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Report about the political situation in Northern Ireland and its historical reasons!
Historical information about the conflict:
Henry II of England in 1171/72started the first confrontation which set the roots for the conflict which is still alive today.
After finishing the rose war Henry VII started to give the legislative power to the English king and give him the power to fill important Irish offices.
1536 Henry VIII's attempt to impose the Reformation on the Irish remains unsuccessful because of the strong resistance of the Irish Folk.
1541 Henry declared himself as king of Ireland and gave Irish land as fees to the crown of England.
As a result of this London supported a massive immigration of protestant settlers from Scotland and England towards Ireland.
For the Irish Folk Catholicism became an religious and anti-British confession especially after putting down a catholic revolt by Oliver Cromwell , just during that massacre of Drogheda thousands of Irish lost their live.
A new period of suppression of the Catholicism , dispossession some of them were forced to leave their homes and settle elsewhere.
In 1800 the Irish Parliament was dissolved . 100 members could take a seat in Westminster all of them were protestants , of course. In the "Act of Union" Ireland officially become part of the "United Kingdom and Ireland"1 year later
1829 new riots broke out and the British government established new laws which allowed the
Irish more emancipation but this wasn't enough the Irish demanded more autonomy also called (Home Rule) until 1869 all of them had to give 10 per cent of their assets to the Anglican church although the farmers and the whole population had to suffer great hunger because of the failure of the potato crops which led to mass emigration towards USA or GB. 1858 feniers movement these were nationalists which founded a secret revolutionary society with the aim of founding a independent state, but degenerated into a terrorist group. 1914 the British Parliament indeed passes a new law but it was immediately suspended because of the 1st World War and rather because the Ulster Protestant didn't agree that they were ruled by the Catholic Government in Dublin. Referring to that action militant catholic started the Easter Revolt in Dublin which was brutally strike down by British military forces. 1919 Ireland voted the freedom-fighter Eamon De Valera as President of a still not existing Irish Republic -Eire.
After a time of bloody partisan wars the" Government of Ireland Act" 6 of 9 Ulster Provinces to a part of the British Kingdom with its own Government in Belfast. Ireland on its side didn't agree with a similar state and split from Great Britain and declared itself as a Dominion of the Commonwealth and its Independence (Irish Free State")at 11th December 1922. The separation of Northern Ireland created the Irish a long term of political problems which ended 1922/23 in a civil war. The contrast between the leadership GB about Northern Ireland and the unbroken idea of an united Ireland one the Irish side provoked a mercantile conflict. Compensation was obtained by a new constitution in 1937 which also guaranteed the independence of Eire.
1949 proclamation of the Irish Republic resignation (?) of the commonwealth and new tensions between Ulster and until the beginning of consultation policy in 1965 1969 new escalations and organised violence (the civil rights movement). Civil Rights Movement
Began in the late 60's with peaceful demonstrations in Ulster and demanded equal opportunities for Catholics and the end of discrimination and sectarianism .But it failed The IRA getting more influence in the population and riots broke out . The answer was : British troupes were sent to restore the peace. Bombs exploded in Ulster, Britain, and killing became a part of everyday life.
The British answer was to send a massive military troops to Ulster expended IRA terror and economical decline . Since its entrance into the EC in 1973 Ireland developed from an agricultural state to a modern industrial state in the 90's . Moreover the "Anglo-Irish Treaty" from November 1985 ,the tensed situation seemed to find and end and the possibility of and arrangement . First armistice declarations of north Irish underground organisations in1994made a dialog possible and started new Talks in GB.
At Good Friday 1998 the three pools : Northern Ireland, Ireland and Great Britain agreed to a treaty which declare the end of the Northern Ireland conflict.
So Ireland practically waived on reunion with Northern Ireland.
But the efforts of Tony Blair at Good Friday in1998 failed because of the unwillingness of the pools Also the disarmament of the protestant and catholic terror organisations until may 2000 failed. New terror attacks by IRA since autumn 1999 didn't came out. But new wars between different Protestant terror organisations dazzle NI since some weeks ago.
On the on hand the conflict is religious, national and cultural but on the other hand it has also been an economical ,between the agricultural Ireland and the high subsidised Ulster.
