought to have been here twenty minutes ago.

2. Shall I ring up the police? ( Do you want me to ring them up? )

When shall we meet you? ( When do you want us to meet you? )

3. a) Mum says you aren’t to wash the pullover in the washing machine.

b) What am I to do first? Whatdid the boss say?

4. a) You will be home by ten o’clock and that’s that!

b) Swimming caps will be worn in the pool at all times.

Ways of expressing a permission

Forms: can

be allowed to

may

1. You can leave early today if you like.

As the doctors had agreed, Tina could leave hospital two days ago.

Ed is allowed to drive a van.

2. a) May I borrow your pen, please?

May we use our grammar books?

b) Guests may use the hotel swimming-pool till 10 o’clock.

Ways of expressing a prohibition

Forms: can’t

be not allowed to

mustn’t / be not to

may not

1. You can’t put your bike against this wall.

The pupils couldn’t leave then examination room early.

Tina wasn’t allowed to say what she wanted to.

2. a) You mustn’t say things like that.

b) Didn’t you hear what Peter said? You’re not to make so much noise!

3. Books from this shelf may not be taken home.

Ways of expressing a request

Forms: Can you…?

Could you…?

Couldn’t you…?

Will you…?

Would you…?

1. a) Would you give the dog some food?

Will you pass me the salt, please?

b) Could you explain the meaning of this word to us?

Can you go t the chemnist’s shop for me today?

Ways of expressing an offer or an invitation

Forms: Will you…?

Would you…?

Won’t you…?

1. Won’t you stay a little longer, Susan?

Will you come to uor class party next week, Miss Dean?

Would you like to have another sandwich, Bob?

Ways of expressing a suggestion

Forms: Can’t you…?

Couldn’t you…?

Shall I…? / Shall we…?

( really, simply ) must

1. a) Couldn’t Marcia go by bus to the airport?

b) There’s a photo exhibition in the department store this month. You really must see it.

Ways of expressing an advice

Forms: should / ought to

shouldn’t / oughtn’t to

( really, simply ) must

had better ( not )

1. a) It’s cold outside. Judy should / ought to put on a warm coat.

Helen is too fed. She’d better not eat so many biscuits.

b) You simply must visit Jane at the hospital. She’s so unhappy.

c) You’d better go now if you want to catch the bus.

d) You shouldn’t / oughtn’t to have made such a terrible noise last night.

Ways of expressing a possibility

Forms: can

could

Couldn’t…?

may, may not

might mightn’t

1. a) Couldn’t this picture be a Picasso? It looks like one, doesn’t it?

b) Though the story is true, you may not believe it.

Ways of expressing a probability

Forms: will

would

should / ought to

shouldn’t / oughtn’t to

1.a) Don’t disturb him. He’ll be writing letters at this time.

b) John should be playing next Saturday.

c) You’ve got a pain in your back? A new bed would solve your problem.

Question tags

Question tags with agreement

1.a) Dad can meet Mum at the station, can’t he?

b) I needn’t explain everything, need I?

c) Terry must be told the truth, mustn’t he?

We mustn’t forget the tickets, must we?

( in german: “…, nicht wahr? / nicht? / oder? / gell?“ )

question tags with doubt

1.a) I think the cat has eaten all the ice-cream. -Oh, it has, has it?

b) I haven’t drunk any alcohol for two years. -So, you haven’t, haven’t you?

( in german: “ Ach wirklich / tatsächlich? / Was du nicht sagst.“ )

Modals - Zusammenfassung (Beispielsätze siehe speech intention…..)

Substitute verbs

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Ways of expressing an ability or an inability

Forms: can

be able to

Use: can is only used in present tense; it has lots of meanings that’s why you better use “be able to” Bsp.1 Difference between could and was / were able to

Could is a past form of can Bsp.2

In clauses of statement “could” expresses an ability which you had in the past

was/were able to expresses an ability which you had and you really did in the past

was/were able to is always right if you can use “managed to”

Ways of expressing strong obligation or necessity

Forms: must

have to

needn’t

Use: must/have (got) to expresses a obligation or necessity Bsp.1

needn’t, haven’t got to and don’t have to expresses no obligation and no necessity Bsp.2

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must in contrast to have (got) to

must: speaker has an own obligation inside ( speaker performs obligation ) Bsp.3a) expresses signs, e.g. road signs/ traffic symbols

have (got) to: speaker pass an order on another person Bsp 3a)

have (got) to: expresses an obligation or necessity by outside circumstances (no must) Bsp. 3b)

