The Role of Modern Technology in Tackling Gender Gap at Work Place. The Case of Gazer Referral Hospital, South Omo Zone, Ethiopia


Term Paper, 2020

16 Pages, Grade: A


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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Section One: Introduction
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1. General Objective
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
1.4. Significance of the Study
1.5. Delimitation of the Study

Section Two: Review of Literature
2.1. Basic Concepts and Empirical Studies
2.2. Theoretical Frameworks

Section Three: Research Methodology
3.1. Description of Study Area
3.2. Study Design
3.3. Methods of Data Collection and Instruments
3.4. Method of Data Analysis

Section Four: Result and Discussion
4.1. The Role of Modern Technology in Enhancing Women’s in Their Activities
4.2. The Role of Modern Technology in Professional Development of Women’s

Section Five: Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion
5.2. Recommendation

Reference

Annex One:

Abstract

The gender gap is not a new issue, for decades women have been underrepresented in the top roles across almost every industry. However, modern technology has a fundamental role in closing the gap. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the role of modern technology in advancing women’s at work place the case of Gazer referral hospital, Debub Aari woreda, South Omo zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. To conduct this study, qualitative cross-sectional design was employed. The sources of data were primary sources through telephone interview and secondary sources include information from (Newspaper reports, books and previous researches). The study finding disclosed that, modern t echnology plays a great role in building gender equality at workplace. It simplifies the daily activities of women’s, it reduces social barriers and modern technological tools are also very important in professional development of women’s. However, women’s are still underrepresented in accessing modern technology. To this end, the study recommend that, supporting and giving opportunity for women to use and access the modern technological products is very important to close the gender gap.

Key Words: Women’s, Gender gap, Modern technology, Work place, Gazer hospital

Section One: Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study

Modern technology is the advancement of the old technology with new additions and modifications (Swalih, 2017. In the past few decades, numerous innovations including ever-shrinking computers, mobile phones, and alternative energies have been introduced in homes and workplaces, changing the way we live, how we work, and what we’re able to do. Modern technology is a marvelous thing it can increase accuracy and efficiency, perform tedious and redundant tasks, improve the decision-making process, and in general, make life and work a lot easier (Williams, 2019).

Nowadays, modern technology is used everywhere in the world, and is an integral part of people’s lives. Especially, in our time smart phones and mobile internet facilitate key functions of daily life. Its accessibility is differs from one continent to another, as well as from rural to urban areas. People who live in developed countries have better access to technology than people living in developing countries (Beliak, 2013).

Similarly, modern technology can plays a great role in gender equality. Mainly in advancing women, it is powerful tool for women and girls to facilitate their work, to engage in democracy, civic action and peace building, as well as to fight for their basic rights and gender equality (Robertson and Ayazi, 2019). Furthermore, according to Solomon (2017) modern technology plays a great role in reducing the burden of women, especially in developing countries such as Ethiopia. He also mentioned that Ethiopian society is deeply rooted in patriarchal structures but modern technology have great contribution in closing the gap by helping Ethiopian women in changing their ways of life and maximizing their productivity.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

The gender gap is not a new issue, for decades women have been underrepresented in the top roles across almost every industry. The technology sector attracts a lot of criticism for its lack of representation of women (Attwood, 2018. Women are underrepresented in accessing technology across the world. This issue of women’s underrepresentation in the workforce originates well before they reach the technology sector. However, technology itself plays a great role in closing the gap (Graham, et al, 2016).

A lot of studies were conducted in Ethiopia on the issue of gender however these all studies paid a little attention to investigate the role of technology in advancing women at work place in detail. That is not to say there is never studies conducted on this issue in at all, there are some studies were conducted in Ethiopia for instance, Solomon (2017) entitled “Women’s perception on technology in relation to enhancing their productivity: The case of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR)”. His result shows that, 73.2% of his study participants have been using modern technology in their day-to-day life and over half of the women were using modern technology that increased their income from agriculture. However, he is focusing only on perception of women towards technology and household agricultural productivity. Hence, little is known about the role of modern technology in tackling gender gap at work place like hospitals. Therefore, this study focused on the following objectives.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

1.3.1. General Objective

The general objective of this study is to investigate the role of modern technology in advancing women’s at work place the case of Gazer referral hospital.

1.3.2. Specific Objectives

- To investigate the role of modern technology in enhancing women’s in their activities at work place.
- To describe the role of modern technology in professional development of woman’s.

1.4. Significance of the Study

First, this study will contribute basic information about the role of modern technology in advancing women at work place for the study participants and for general readers. Next, this study will also serve as a way in and be helpful in initiate new researchers for further studies.

