Mitigating Tomato post-harvest Losses. Participation Responses to recommended Technology


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2020

51 Pages


Excerpt

Inhalt

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Problem statement
Objectives of the study
Hypothesis of the study
Justification of the Study
Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Tomato as a Staple Fruit Vegetable
Challenges Confronting Tomato Production in Nigeria
Determinants of Post-Harvest Losses in Tomato
Causes of Post-Harvesting Losses in Tomatoes
On-Farm Causes of Post-Harvest Losses
Off-Farm Causes of Post-harvest Tosses in Tomatoes
Post-Harvest Strategies
Challenges to Reducing Post-Harvest Losses

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
Study Area
Sources of Data Collection
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Analytical Techniques
Model Specification
Likert scale method
Gross margin analysis
Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression Model

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents
Gender of respondents
Age of the respondents
Marital status of the respondents.
Educational level
House hold size of respondents
Years of experience
Source of capital
Extension Contact
Mode of transportation
Packaging materials used by the respondents
Perception of improved post-harvest techniques
Effect of post-harvest loss on farmers income
Factors influencing tomato post-harvest losses
Constraints to post-harvest loss reduction

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendation

REFERENCE

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: Distribution of respondents based on their gender

Table 2: Distribution of respondents based on their age

Table 3: Distribution of respondents based on their marital status

Table 4: Distribution of respondents based on their educational status

Table 5: Distribution based on the house hold size of the respondents

Table 6: Distribution of respondents based on their years of experience

Table 7: Distribution of respondents based on their source of capital

Table 8: Distribution of respondents based on their extension contact

Table 9: Distribution of respondents based on their mode of transportation

Table 10: Distribution of the respondents based on their packaging materials

Table 11: Distribution based on perceptions of improved post-harvest techniques

Table 12: Gross margin analysis per 50kg basket

Table 13: Factors influencing Tomato post-harvest losses

Table 14: Distribution based on constraints of post-harvest loss reduction

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the economics of post-harvest losses among tomato farmers in Barkin-Ladi Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used in selecting respondents for this study. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, Likert method and ordinary least square regression model; were analytical techniques employed. The result revealed that 62% of the respondents were males, 72% are married. The mean age was 42 years. Most (38%) attained primary education, 48% had a household size with population of 1-5 people. The mean year of experience was 17 years. Most (78%) used woven baskets in packaging their produce. The prevalent improved post-harvest techniques were; appropriate harvesting techniques (2.79), improved drying techniques (2.69) and improved processing technology (2.62) as indicated by their significant mean scores. The estimated value of tomato post-harvest loss per 50kg was 27.5%. Thus, estimated gross margin were ₦5,400 (without loss) and ₦3,910 (with loss) respectively. The coefficients of farming experience (-0.421), distance to markets (0.413), age of fruit at harvest (0.519), quantity of fruits harvested (0.387) and post-harvest practices (-0.396) were statistically significant at 5% level. The estimated coefficient of multiple determination (R2) was 0.795, suggesting that 79% of post-harvest losses were attributable to the variables in the regression model. The constraints identified affected tomato post-harvest loss reduction. Adoption of improved post-harvest techniques, storage and processing facilities, provision of improved market linkages and access to agricultural credit, extension contact and formation of producer cooperatives are strongly recommended for reduced wastages.

Keywords: Constraints, determinants of post-harvest loss, farmer perceptions, post-harvest techniques, vegetable crop