Ways of expressing obligations, instructions or orders

Forms: : should( n’t ) / ought to ( oughtn’t )

Shall I…? / Shall we…?

be to

will

Use: with should/ought to you can expresses what sb. do or did in the speakers opinion Bsp.1

questions with Shall I…/ Shall we…? are used to express if you ask sb. for instructions Bsp.2

be to expresses instructions which isn’t from the speaker but the instruction is only passed on by the speaker Bsp.3a)

questions with be to are used to ask for instructions of another person Bsp.3b)

will expresses orders with no contradiction Bsp.4a)

will expresses instruction with no contradiction Bsp.4b)

Ways of expressing a permission

Forms: can

be allowed to

may

Use: can is used in present tense and could in past tense Bsp.1

but these words have lots of meanings that’s why you better use be allowed to Bsp.1

may- with “May I…?/May we…? you ask for permission Bsp.2a)

( requests with may are more polite than requests with can )

may especially expresses a permission in formal English Bsp.2b)

Ways of expressing a prohibition

Forms: can’t

be not allowed to

mustn’t / be not to

may not

Use: can’t expresses a prohibition in present tens and couldn’t in past tense Bsp.1

you better use “be not allowed to” Bsp.1

mustn’t expresses prohibition of the speaker Bsp.2a)

be not to expresses prohibition of another person which is repeated Bsp.2b)

may not expresses a prohibition in formal English Bsp.3

Ways of expressing a request

Forms: Can you…?

Could you…?

Couldn’t you…?

Will you…?

Would you…?

Use: if you want to be polite you use “would you…?” instead of “will you …?” or “could you…?” instead of “ can you …? “ Bsp.1a)+b)

Ways of expressing an offer or an invitation

Forms: Will you…?

Would you…?

Won’t you…?

Use: “Won’t you…?” is more pressure than “Will you…?”/”Would you…?” Bsp.1

Ways of expressing a suggestion

Forms: Can’t you…?

Couldn’t you…?

Shall I…? / Shall we…?

( really, simply ) must

Use: all expresses a suggestion Bsp.1a)

( really/simply) must is used to strongly offer a suggestion

Ways of expressing an advice

Forms: should / ought to

shouldn’t / oughtn’t to

( really, simply ) must

had better ( not )

Use: should / ought to, must, had better express an advice Bsp.1a)

(really/simply) must expresses an strong advice Bsp.1b)

had better expresses an advice in a wider sense of warning Bsp.1c)

had better can’t be used in the past, that’s why you use should / ought to +present perfect Bsp.1d)

Ways of expressing a possibility

Forms: can

could

Couldn’t…?

may, may not

might mightn’t

Use: can, could, couldn’t are used in questions if you have some certain signs Bsp.1a)

May and might expresses a possibility but with doubts Bsp.1b)

they aren’t used in questions of decisions instead of you use, e.g. “ Do you think….? / Don’t you think….?”

Ways of expressing a probability

Forms: will

would

should / ought to

shouldn’t / oughtn’t to

Use: the speaker expresses with “will” that he/she think sth. Is probably because of certain reasons Bsp.1a)

The degree of probability with “should/ought to” is smaller than with “will” Bsp.1b)

“would” expresses a probability which have a condition Bsp1c)

Question tags

Question tags with agreement

If a sentence have a primary auxiliary you build the question tag with it otherwise with do/does/did

( Question tags are in German “nicht wahr? / nicht?/oder? / gell?“)

If the clause of statement says yes the question tag says no and reverse Bsp.1a)+b)

The question tag of “must” is “mustn’t” and reverse Bsp.1c)

question tags with doubt

If the clause of statement says yes the question tag says yes, tooand reverse. Bsp1a)+b)

(in German: “ Ach wirklich? / tatsächlich ? / Was du nicht sagst.“ )

Words

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Functions (die unterschiedlichen Aussagen eines Wortes)

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Details

Titel
The speech intention of modals and related verbs
Note
1
Autor
Jahr
1999
Seiten
9
Katalognummer
V97923
Dateigröße
363 KB
Sprache
Deutsch
Anmerkungen
Ein Referat für 2 Unterrichtsstunden
Schlagworte
forms/funtions/speech intentions
Arbeit zitieren
Christina Ziemek (Autor), 1999, The speech intention of modals and related verbs, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/97923

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