1.5. Delimitation of the Study

To attain the set research objectives, this study was delimited in the area of the study, study participants, and the problem (subject) of the study. Problem wise, while there are various issues related to gender but this study will delimited in investigating the role of modern technology in advancing women’s in their profession and activities at work place the case of Gazer referral hospital, Debub Aari woreda, South Omo zone, SNNPR , Ethiopia.

Section Two: Review of Literature

2.1. Basic Concepts and Empirical Studies

Technology can be defined as an object such as tools, machines, electronic devices, which does something that works or helps (Waseda University, 2010). Modern technology is the advancement of the old technology with new additions and modifications. Any machine or device we see around us is the product of the modern technology. For example, it is impossible for the people in this decade to live with a wired telephone placed on the table. So, the mobile phone which can be taken with us anywhere is the perfect example of the technology advancement or simply, the modern technology (Swalih, 2017). Gender can be defined as a set of characteristics, roles, and behavior patterns that distinguish women from men socially and culturally and relations of power between them (Women Information Centre, 2005). Gender gap is the difference between women and means reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes (Harris, 2017).

Studies show that, modern technology plays a great role in reducing the burden of women’s. For instance, according to Gill Kim (2010) modern technology has the potential to boost the economic advancement of the women’s and it stimulates broader economic growth. A study conducted by (Robertson, 2019) shows that, modern technology can be powerful tools for women and girls to engage in democracy, civic action and peace building, as well as to fight for their basic rights and gender equality. He also argued that, adapting the new programming system in digital literacy for women and girls is key to ensuring the participation of women’s in public spheres. Furthermore, Solomon (2017) stated that modern technology have power to increase women’s productivity and improve their health. He explained that, if women accessing technology similar with men, it improves not only their own wellbeing, but also the overall life of their families. One more study Williams (2019) said that women’s share information on digital media can open more opportunities for economic and professional growth like access to online banking while simultaneously reducing gender inequality. He also shows that modern technology advances women’s skills to their careers in more scientific way through new technological networks.

2.2. Theoretical Frameworks

The following paragraphs are concerned on some of the most influential feminist approaches on gender, women and technology.

In the liberal tradition, women and men are regarded as being equal. Technology itself is taken as a given and not seen as value-laden, but it is understood as conventionally dominated by men, so one of the issues is the “male control of neutral technologies” (Wajcman, 2009) which makes women suffer from unjust discrimination. A key objective is thus the creation of equal opportunities for women. In order to help them to get out of their disadvantaged situation the liberal concept proposes economic, social and knowledge support, e.g. in the context of education or gender discrimination at work (Maass et al. 2007).

In contrast to the liberal approach which deems technology itself as neutral and looks at the political dimensions, both radical and socialist feminism have analyzed the gendered nature of technical expertise and put the spotlight on the artifacts themselves. Women and men are seen as fundamentally different either because of biological reasons or by socialization and women as having been systematically dominated and controlled by men. The problem is not only men’s monopoly of technology, but also the fact that gender has become embedded in technology itself. Western technological culture and artifacts are regarded as “deeply implicated in this masculine project of the domination and control of women and nature” (Wajcman, 2009).

On other hand, the cyberfeminist motion explores the ways in which new technologies and the Internet may liberate (or oppress) women by means of opening up new routes for reconstructing feminist politics, creating better job opportunities and outlets for creativity (Kailo 2006; Rosser 2006). Haraway acknowledges the great power of science and technology, specifically the new digital technologies, to create new meanings and entities – “a new feminist ‘imaginary’ different from the ‘material reality’ of the existing technological order” (Wajcman 2009).

Section Three: Research Methodology

3.1. Description of Study Area

Debub Aari Wored is a district categorized under South Omo Zone, in SNNPRS. It is nearest to the capital of the zone, Jinka located at 750km from Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. Capital of the Debub Aari Woreda is Gazer, is 17 km away from Jinka. The district has a total of 18 Kebeles. Gazer referral hospital is the biggest hospital in the woreda. It was purposively selected for this study.

3.2. Study Design

To investigate the role of technology in advancing women at work place the investigator used qualitative cross-sectional design. A cross-sectional design entails a collection of data at a single point in time (Bryman 2004).The reason why this study is cross-sectional is that the study was a single time description.

3.3. Methods of Data Collection and Instruments

The following instruments were used in this study.

A. Telephone Interview

Interviewing is a great way to learn about attitudes and values, and it is a great way to find out what people think they do (Bernard, 2011). Accordingly, this study employed telephone interview in structured way by using a set of predetermined questions. It helped the researcher easily to conduct the study without personal contact with the participants due to COVID 19. These data were collected as first hand data as primary sources. The researcher obtained the participants telephone number with help of his friend who working in the hospital. For further (See: annex I). The issue of ethical consideration was taken in account in conducting the study.

