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Autorin: Carolina Schmidt
India is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and together with Pakistan and Bangladesh it builds the subcontinent of India. India is the seventh - largest country in the world and after China it is the second most populous. Its area is about 3,287,263 square kilometres. The capital is New Delhi and the largest city is Bombay with 9,9 Million people. In India they speak Hindi and English. The currency is the Indian rupee. One rupee are 100 paise.
Except the regions in the mountains India has a tropical climate.
From June until November is a rainy season, the season of the south-western monsoon. During this season the rainfall can be very heavy.
From the beginning of December until the end of February is the cool season with extremely dry weather.
The hot season is from the middle of March until it gets its climax in Mai. Temperatures can be as high as 50 degrees.
In India are 83% of the population Hindus, 12% are Muslims, 2% Christians and 2% Sikhs.
India has about 16% of the worlds population. In India live 913 Million people. And 73% live in rural areas. Most of the people in India are poor. About one third of the population lives on or below the UN poverty line. Lots of them go hungry. Less than 3% of the Indian households have an income of more than US$ 2,500 a year.
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
56 % of the land is used by agriculture, more than 3 thirds of the Indian population depends on it., but the most areas are too small to feed a family.
Rice is the main product and it is the main food of the Indian population.
India is one of the main producers of sugar cane, tea, cotton, coffee, millet, maize, barley, bananas, mangoes, rubber and peanuts.
The stockbreeding is also important. They have buffaloes, horses and donkeys.. Especially they are used to carry loads. India has 72 Millions buffaloes, 1,4 Millions camels, 52 Millions sheep and 105 Millions goats.
23% of the Indian area is wooded. The woods are used for the production of firewood, charcoal and for the harvest of important fruits, for example nuts, oil, rubber and resin.
Though the fishing isn't developed well, it is important for the population. In the last years the government had demanded the develop of the fishing. They built Fishfactories. But now in some regions overfishing is a big problem.
About 77% of the electricity is produced by coal or oil. 21% is generated by hydroelectric power stations and 2% is produced in nuclear power stations.
India had tried to change the old caste system after the independence, but not all prejudices could be overcome, especially the social differences. Gandhi was a person trying to take away all these prejudices.
In the last years India changed into a consumer culture and the family and the traditions are not so important than the material wealth. That way the meaning of the caste system has gone away.
The ancient India had already a good education system, because India send students to other parts of Asia to teach.
1911 Gopal Krishna Gokhale introduced a bill in parliament, that said the primary education was free.
Since the beginning of the independence from Britain in 1947, India tried to develop an own comprehensive school system. But the education of India's population is not easy, because of the religious and social problems. The money, which was for the help to develop the education, was used to fight against the poverty, food shortages and overpopulation. The rest of the caste system, bad training posts and religious differences, supported the deterioration of the education system. But still they could change some rights and the number of schools and pupils has risen since independence.
The primary education is free, but it is not duty.
India has 164 universities, 11 institutions of national importance, 38 institutions with university status and more than 8,600 technical, arts and science colleges.
The Republic of India is independent from Britain since the 15. August 1947 The Constitution was build in 26. January 1950
The Right to vote is a public right to vote at the age of 18.
In India were many pressures. They had border disputes with Bangladesh and China. Also a conflict with Pakistan about the status with Kashmir and a conflict about the water right to use with Bangladesh because of the river Ganges and with Pakistan because of the Indus.
The Gross Domestic Product is US$ 222262 Millions
The partners of India are the USA, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Belgian, Saudi-Arabian and the GUS-States
Acquisition Structure of the Republic of India is 56% in agriculture, 16% in Services, 13% in Industry and 15% in Other sectors
The Chief Economic Products in agriculture are cotton, tea, rice, spices, coffee, jute In fishing the Economic Products are Sardines, shrimps, croaks, mackerel In mining they are Iron ore, coal, zinc, diamonds and in manufacturing the products are machinery and transport equipment, fabrics, chemicals, iron and steel and food products.
Main Import of India is with mineral oil, pearls and precious stones, iron and steel
The main Export of the Republic of India is with textiles and clothes, machines, chemicals, leather, tee and spices
The Republic of India is divided into 25 federal states and 7 Union territories.
The members of the Union parliament and of the Land parliament vote for the head of state. The Prime Minister is at the head of the government.
The Parliament consist of the "Head of State" with 245 delegates, who can be voted for 6 years and the "Head of Nation" with 542 delegates, who can be voted for 5 years.
Population Characteristics: rural = ländlich
sugar cane = Zuckerrohr millet = Hirs e
maize = Mais barley = Gerste
stockbreeding = Viehzucht donkey = Esel
loads = Lasten goats = Ziegen
charcoal = Holzkohle resin = Harz
to demand = fordern
hydroelectric power station = Wasserkraftwerk
caste = Kastensystem
food shortages = Lebensmittelknappheit training posts = Ausbildungsplätze
deterioration = Verschlechterung
duty = Pflicht
Constitution = Verfassung
Border dispute = Grenzkonflikt
Gross Domestic Produkt = Bruttoinlandsprodukt Acquisition structure = Erwerbsstruktur precious stones = Edelsteine
spices = Gewürze
Population: 913 Million ( 97 % Indus and 3% Mongols, Chinese, Europeans ) Big cities: Bombay 9,93 Million
Delhi 7,21 Million
Calcutta 4,4 Million
Land Area: 3,287,263 square kilometres Language: Hindi and English
Religions: 82% Hinduism
Gross Domestic Product: US$ 222,262 Million
Partners: USA, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Belgian, Saudi-Arabian and GUS-States
Acquisition Structure: 56% Agriculture
15% Other sectors
Chief Economic Products: Agriculture = Cotton, tea, rice, spices, coffee,jute
Fishing = Sardines, shrimps, croaks, mackerel
Mining = Iron ore, coal, zinc, diamonds
Manufacturing = Machinery and transport equipment, fabricts, chemicals, iron and steel and food products.
Main Import: mineral oil, pearls and precious stones, iron and steel
Main Export: Textiles and clothes, machines, chemicals, leather, tee and spices Politics
Independence: 15. August 1947 (from Britain) Constitution: 26. January 1950
Right to vote : public right to vote since the age of 18
Pressures: border disputes with Bangladesh and China; Conflict with Pakistan about the status with Kashmir; Conflict about the water right to use with Bangladesh because of the river Ganges and with Pakistan because of the Indus.
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- Carolina Schmidt (Autor), 2000, India. A short overview over climate, culture and economy, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/99058