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Tomato belongs to the Solanaceae family. Tomato (Solanum lycopersycum L) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. As it is a relatively short duration crop and gives a high yield, it is economically attractive. It is considered as an important cash and industrial crop in many parts of the world (Babalola, et al, 2010). Tomatoes contribute to a healthy, well-balanced diet (Naika, 2005), as they are rich in minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids, sugars, dietary fibres, vitamin B and C, iron and phosphorus. It can be processed into different products including: Ketchup, puree, powder and juice. Nigeria ranks as the 16th largest tomato producing nation in the world and has the comparative advantage and potential to lead the world in tomato production and exports (FAO, 2010). The production of tomatoes in Nigeria in 2010 was about 1.8 million metric tons, which accounts for about 68.4% of West Africa, 10.8% of Africa’s total output and 1.28% of world output (FAO 20010). Unfortunately, the country still experiences deficiency in critical inputs, lack of improved technology, low yield and productivity, high postharvest losses and lack of processing and marketing infrastructure. Tomato is widely cultivated across Nigeria. Smallholder farmers planting on between 0.5 and 4 hectares of land account for 90% of production, with the balance contributed by commercial producers (Sahel research, 2015). Nigeria has the largest area harvested for fresh tomato in Africa with 541,800Ha followed by Egypt with 214,016Ha (Faostat, 2014). Tomatoes are important for food industry as they serve as raw materials for production of value added products (SOE, 2003).

Consumption and demand for tomato is growing due to increase in population. Moreover, it is available at low price as compared to other vegetables. Unfortunately, they are not only seasonal but highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest, losing almost all their required quality attributes and some could likely result to total waste. In developing countries like Nigeria, storage packaging, transporting and handling techniques are poorly developed post-harvest practices, especially with perishable crops, so this allows for considerable losses of harvested tomatoes.

Tomatoes are delicate fruit and if they are not handled carefully they deteriorate. In Nigeria, fresh tomatoes are packed in baskets for transportation to the market. Although the aim is to allow air for ventilation, the baskets end up being stacked on top of each other, resulting in many injured fruit. Furthermore, improper post-harvest sanitation, mechanical damage during harvesting, handling and transportation can enhance wastages (Idah et al, 2007).Food supply can be improved either by increase in production or reduction in loss. Thus reduction in post-harvest losses through the adoption of post-harvest techniques increases food availability (Okumadewa, 1999).It is against this background that this study will attempt to analyze the determinants of post-harvest losses along tomato value chain.

According to FAO (FAO 2006), in the tomato market chain, farmers are linked to consumers’ needs, working closely with suppliers and processors to produce specific goods to meet consumers’ demand. Similarly, through flows of information and products, consumers are linked to the needs of farmers. Under this approach, through continuous innovation, the returns to farmer’s can be increased and livelihoods enhanced. Rather than focusing on profit on one link alone, players at all levels of the value chain can benefit. The tomato market chain system in Nigeria is made up of farmers, middlemen, retailers and wholesalers. Most of the fresh tomatoes produced in Nigeria are sold in the open market in baskets, while roadside vendors sell their produce in small buckets and baskets. The tomatoes for processing are supplied to the companies in baskets by the middlemen and wholesalers. However, there are no appropriate packaging systems for fresh tomatoes, except at few supermarkets, where tomatoes are kept in plastic crates or stored in refrigerators until sold. There are no guaranteed pricing regimes.

Problem statement

The demand for tomato and its by-products far outweighs the supply. With a population of over 170 million people, an estimated national population growth rate of 5.7% per annum, and an average economic growth rate of 3.5% per annum. At present, a significant percentage of processed tomato products used in Nigeria are imported, resulting in unnecessary pressure on foreign exchange reserve. Over 45% (750,000 metric tons) of tomatoes produced in Nigeria is estimated as annual loss due to poor food supply chain management, price instability resulting from seasonal fluctuation in production and the supply preference of farmers and middle men to urban market than processors due to low farm gate price (FAO, 2010). Tomato wastage occurs mainly at the processing, packaging and distribution stages. This is due to the poor processing technology, lack of good storage system and the transporting system used for the distribution of fresh tomatoes.

Post-harvest losses have been highlighted as one of the determinants of food shortages in most developing countries like Nigeria (Babalola, et al., 2008). Thus, reduction in post-harvest losses increases food availability hence, alleviation of food shortages. The effect of post-harvest losses increases food insecurity, wastages and lowers marketing efficiency. Post-harvest losses take place at storage and processing stages in the food supply chain (Parfitt, et al., 2010). The problem of post-harvest loss in sub-Saharan Africa is acute; more than 30% of food crops produced for human consumption across the continent is lost because of inadequate post-harvest techniques, lack of structured markets inadequate storage by farming households and limited processing capacity (IFDC Kader 2005, Kader, and Roller, 2004, WFLO, 2010). To mitigate post-harvest losses low cost intermediate technologies should be provided to remedy the situation. Furthermore, lack of adequate technical capacity by the farmers, as well as the un-availability of improved preservation technology also increases tomato post-harvest losses. Therefore, this research study will aim at analyzing the factors influencing post -harvest losses among tomato farmers. To achieve this, the following research questions were generated.

