Effectiveness of Concept Mapping in Terms of Understanding Concepts of English Grammar


Academic Paper, 2021

11 Pages


Excerpt

Table of content

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Concept Mapping

3. Method
3.1 Objective
3.2 Sample
3.3 Design
3.4 Tools
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection

4. Results

5. Implications

References

Abstract

In the present experimental study, an attempt was made to study the effectiveness of Concept Mapping Strategy In terms of Understanding Concepts of English Grammar. The Concept mapping is the strategy employed to develop a concept map. It is a graphical tool for organizing and representing knowledge. Concept Maps include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts. Words on the line referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts. The most important characteristic of concept map is that the concepts are represented in a hierarchical fashion with the most inclusive, most general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts arranged hierarchically below. The hierarchical structure for a particular domain of knowledge also depends on the context in which that knowledge is being applied or considered. The concept map may pertain to some situation or event that one is trying to understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map, thus providing the context for the concept map. Another important characteristic of concept map is the inclusion of cross-links. These are relationships or links between concepts in different segments or domains of the concept map. Cross-links help us see how a concept in one domain of knowledge represented on the map is related to a concept in another domain shown on the map. A final feature that may be added to concept map is specific examples of events or objects that help to clarify the meaning of a given concept. Normally these are not included in ovals or boxes, since they are specific events or objects and do not represent concepts. Concept maps tend to be read progressing from the top to downward. For the present study Non-equivalent Control Group Design was employed. Sample of 81 students of class VIII studying in the academic year 2010-11 were selected, using Random sampling technique for teaching selected concepts of English Grammar. The intact groups as existed in the schools were taken for experimentation. One of the groups was taught English grammar Concepts through Concept Mapping Strategy the other group was taught the same concepts using Lecture Method. The treatment continued for 17 days at the rate of 40 minutes per day. Tools used for the data collection were Test of Understanding English Grammar Concept developed by the Investigator and Intelligence test by Imtisungba A.O. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA. The adjusted F- value is 23.62 is significant at 0.01 level with df = 1/80. Concept Mapping Strategy was found to be significantly more effective than Lecture Method in terms of Understanding of English Grammar Concepts when Groups were matched with respect to Pre-Understanding of English Grammar Concepts and Intelligence.

1. Introduction

It is the need of the age that learning must be meaningful, for meaningful learning students must understand the various concepts of the subject. The prevailing teaching practices do not actively involve students in the learning process and seem to deprive them from taking charge of their learning (Francisco, Nicoll, & Trautmann, 1998).[4]. For improving quality of education learners should be active rather than passive. Knowledge that empowers and increases the learner’s self-confidence is that which results from the coming together of individual actions, feelings, and conscious thoughts (Novak, 1998)[12]. Rote memorization disempowers learners and promotes fear of learning. In addition, information learned by rote in the absence of connections with previously acquired frameworks is largely forgotten (Novak,1998)[12]. Concept mapping is a teaching technique that has been used in a variety of educational settings to promote meaningful and integrative learning and can be utilized with students of different learning styles. We find the need of educational programme that proves useful for developing concepts and meaningful learning. Concept Mapping had proven to be an effective learning strategy. Jegede, Alaiyemola and Okebukola (1990) [7] ; Esiobu and Soyibo(1995)[2]; Czerniak & Haney (1998) [1]; Hall, Hall and Saling (1999) [6] ; Nicoll, Francisco and Nakhleh (2001) [10]; Wheeler an collins (2003)[15]; Pranita (2004) [13] ; Mauri and Ahoranta (2004)[9]; Fred Nyabuti Keraro Samuel W. Wachanga and William Orora (2007)[3] developed the Concept Maps and studied its effectiveness in comparison with Lecture Method. Hall and O’Donnell (1996)[5]experimentally reported that the Concept Mapping group showed better recall memory of material presented through Concept Map for both for super and subordinate concepts than material presented in text. Rao (2001)[14] investigated the use of concept mapping as a strategy to enhance meaningful learning and to improve upon the process skills of students in science. Pranita (2004)[13] found that students who were imparted learning experiences through concept maps signal a better performance on their understanding of the concepts of English grammar as compared to the control group. All these researches proved that concept mapping proved to be an effective instructional as well as study tool. While reviewing literature it was also realized that a very few researches have been conducted on Concept Mapping in India. In the present study Concept Maps were used for teaching concepts of English Grammar to the students of class VIII

2. Concept Mapping

The Concept Mapping is the strategy employed to develop Concept Map. It is a graphical tool for organizing and representing knowledge. Concept Maps are diagrams that represent organized knowledge (Novak and Gowin, 1984) [11]. Concept Maps include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and the relationships between concepts are indicated by a connecting line, linking two concepts. Words on the line referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts. Figure1.1 of Concept Map is drawn by Joseph D. Novak in his report “The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct them” showing the key features of Concept Map.