B. Documentary Analysis

According to Yeraswork (2010) documentary research is the systematic use of printed or written materials for investigation. Thus, this study used information from (Newspaper reports, books) and findings produced by previous writers in relation to its objectives from internet as secondary sources of data.

3.4. Method of Data Analysis

Analysis is the search for patterns in data and for ideas that help explain why those patterns are there in the first place (Bernard, 2011). Accordingly, the data was collected through telephone interview and documented data were summarized and analyzed through thematic analysis by arranging systematically and thematically in a proper manner.

Section Four: Result and Discussion

Under this section, the major findings of the study were presented and discussed based on the specific objectives stated under the first section of the paper.

4.1. The Role of Modern Technology in Enhancing Women’s in Their Activities

Here emphasis is given to the role of modern technology in enhancing women’s in their activities at workplace. The researcher asked the interviewees about this issue, most of the study participants mentioned that modern technology plays a vital role in helping woman’s in their tasks at workplace. 25-year-old woman, nurse, who participated in the interview explained as follows:

For me modern technology has very great importance for women’s. Traditionally there are societal misconceptions around women and career ability. Men’s are taken as intelligent in every activity by considering women’s as unskillful and inferior. However, today there is a change through modern technological advancement. For instance, in the hospital, every activities starting from cleaning up to curative are done based on the product of modern technology. In this all activities women’s can equally participate through help of modern technological tools. That means not to say they are equally represented, but it shows the power of women to carry all activities equal with men…because traditionally we woman’s are considered as weak.

The above quotation clearly indicates that modern technological products are very important for advancing women’s. Women’s accessing to technology can reduce social barriers and it creates favorable conditions for their work. Additionally, the above quotation is also related to the concept of socialist feminist’s, women and men are seen as different based biological reasons or by socialization and women as having been systematically dominated and controlled by men.

Another interview participate said that:

To tell the truth, still now there is burden on women particularly at home, but modern technologies like ATM and online banking system, computers, smart phones and mobile internet are simplify our daily life, it reduce our burdens. For instance, I have a child, before I go to my work place I prepare breakfast and lunch with modern electronics in very easier way. That helps me to come to my work on time and it gives me extra time to fulfill my personal issues. To add one, regarding internet, we have a telegram group page we share our idea and feeling freely with the men regardless of location or time. And we address every unclear issue for us especially health related issues by searching on Google … subsequently it increases our confidence in our career.

In general, the above two quotations indicates that, modern technology such as computers, smart phones and mobile internet simplifies the daily life women’s and it reduces their burdens by enhancing their activities. However, women’s are still underrepresented in accessing modern technology. Study conducted by Bidshahri (2018) similarly shows that women are underrepresented in using technological products, particularly on higher positions and networking events but digital platforms play a great role in solving this problem and the online platform create an opportunities for women’s to discuss their different issues equally with men.

4.2. The Role of Modern Technology in Professional Development of Women’s

Regarding the role of modern technology in professional development of women’s, 27-year-old woman, health officer, stated as follow:

For me modern technological tools play a great role in creating equality between women and men at work place, like in hospital. It makes me equally to participate in every tasks based on my profession and I am so successful with my work by using modern technology. Modern technology helps me to learn about health related issues in more scientific way, particularly about curative and health care. To me accessing technological skills can play a great role in advancing woman’s profession and it makes them more competitive in the job market.

Additionally, another participate in the interview said that:

There are a common thinking’s like [women are primary caregiver for their children; mothers have not significant ability to take care of her responsibilities at workplace]. These negative perceptions can sometimes hinder for women’s from being able to compete in their workplace previously. However, nowadays modern technological tools in some extent reduce these negative perceptions. A modern technological tool opens the door for us to ask about our rights based on our profession without afraid.

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) (2010) stated that accessing modern technologies by women’s can increase women’s efficiency in carrying out their work and other tasks. Accessing science and technology empowers women’s in all aspects of their lives and eliminating their barriers in their workplace. Similarly, based on the above two narrations, it can be understand that, modern technological tools are very important in empowering women’s in professional development. It helps them to learn about health related issues in more scientific way and it opens the door for women’s to ask about their rights based on their profession.

Section Five: Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

As presented on the first section of the paper the primary objective of this study was to investigate the role of modern technology in enhancing women’s in their activities and in professional development at work place. The finding of the study indicates that, modern technology can be powerful tool for women’s in building gender equality at workplace. It simplifies the daily life women’s and their activities, it eliminates their barriers at workplace and modern technological tools are very important in professional development of women’s. Though, women’s are still underrepresented in accessing modern technology.