Official Unionist Party(OUP)and Democratic Unionist Party(DUP), conservative , opposing Home Rule and supporting Union with GB
Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Ulster Defence Association (UDA) paramilitary groups.
Catholic : Sinn Fein (ourselves alone) radical left wing supports the IRA and its armed struggle for a united Ireland.
SDLP (social democratic and labour Party) moderate; further the aims of the Civil Rights Movement aim a united Ireland by consent.
First part of the IRA ( Irish Republican Army) The 2 aims of the IRA
1st : Liberation of the northern provinces (Northern Ireland) ,which have been occupied by
British imperialistic troops .Those , called Orangemen, celebrate this invasion up to now and march every year through their boroughs and the catholic ones substantiated on Nationalism and eagerness of suppression . But what `s the reason for ?, why do they march around ? It's just because their grand-grand-grand-grand-grand-grand-grand-grand-grand-grand-grand- grand father has possibly been their as he and his British friends killed Irish children , women and resistance fighter in a bloodshed , to satisfy their urge of expansion first at all with island right next to them. And that's all they are proud of. Friedrich Engels once said that Ireland could be seen as the first colony of GB.
2nd :They want to introduce a socialistic society .Since its existence the IRA tries to solve this problem, but in the last years this target went in the background because the IRA tries to concentrate its forces on the first point (named above ) and if they `re going to reach it they `re going ahead 2nd point.
Under the reign of the Conservatives the Catholics in Northern Ireland have been persecutes in a brutal way .Since a riots happened in 69 and British army was sent to N.I..There have been set up laws which neither dealt with the Freedom of Speech nor other constitutional rights. The British troops were allowed to arrest Catholics as they pleased , they were allowed to torture the inmates and they were allowed to keep them as long in prison as they felt it's necessary.
A majority of the British people supported this conservative ideas . We have to remember that Britain lost nearby all its colonies all around the world some years ago , in which they could kill the native inhabitants who have been sweated by the British Imperialists , if they were protesting against the brutal power and plundered their nature and resources done. Loosing the influence on Ireland would be the hardest defeat the former Empire ever had. In the eyes of most British citizen this was degradation . But I wonder what those citizen personally use had of the occupation of Northern Ireland .the Answer is . Nothing it just cost them additional taxes to finance their Nationalism . That money went in the pocket of the armament conglomerates who weren't interested if they reach their profit with bloody money. And on the other side the armament conglomerates suppressed with the money the forces in Britain , who wanted to find a peaceful solution in the northern Ireland conflict . Tony Blair's attempts in this conflict had to fail because the lobby of capitalistic parasites was /is stronger then the wish of the sweated and suppressed Irish folk and the lower middle class on the British side , which had to pay more and more fees , and consequently had a falling live standard .
Anhang IRA Attentate:
Possible solutions for the conflict
1. full integration into United Kingdom
2. state of Northern Ireland
3. a united Ireland
no one of the suggestions is a suitable for peace. Any solutions are rejected by the groups involved.
Only step by step policy may bring a solution Like:
- no economic discrimination in Ulster more
- to end school segregation-introduce an integrated school system
- religion and politics should be clearly separated -to introduce a pluralistic society
- Protestants and Catholics must become aware that they'll have to work together in policy
also to avoid violence. A feeling of tolerance is necessary ,and nationalism and terrorism must be banned.
I've also red a book written by jean O'Casey . It is in the middle of the 19th century and a little protestant boy grows up in Dublin his father and wise worthy man died in his early childhood , this boy is disabled because of illness of his eyes and the family is getting poorer and poorer to be able to pay the fees for the cure. His protestant friend make either fun about him because of his illness or his poverty. In the opinion of the reverent the boy shouldn't stay home and play all day long ,it would be better for him to go to school . What was forbidden by the doctor who meant it would be to much stress for the disabled child to watch for many hours to the blackboard in that way his eyes could never be cured. But his mother was persuaded by the reverent to go to school. There he gets in contact with an authoritarian teacher who hits him for his foolishness, or his disability and one day it was enough for Johnny and he hits the teacher injured .
But this book tells a lot of the conflict there between Catholics and Protestants , tells about politicians like Parnell and gives information about Home Rule .I can really recommend this book.
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- Norman Wechselberger (Autor), 2000, The conflict in northern ireland, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/98394