Productive and reproductive Performance of indigenous Beef Cattle in Ethiopia


Hausarbeit, 2020

37 Seiten


Leseprobe

Table of Contents

LIST OF TABLES

ABBREVIATIONS / ACRONYMS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

2. LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1. Indigenous Cattle Breeds of Ethiopia
2.2. Reproductive performance of indigenous Ethiopian cattle
2.2.1. Age at first calving (AFC):
2.2.2. Calving interval (CI):
2.2.3. Number of services per-conception (NSPC):
2.2.4. Days open (DO):
2.2.5. Age at first service (AFS)
2.3. Growth performance of indigenous Ethiopian cattle
2.3.1. Birth weight and weights at different ages
2.3.2. Average daily body weight gain (ADG)
2.3.3. Carcass yield performance of indigenous Ethiopian cattle

3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Summary of age at first calving and calving interval (in month) of Ethiopian Indigenous breeds

Table 2 Summary of age at first calving, days open and number of service per conception of Ethiopian Indigenous breeds

Table 3 Birth weight and weight at different age of indigenous breed of Ethiopia

Table 4 Comparison between average body weight gain of boran and kereyu senga breeds with in different ages

Table 5 Literature of carcass characteristics of some Ethiopian beef cattle breeds

Table 6 Carcass yield performance of the two Ethiopian indigenous cattle breed

Table 7 Effects of cattle of age and breed on carcass characteristics.

ABBREVIATIONS / ACRONYMS

Age at first calving AFC

Age at first service AFS

Average daily body weight gain ADG

Birth weight BWT

Calving interval CI

Calving-to-conception interval CCI

Central Statistical Agency CSA

Days open DO

Domestic Animal Diversity Information System DADIS

Domestic Animal Genetic Resources Information System DAGRIS

Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity Conservation EIBC

Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II ESSP II

Food and Agriculture Organization FAO

Gram g

Improving Productivity and Market Success IPMS

Kilo gram Kg

Mature weight MWT

Ministry of Agriculture MOA

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development MoARD

Number of services per-conception NSPC

Slaughtering weight SWT

United States Department of Agriculture USDA

Weaning weight WWT

Yearling weight YWT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The aim of this review is to summarize the Productive and reproductive performance of different indigenous cattle breeds under farmer’s management practices. Ethiopia is the home of large numbers of livestock due to having varied and extensive agro-ecological zones. From the total annual milk produced cattle milk, is the most prominent compared to other livestock species in Ethiopia. And also from the total annual meat produced cattle meat is the most prominent compared to other livestock species in Ethiopia. Numerous finding showed that calving interval, age at first calving, age at first service, number of service per conception and days open are one of the major measures of reproductive performance parameters for beef cattle production. Weight at different ages (including birth weight, weaning weight, 3 month weight, 6 month weight and yearling weight), meat yield, growth rate and carcass yield are one of the major measures of productive performance parameters for beef cattle production. Different report indicated that productive and reproductive performances of our indigenous cattle are very poor due to varied factors; the causes for low performances of beef cattle were genetic and environmental factors like feeding, housing and health care. In Ethiopia most of (98.20%) cattle breeds are local breeds the remaining (1.8%) are hybrid and exotic breeds. Then, the genetic performances of these breeds are poor, even though they have good adaptation in harsh environmental conditions. So, training and awareness creation should be given particularly to the farmers on major management practices like feeding, housing and health care and genetic improvement strategies should planned and practiced.

Keywords: Beef, Ethiopia, Productive performance, Management, Reproductive performance, Calving interval, birth weight, Carcass weight

1. INTRODUCTION

Agricultural sector of Ethiopia accounts for about 42% of the GDP, employs about 85% of the labor force, and contributes around 90% of the total export earnings of the country. The sector is dominated by over 15 million smallholders producing about 95% of the national agricultural production. Hence, the overall economy of the country and the food security of the majority of the population depend on smallholder agriculture (CSA, 2015, 2016). Ethiopia is rich in livestock population that owned 59.5 million cattle, 30.7 million sheep, 30.2 million goats and 59.5 million chickens (CSA, 2016, 2017). Ethiopia is believed to have the largest livestock population in Africa (CSA, 2017). The varied and extensive agro ecological zones and the importance of livestock in livelihood strategies make Ethiopia home to large numbers of livestock. Ethiopia has 59,486,667 cattle (CSA, 2017) and out of this total cattle population, the female cattle constitute about 55.5 percent and the remaining 44.5 percent are male cattle. Eighty-three percent of all milk produced in Ethiopia comes from cattle with the remainder coming from goats and camels (MoARD, 2007). Which is lower than the report of CSA (2011) and CSA (2017) cows contribute to about 95% and 94.6 % of the total annual milk produced compared to other livestock species, respectively.