i. What are the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers?
ii. What are their perceptions of improved post-harvest practices?
iii. What is the effect of post-harvest loss on the income of the farmers?
iv. What are the factors influencing post-harvest losses?
v. What are the constraints of post-harvest loss reduction?

Objectives of the study

The broad objective of this study is to analyze post-harvest losses among tomato farmers in Barkin-ladi Local Government Area of Plateau state, while the specific objectives were to;

i. describe the socio- economic characteristics of the farmers;
ii. measure their perception of improved post-harvest practices;
iii. estimate the effect of post-harvest loss on the income of the farmers;
iv. determine the factors influencing post-harvest losses; and
v. identify constraints of post-harvest loss reduction.

Hypothesis of the study

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers and the quantity of their post-harvest loss.

Justification of the Study

Nigerian farmers on the average generate the lowest yields for tomatoes in Africa at 4.0MT/Ha which is significantly lower than Egypt with 38.7MT/Ha and South Africa with yields of 78.7MT/Ha in 2014 (Faostat, 2014). Yields are low because of the poor production practices including usage of old varieties, low soil fertility, inadequate pest and weed control and the high post-harvest losses due to the poor handling and distribution system. In effect, 20% - 50% of tomato produced in Nigeria is lost due to the poor handling, processing and preservation techniques in Nigeria (Sahel research, 2015).The market chain approach has been utilized by development practitioners and researchers alike to capture the interactions of increasingly dynamic markets and also to examine the interrelationships between diverse actors involved in all stages of the marketing channel (Mgboh, 2015) and Sigei, et al., (2014). Furthermore, by going beyond firm or activity-specific analysis, value chain analysis allows for an assessment of the linkages amongst productive activities. The adoption of improved post-harvest techniques becomes paramount (Oyekanmi, 2007), hence, improved post-harvest techniques are needed to store and preserve tomato to forestall the seemingly global food epidemics. There is clearly a need for developing countries like Nigeria to improve in storage, packaging, transporting and handling techniques for perishable crops (Oyekanmi, 2007).This study will therefore provide basic information on the perception of post-harvest techniques, the effect of post-harvest loss on income, factors influencing post-harvest losses and the constraints to post-harvest loss reduction.

Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the analysis of post-harvest losses among tomato farmers in Barkin-ladi Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Tomato as a Staple Fruit Vegetable

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most universally known, widely grown staple fruit vegetable in the world, and one of the most important supplementary sources of minerals and vitamins in human diet (Nasrin et al., 2008, Babalola et al., 2010). Solanaceae is the most variable of all crop species in terms of agricultural utility and the third economically most important crop family, exceeded only by cereals and legumes and the most valuable vegetable crops (Van der Hoeven et al., 2002). It is an important cash and industrial crop in many parts of the world. The fruit of tomato, classified as a vegetable in trade, is a prominent "protective food" (Adam et al., 2007). Tomatoes and tomato-based foods provide a convenient matrix by which nutrients and other health related food components are supplied to the body. Tomato, for example, forms a very important component of food consumed in Nigeria this is evident in the fact that many Nigerian dishes have tomatoes as a component ingredient (Tambo and Gbernu, 2010; Osei et al., 2014).