Figure 1.1: Concept Map of Concept Map by J.D.Novak

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3. Method

As it was an experimental study details regarding Sample, Experimental Design ,Tools and Procedure for Data Collection are given in the sepsrate captions.

3.1 Objective

To compare adjusted mean scores of Understanding of English Grammar Concepts of students taught through Concept Mapping Strategy and Lecture Method by considering Pre Understanding of English Grammar Concepts and Intelligence as covariates.

3.2 Sample

All the Students studying in VIII standard, in the session 2010-11 in different Higher Secondary Schools affiliated to the Madhya Pradesh Board, Bhopal, but situated in Indore city constituted the population for the present study. From the population two randomly selected schools were S.G.S. High School and Bright High School. The distribution of sample is given in Table 1 as per the treatment, gender and school.

Table1.1 : Treatment, Gender and School wise distribution of Sample

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The ages of students ranged between 14 to 16years. The medium of instruction in both of these schools were English and belonged to urban area.

3.3 Design

The present study was experimental in nature. It was employed Non-equivalent Control Group Design.

Randomly selected two different schools were assigned randomly the two level of treatment.

3.4 Tools

In the present study the data were collected in respect of Understanding Concept of English Grammar and Intelligence. Test of Understanding English Grammar Concepts was an objective type of test, developed by the investigator, having total one hundred questions grouped in 15 questions. Time required to complete the test was 45 minutes. It was also planned the types of questions in the test did not favour any one methodology. Intelligence was assessed with the help of Non-Verbal Intelligence Test by Imtisungba A.O.

3.5 Procedure for Data Collection

After taking the permission from the head of the selected institutions, rapport was established with the students. One of the groups was randomly assign experimental treatment through Concept Mapping Strategy constituted experimental group and the other group was taught by Lecture method called as control group. To start with Test of Understanding English Grammar Concept, developed by investigator was administrated on both the groups. For the experimentation selected units of English Grammar were Conjunction, Preposition and Adverb. Treatments were started simultaneously in both the groups and continued for one period (40 minutes) each day for 17 days. As experimental group was taught using Concept Maps Investigator had prepared Concept Maps of all the selected concepts of Grammar. Concept Map of Preposition developed by Investigator is given in fighure1.1.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure1.1: Concept Map of Preposition developed by Investigator

While explaining that particular concept of Grammar, its concept maps were also prepared and explained. Although experimenter had prepared Concept maps of all the selected units of Grammar, but while teaching in the class these concept Maps were prepared with the help of students. Concept mapping Strategy became as an integral part of classroom instructions. Students were asked to prepare the Concept Maps in the classroom in the review stage and even in home-work. Immediate feedback was also provided. Concept Map prepared by the students are given in figure1.2 and figure1.3

Figure1.2: Concept Map of Preposition Figure1.3: Concept Map of Conjunction

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

In this way the selected concepts were taught in the classroom. While in the second group was taught through Lecture method. During the process of experimentation Intelligence were also assessed with the help of Non-Verbal Intelligence Test by Imtisungba A.O. [7] in both the groups. Before giving the treatment, Test of Understanding English Grammar Concept was administered; at the end of the treatment the same Test of Understanding English Grammar Concept was administered.

[...]

Excerpt out of 11 pages

Details

Title
Effectiveness of Concept Mapping in Terms of Understanding Concepts of English Grammar
Author
Year
2021
Pages
11
Catalog Number
V983509
ISBN (eBook)
9783346340535
Language
English
Tags
ENGLISH GRAMMAR, MEANINGFUL LEARNING, CONCEPT MPPING, TECHNOLOGY
Quote paper
Dr. Kiran Dammani (Author), 2021, Effectiveness of Concept Mapping in Terms of Understanding Concepts of English Grammar, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/983509

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