Despite the largest cattle population in Ethiopia productive and reproductive performances are very poor (Yosefe et al., 2003; Belay et al., 2012 and Melku et al., 2016). Similarly, Niraj et al. (2014b) and Nibret et al. (2014) reported that reproductive performance of indigenous cows was found to be less than the optimum values desirable for profitable milk production in different parts of Ethiopia. According to Belay et al., (2012) the cause for low performances of indigenous cattle might be genetic and environmental factors like feed shortage, low level of management, lack of access to land, disease, lack of proper poor breeding management such as lack of accurate heat detection and timely insemination might have contributed considerably to long days open (postpartum anestrous), late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production.

Major livestock species were imported to enhance livestock productivity of Ethiopia through crossbreeding. Accordingly, the number of breeds of cattle, sheep, goat and chicken imported so far to Ethiopia are 7, 7, 3, and 14, respectively (EIBC, 2012). Cattle are the most important species followed by goats, camels, and sheep in the pastoral livestock production system, and are source of food in the form of milk, meat and blood, and source of other products such as fiber and hides (FAO, 2009). Cattle herds are much larger in the pastoral areas and average about 75 head in Borena, Ethiopia. In the mixed farming areas, herds are much smaller being 5.7 head in East Harerghe, 8.6 in Illubabor and 11.8 in the central highlands (MoARD, 2007). In mixed farming system, cattle provide draught power and manure for cropland fertilization beside to milk production (Agajie et al., 2002), whereas the purpose of keeping cattle in pastoral production system is for breeding and selling, in agro pastoral production system for meat and draught power and in highland mixed crop-livestock production is for draught power and sale of culls (MoARD, 2007).

A more recent report indicated that 98.20% of the total cattle population in Ethiopia are local breeds while hybrid and exotic breeds accounted for about 1.62 and 0.18%, respectively (CSA, 2016/2017). FAO (1993) reported that cow milk constitutes 83.4% of the total milk produced in Ethiopia and CSA (2008/09) also indicated that cattle have the largest contribution (81.2%) of the total national annual milk output. CSA (2014/2015) report on milk utilization indicated that 46.36% of the total annual milk production was used for household consumption, 5.98% was sold, only 0.33% was used for wages in kind and the rest 43.33% was used for other products (could be for the production of butter, Cheese, and others). CSA (2014/15) also reported on beef cattle utilization in that 52.93% of the total annual production was used for household consumption, 33.18% was used sold, 0.71% was paid for wages in kind and 13.18% was used for other products. Indigenous livestock breeds whose adaptive traits permit survival and reproduction under the harsh climatic, nutritional and management conditions typically associated with resource-poor livestock keepers have been shown to outperform crossbreeds under such circumstances (Ayalew et al., 2003). The annual contribution of ruminants to meat production in Ethiopia is estimated at over 3.2 million tones, representing over 72% of the total meat production. Cattle meat accounts for over 70% of the total red meat production and over 50% of the total meat output in Sub-Saharan Africa (EARO, 1999).

The productivity of cattle depends largely on their reproductive performance. Reproduction is an indicator of reproductive efficiency and the rate of genetic progress in both selection and crossbreeding programs particularly in dairy and beef production (Nuraddis, 2011). Currently in Ethiopia there are 409,869 beef cattle and last year 69,830 beef cattle were slaughtered for consumption and export purpose (CSA, 2016). Cattle contribute about 80% of GDP that come from livestock (Tefera, 2011). Cattle in Ethiopia produced about 0.331 million tons of meat annually (CSA, 2008). Average carcass weight of cattle was 108 kg/head (Negassa et al., 2011), while Ethiopians consume about 8 kg of meat per capita annually which is far less than what is consumed in developing countries (Betru and Kawashima, 2009).