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a staple fruit vegetable. Fresh fruits and vegetables are very important sources of vitamins and minerals that are essential for healthy human diet. Tomato has become an important cash and industrial crop in many parts of the world (IAR&T, 1991). In Nigeria alone, annual total area of one million hectares is reportedly used for its cultivation (Anon, 1989; Bodundee, 1993). The use of tomato is about 18 percent of the average daily consumption of vegetables in Nigeria (Olayide et al 1972). Tomato may be eaten fresh or processed into pastes or purees, which are used for cooking in soups or stews and producing fruit drinks. The quality and nutritional value of tomato, is affected by post-harvest handling and storage conditions (Sablani et al., 2006). Tomatoes are usually harvested when the plant is fresh and high in moisture, this high moisture content of vegetable makes their handling, transportation and marketing a special problem particularly in the tropics. In developing countries like Nigeria, storage, packaging, transport and handling techniques are practically non-existent with perishable crops and so. This allows for considerable losses of produce. Thus as more fresh fruits are needed to supply the growing population in developing countries, as more produce is transported to non-producing areas and as more commodities are stored longer to obtain a year round supply, post-harvest loss prevention technology measures become paramount (Oyekanmi, 2007). Post-harvest losses have been highlighted as one of the determinants of the food problem in most developing countries like Nigeria (Ojo, 1991; Babalola et al 2008).

Despite the remarkable progress made in increasing world food production at the global level, approximately half of the population in the third world does not have access to adequate food supplies. There are many reasons for this, one of which is food loss occurring in the post-harvest and marketing systems. Evidence suggests that these losses tend to be highest in countries where the need for food is greatest (FAO, 1989; Oyewole and Oloko, 2006; Babalola et al, 2008). Unfortunately, in many countries experiencing serious food problems, there seems to be no consistent food policy framework which should form the foundation of effective implementation of programmes (Ojo, 199J)-Food supply can be improved either by increase in production or reduction in loss. Since many researches show that great effort is being made in the area of food production especially in the developing countries, the decline in food production therefore can be traced to food losses. Thus, reduction in post-harvest losses increases food availability, hence alleviation of food problems. The effect of post-harvest losses reduces the effect of the efforts put into production and lowers marketing efficiency (Bautista, 1990; Okunmadewa, 1999). It is against this background that this paper examines the determinants of post-harvest losses in tomato production and how it affects the income of tomato farmers in Barkin-Ladi Local Government Area of Plateau State. The post-harvest technology popularly used in the study area includes sorting the fruits to exclude bruised ones. This is done prior to putting the fruits in baskets for temporary storage and controlled drying for long term storage. The cost of this technology is usually substantial. However, the use of post-harvest technology is very minimal in the study area. The various ways included:

1. Making the Tomatoes into Tomato paste, Tomato ketchup and also Tomato juice.
2. They can also be preserved by cutting the Tomato into slices and drying them.
3. They can also be preserved by boiling them after which the shells are peeled off and they are rinsed. After rinsing, they are put in bottles in which there is water and a teaspoon of preservative is added.

Challenges Confronting Tomato Production in Nigeria

Tomato has the tendency of improving the lives of small scale rural farmers in most developing countries of the world. Besides the health benefits derived from tomatoes and tomato-based foods, the crop can serve as a source of income for farmers as a result of its numerous uses. The tomato industry can increase the foreign exports earning of many Nigerian countries thereby contributing to GDP. In Nigeria for instance, the tomato industry has been identified as an area that has the ability for poverty reduction because of its potential for growth and employment creation (Anang et al. 2013) whilst in Nigeria, the production of the crop has improved the livelihood of most rural and peri-urban fanners (Adenuga et al. 2013).

Although tomato can improve the livelihoods of rural farmers, studies have shown that the full potential of the crop has been under exploited because of many challenges. For instance most tomato farming in Nigeria is rain fed (Adenuga el al. 2013) because of the lack of effective irrigation systems. Production therefore takes place in the rainy seasons only. The incidence of pests and diseases, low quality and insufficient quantity of tomato produced among competition from foreign imports (Robinson and Kofavalli 2010) are also some constraints hampering the production of tomatoes in Nigeria. Even though the above are all constraints hampering tomato production in Nigeria, the focus of this paper is the post-harvest related challenges. Post-harvest losses are losses faced by producers, processors, distributors, retailers as well as exporters in handling the produce after it has been harvested until it gets the final consumer.