5.2. Recommendation

So far the researcher have analyzed and briefly explained the finding of the study, therefore at this section the researcher tried to recommend some important points based the major findings of the study. The findings of the study indicate that, women’s are still underrepresented in accessing modern technology at workplace. Hence, for better achievement in gender equality the researcher recommended the following points for responsible bodies:

- Supporting women’s to use and access the modern technological products.
- Attention should be paid to communities that hinder women’s to use modern technological products.
- Giving opportunity for women and girls in leadership roles in designing and shaping technology, especially to advance women’s rights.
- Working on the issue of gender mainstreaming and offering newly technological tools for women’s as gift.

Reference

Attwood, C. (2018). How technology can help solve the gender gap in IT. Retrieved August 19, 2020. Available at: (https://www.personneltoday.com/hr/technology-can-help-solve-gender-gap/).

Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 5th ed. AltaMira Press, United Kingdom.

Bidshahri, R. (2018). How Technology Is Helping Close the Gender Gap and Empower Women. CEO of Academy, 18,273.

Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods. Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gill Kim,K. Janna McDougall, B.& Patel K. (2010). Bridging the gender divide: How technology can advance women economically. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), Washington, D.C.

Graham, H., Fuertes, V., Egdell, V. & Raeside, R. (2016). Women in Digital Technology Tackling the Technology Gender Gap Together: Scotland.

Harris ,B. (2017). What is the gender gap (and why is it getting wider)? Retrieved August 16, 2020. Available at: (https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/11/the-gender-gap-actually-got-worse-in-2017/).

Kailo, K. (2006). Cyber/Ecofeminism. In: Trauth, E. M. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology. Hershey PA: Idea Group Publishing. 172-177.

Maass, S., Rommes, E., Schirmer, C., & Zorn, I. (2007). Gender Research and IT Construction: Concepts for a Challenging Partnership. In: Zorn, I./Maass, S./Rommes E./Schirmer, C./Schelhowe, H. (Eds.): Gender Designs IT – Construction and Deconstruction of Information Society Technology. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. 9-32.

Robertson, D. & Ayazi, M. (2019). How Women Are Using Technology to Advance Gender Equality and Peace. Retrieved August 18, 2020. Available at: (https://www.usip.org/publications/2019/07/how-women-are-using-technology-advance-gender-equality-and-peace).

Rosser, S. V. (2006). Using the Lenses of Feminist Theories to Focus on Women and Technology. In: Fox, M. F./Johnson, D. G./Rosser, S. V. (Eds.): Women, Gender and Technology. Chicago IL: University of Illinois Press. 13-46.

Solomon, W. (2017). Women’s perception on technology in relation to enhancing their productivity: The case of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. Vol.9 (11), pp. 157-165, 10.5897/IJSA2016.0726, A1F864B66512, ISSN 2006- 988x : http://www.academicjournals.org/IJSA.

Swalih, M. (2017). Modern Technology Definition and Everything you Need to Know. Retrieved August 18, 2020. Available at: (https://www.techquintal.com/modern-technology/).

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), part of UN Women. (2010). Gender, science and technology Report of the expert group meeting. Paris, France.

Wajcman, J. (2009). Feminist Theories of Technology. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34(1), 143-152.

Waseda University. (2010). SILS, Science, Technology and Society (LE202).

Williams, T. (2019). How Technology Is Helping To Advance Gender Equality.Careermenu-Homepageworkplace12 Min Read.

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Yeraswork, A. (2010). Social Research Methods. Addis Ababa University: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Annex One: Interview Guide Line

Hawassa University

College of Social Science and Humanities

Department of Sociology

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Dear interviewer/s! The aim of this interview is to collect data for the study entitled The Role of Modern Technology in Tackling Gender Gap at Work Place: The Case of Gazer Referral Hospital, South Omo Zone , Ethiopia . That the information you will raise is strictly confidential and serve for academic purpose only.

1. What do you think about the role of modern technology in enhancing women’s in their activities at work place?
2. What do you think about the role of modern technology in professional development of woman’s?
3. In general how do you explain the role of modern technology in tackling gender gap? Thank you for your cooperation!!

Notes taken during telephone interview

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

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Details

Title
The Role of Modern Technology in Tackling Gender Gap at Work Place. The Case of Gazer Referral Hospital, South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
College
Wollo University
Grade
A
Author
Year
2020
Pages
16
Catalog Number
V986954
Language
English
Tags
role, modern, technology, tackling, gender, work, place, case, gazer, referral, hospital, south, zone, ethiopia
Quote paper
Tomas Tsegaye (Author), 2020, The Role of Modern Technology in Tackling Gender Gap at Work Place. The Case of Gazer Referral Hospital, South Omo Zone, Ethiopia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/986954

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