Beef consumers desire disease free animal, cuts of beef that are lean, nutritious and possess desirable eating characteristics such as tenderness, juiciness, color, texture and flavor. Several factors affect these carcass characteristics such as breed, age of the animal and feed. Even though, little work has been done concerning carcass and growth evaluation in Ethiopia (Tesfaye et al.1993; Nega et al 2002) that were accomplished by different institutions, which are available related to factors affecting carcass characteristics. There are different cattle populations in the country, however, the national cattle characterization work of each cattle population is not well summarized and the current state of knowledge on all indigenous cattle is not known. Moreover, it is obvious and many times reported that cattle productivity in Ethiopia is extremely low. This low cattle productivity is due to different cattle production challenges. Therefore, it is essential to know cattle challenges and opportunities at national level to be an input in the future research and development works With this number of livestock population Ethiopia stand first in Africa and 10th in the world. However, the production and productivity of this livestock is not commensurate with the number. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the productive and reproductive performances of indigenous beef cattle of Ethiopia.

2. LITRATURE REVIEW

2.1. Indigenous Cattle Breeds of Ethiopia

FAO (2005) reported that cattle contribute 40% of the annual agricultural output and 15% of the total gross domestic product. Ethiopia has 59.5 million heads of cattle (CSA, 2016/2017). Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity Conservation (EIBC) (2004) reported that Sheko, Fogera, Begait and Boran cattle populations were at decreasing trend. According to Rege (1999), two Ethiopian indigenous cattle breeds (Arsi-Sanga and Kuri) are already reported as extinct. DAGRIS (Access date: November 21/2017) report indicated that the current number of indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia are 37. CSA (2016/2017) reported that about 98.2% of the total cattle population was indigenous cattle population, 1.62% of the cattle populations in Ethiopia were crossbred and 0.18% exotic cattle.

2.2. Reproductive performance of indigenous Ethiopian cattle

Reproductive traits describe the animal’s ability to conceive, calve down and suckle the calf to weaning successfully (Davis, 1993); these traits are important since they affect the herd size. Reproductive performance is commonly evaluated by analyzing female reproductive traits (Aynalem et al., 2011) of a combination of many traits (Olawumi and Salako, 2010). Reproduction is an indicator of reproductive efficiency and the rate of genetic progress in both selection and crossbreeding programs particularly in dairy and beef production (Mukassa Mugerewa and Azage, 1991). High reproductive efficiency is necessary for efficient milk production and has an important influence on herd profitability (Pryce et al., 2004). Reproductive efficiency is expressed by the extent of reduction of reproductive wastage and it affects lifetime milk and meat production (Nuraddis, 2011). The main indicators that would be considered in assessing reproductive performance are age at puberty, age at first calving, calving interval, days open and number of services per conception (Yifat, 2009; Habtamu et al., 2010; Aynalem et al., 2011; Demissu et al., 2013).

2.2.1. Age at first calving (AFC):

Age at first calving is the period between birth and first calving and influences both the productive and reproductive life of the female, directly through its effect on her lifetime calf crop and milk production and indirectly through its influence on the cost invested for up-bringing (Gebrekidan et al., 2012). Age at first calving is closely related to the rearing intensity, and in a breeding program has impact on generation interval and response to selection. It is affected by nutrition, year and month of birth (Kelay, 2002). AFC obtained in this review for Horro breeds was between 50 to 58.08±0.07 months. Where as AFC obtained in this review for Boran breed was between 22.6 to 58.8. But, AFC obtained in this review for Fogera breed was between 50.8±0.36 to 63 months. And AFC obtained in this review for Arsi breed was between 32.8 to 55.4±0.7 months. However, AFC obtained in this review for Bagait breed was between 48.68±0.16 to 60 months. But the reviewed result obtained for breed of shorter AFC indicates that the breed can calve at younger age than others. Researchers stated that year of birth had significant effect on the age at first calving. Which means age at first calving increased as year goes (Melaku et al. 2011; Giday, Y. E 2001, Addisu B. 1999). The longer average age at first calving reported for indigenous cattle might be associated with scarcity of feed and shortage of water for the long dry season of the year in the study area. Brief information is summarized in the table below (table 1).