Determinants of Post-Harvest Losses in Tomato

Estimates of production just in developing countries are hard to evaluate. Postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables in some Nigerian countries have been estimated to reach 50%. Both qualitative and quantitative losses occur in horticultural commodities between harvest and consumption, hence minimizing post-harvest losses of already produced food is more sustainable than increasing production. Post-harvest losses include the rotting of produce and damage during storage, packaging and transportation which leads to consumer rejection. Most losses and wastes occur in the latter part of the food chain through excessive processing, packaging and marketing. Post-harvest loss can be defined as a measurable quantitative and qualitative loss of a given product at any moment along the post-harvest chain. Fruits, vegetables and root crops are much less hardy, quickly perishable except under intensive care during harvesting, handling and transportation. Post-harvest loss is much more painful and costlier than pre harvest loss both in terms of money and man-hours, Due to absence of proper storage and marketing facilities, farmers are forced to sell their produces at throw away prices. Losses are caused by mechanical injuries, inadequate storage, unsuitable handling, faulty system of transport and delayed transportation in the retail market. Post-harvest losses which decrease returns of fruits and vegetables occur mainly because of lack of infrastructure, poor handling and marketing knowhow. The magnitude of losses depends on the nature of the commodities, the condition of the produce at the time of collection, distance travelled and the nature of the road network. The principal causes of losses are Physiological deterioration, Mechanical damage and pathological damage.

The deterioration of the product starts during 3 harvesting operations, because fresh fruits are inherently perishable. The more carefully a product is handled, the slower the deterioration process during subsequent handling operations. The causes of tomato losses included physical damage during handling, and transport, physiological decay, water loss, 01 sometimes simply because there is a surplus or glut in the market and no buyer can be found. In developing countries like Nigeria, storage, packaging, transport and handling techniques are practically non-existent with perishable crops and so, this allows for considerable losses of produce. Thus as more fresh fruits are needed to supply the growing population areas and as more commodities are stored longer to obtain a year round supply, post-harvest loss prevention technology measures become paramount. The losses of quality and freshness of the produce could also be due to improper temperature management, drying of the product, mechanical injury, attacks by bacteria and fungi. These losses can therefore lead to decrease in the returns of the farmers.

Causes of Post-Harvesting Losses in Tomatoes

The causes of post-harvest losses in tomato production can be categorized into two major groups. They are on-farm and off-farm causes.

On-Farm Causes of Post-Harvest Losses

The following are examples of some on-farm causes of post-harvest losses in tomatoes production in Nigeria.

Inappropriate Harvesting Periods

The physiological maturity of the fruit at harvesting stage has a major effect on quality (Beckles, 2012). Care must therefore be taken as to when to harvest the fruit in order to attain the best quality. Post-harvest physiologists describe three stages in the life span of fruits and vegetables: maturation, ripening and senescence. The maturation is indicative of the fruit being ready for harvest (FAO 2008) and there are three maturity states at which tomatoes can be harvested. It can be harvested either in matured green, partially ripened or ripened state. Tomato being a climacteric fruit can be harvested at the matured green state allowing ripening and senescence to occur during the postharvest period of the fruit.

According to Monenizzaman et al., (2009) and Orzolek et al., (2006), farmers targeting distant markets must harvest their tomatoes in a matured green state. This will not only give the producers ample time to prepare the fruit for the market but also prevent mechanical injuries during harvesting. Meanwhile, farmers in most Nigerian countries harvest tomatoes when they are partially or fully ripened. Fully ripened tomatoes are susceptible to injuries during harvesting resulting in shorter shelf life (Toivonen 2007; Watkins 2006; Reid 2002). This may be the reason why there are high level of losses in tomatoes harvested at fully ripened stage in Nigeria.

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Details

Title
Mitigating Tomato post-harvest Losses. Participation Responses to recommended Technology
College
Federal University of Technology, Owerri
Author
Year
2020
Pages
51
Catalog Number
V982805
ISBN (eBook)
9783346356536
ISBN (Book)
9783346356543
Language
English
Tags
mitigating, tomato, losses, participation, responses, technology
Quote paper
Godfrey Onuwa (Author), 2020, Mitigating Tomato post-harvest Losses. Participation Responses to recommended Technology, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/982805

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