2.2.2. Calving interval (CI):

It is the period between successive parturitions and is a function of postpartum anestrus period (from calving to first estrus), service period (first postpartum estrus to conception) and gestation length (Tewodros, 2008). CI has two components: 1) calving-to-conception interval (CCI) or days open, which is considered to be the most important component determining the length of the calving interval, and 2) gestation length, which is more or less constant, varying slightly due to breed, calf sex, litter size, dam age, year and month of calving, and little can be done to significantly manipulate the gestation length (Mukasa-Mugerwa et al., 1991). The CCI itself is influenced by cow and management/environment-related factors, such as method and efficiency of heat detection, type and efficiency of breeding service and the ability of the cow to resume regular ovarian cyclicity after calving, display an overt heat signs, and conceive with the given service. The gap between two successive calving is called calving interval (Mulugeta and Belayeneh, 2013). Calving interval is an important factor in measuring the breeding efficiency and directly correlates with the economics of milk production. Reproduction in dairy cows with regular and shorter calving interval (365-420 days) is a key feature for the rapid multiplication of the breeding stocks. Estimates of calving interval in zebu cattle range from 12.2 to 26.6 months (Mukassa-Mugrewa, 1989; Gebrekidan et al., 2012). Nutritional conditions that vary seasonally and yearly and parity (Prabhakar and Addisu, 2004) have major effect on calving interval (Hailemariam and Kassa, 1994). The effectiveness of estrus detection and conception rate has a great impact on the calving interval. Calving interval is probably the best indicator of cattle reproductive efficiency. It is fertility traits that can be used in selection programs to minimize the negative effects that selection for production have on fertility (Mostert et al., 2010).

CI obtained in this review for Boran breed was between 11.8 to 20.7 months. Whereas CI obtained in this review for Fogera breed was between 17.5 to 37 months. And also CI obtained in this review for Horro breed was between 12 to 21.08± 0.3 months. But the values obtained in this review for Boran breed was slightly comparable with Horro breed. As I reviewed that the result obtained from Horro and Boran breed was shorter than any of others indigenous breed. This indicated that Horro and Boran breed can calve at short time than others. This is because of that Short CI was reported for cows which calved during the short rainy season than those calved during dry and long rainy season. This could be due to the availability of adequate pasture during this and the coming main rainy season which may enable the cow in good condition during and after calving for re-conception in the following breeding season. On the contrary, cows calved during the main rainy season had the longest CI. This might be because of lack of green pasture and supplementary feed in the coming dry season and due to the incidence of skin disease (Demodex) during main rainy season. Researchers stated that year of birth had significant effect on the calving interval. However, there was no clear trend of effect of year (Melaku et al. 2011; Giday, Y.E 2001, Addisu B. 1999). Cattles having the longer average calving interval might be associated with scarcity of feed and shortage of water for the long dry season of the year in the study area. The longer calving interval in younger cows might be due to higher nutrient requirement for growth in addition to milk production and maintenance thus delays the onset of postpartum heat. Similar effect of parity is reported by other scholars (Rege et al., 1994; Addisu, 1999; Giday, 2001; Ababu, 2002; Getinet et al., 2009). However, others (Agyemang and Nkhonjera, 1990; Haile-Mariam and Mekonnen, 1996) reported non-significant effect of parity on CI. Brief information is summarized in the table below (table 1).

Table 1 Summary of age at first calving and calving interval (in month) of Ethiopian Indigenous breeds

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Calving Interval (CI) and Age at First Calving (AFC) of Ethiopian Indigenous breeds

2.2.3. Number of services per-conception (NSPC):

Number of services per conception, which is defined as the number of services (natural or artificial) required for a successful conception, depends largely on the breeding system used, the reproductive health status of the animal, the management and feeding practices in a farm and the semen quality of AI or natural service bulls (Tewodros, 2008). Values of NSPC greater than 2 should be regarded as poor (Mukassa-Mugrewa, 1989). Number of service per conception is influenced by season; that is related to availability of feed, placenta expulsion time, lactation length and milk yield and parity (Hailemariam and Mekonnen, 1996; Gebeyehu et al., 2005; Gebrekidan et al., 2012).

NSPC obtained in this review for Boran breed was between 1.61 to 1.81 numbers, and that of Fogera was between 1.28±0.6 to 2±0.65 numbers. And that of Horro breed was 1.69 numbers. As I reviewed that the result obtained from Barka breed was shorter NSPC than any of others indigenous breed. This indicated that Barka breed can conceive better than others. The lower result for NSPC might be because of matting was conducted at the field where bulls and cows graze together naturally. Brief information is summarized in the table below (table 2).

2.2.4. Days open (DO):

Days open (also called calving-to-conception interval) is the period between calving and conception in cows (Tewodros, 2008). Days open is influenced by the length of time for the uterus to completely involutes, resumption of normal ovarian cycle, occurrence of silent ovulation, accuracy of heat detection, management, semen quality and skill of inseminator or efficiency of bull (Yosef, 2006; Melaku et al., 2011). Days open affect lifetime production and generation intervals, and hence the annual genetic gain (Yosef, 2006). Getenet and Addisu (2006) and Ayenalem (2006) summarizes the reproductive performances of Fogera and Boran cattle, respectively in Ethiopia that was conducted by different authors in different years sourcing the data both at on-station and on-farm level. The authors summarize the performances of the respective breeds got decline from year to year and this decline, even in the same ranches, may be due to the deterioration of feed quality and invasion by unpalatable weeds of the grazing lands of the production sites; shrinkages of grazing land due to shift in farming system; lower level of selection of the best performing breeds. DO obtain in this review for Boran breed was between 141±7 to 339 days. DO obtain in this review for Fogera breed was between 285±4.3 to 298.4 days. DO obtain in this review for Horro breed was between 152 to 286.8±9 days. Cattles having shorter DO than any of others indigenous breed indicates that breed can have short calving to conception interval than others. Brief information is summarized in the table below (table 2).

2.2.5. Age at first service (AFS)

According to Giday (2001), age at first service (AFS) is the age at which heifers attain body condition and sexual maturity for accepting service for the first time. Age at first service signals the beginning of the heifer’s reproduction and production and influences both the productive and reproductive life of the female through its effect on her life time calf crop. Age at first service is influenced by genotype, nutrition and other environmental factors (Zewdie, 2010). This reported an earlier age at puberty for F1 Friesian crosses than for indigenous zebu breeds. Age at first service was reported to be 42.24±0.05 to 44.8 months for Fogera breeds. In addition, age at first service reported in Ethiopia include about 32.4±1.4 to 53.9 months for Boran cattle and 48.42±0.05 to 55 months for Horro cattle. But the reviewed AFS result obtained for Ogaden breed was shorter than any of other indigenous breed. This indicated that Ogaden breed can have a short time requirement to attain body condition and sexual maturity than others. The desirable age at first calving in local breeds is 3 years. Prolonged age at first calving will have high production in the first lactation but the life time production will be decreased due to less no of calving. If the age at first calving is below optimum, the calves born are weak, difficulty in calving and less milk production in first lactation (Nerja and Kbrom, 2014). Brief information is summarized in the table below (table 2).

Table 2 Summary of age at first calving, days open and number of service per conception of Ethiopian Indigenous breeds

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Age at first service (AFS), Number of Service per Conception (NSPC) and Days Open (DO) of Ethiopian Indigenous breeds

2.3. Growth performance of indigenous Ethiopian cattle

Growth performance is very determinant parameter for beef and dual purpose cattle. It is primarily expressed and described by body weight and growth rate. Body weight changes of cattle are dependent on genetic and environmental factors. One of the major environmental factors that control cattle growth is feed to which the availability itself depends on climatic conditions. High growth rate is a very important parameter for beef enterprises. Mekonnen and Goshu (1996) reported that traits such as birth and weaning weight as well as growth and survival to weaning have important implications on herd productivity, management system, adaptability and breeding policy to be followed. Growth performance of an animal at various stages of the growth curve directly influences profitability in beef production systems (Newman and Coffey 1999). The expression of these traits is dependent on the animal’s inherent growth ability and production environment (Davis 1993). These traits directly influence carcass (Pariacote et al. 1998), reproductive and milk production traits (Burrow 2001). They also form the basis of selection in many of the genetic improvement programs due to their early expression and ease of measurement.

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Details

Titel
Productive and reproductive Performance of indigenous Beef Cattle in Ethiopia
Autor
Jahr
2020
Seiten
37
Katalognummer
V982809
ISBN (eBook)
9783346338259
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
productive, performance, beef, cattle, ethiopia
Arbeit zitieren
Tajudin Denur (Autor), 2020, Productive and reproductive Performance of indigenous Beef Cattle in Ethiopia, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/982809

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