Active learning application in physical education classes. Case of Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School at Jama Woreda, Ethiopia


Masterarbeit, 2019

78 Seiten


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Acknowledgments

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES IN THE APPENDIX

ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Scope of the Study
1.4. Significance of the Study
1.5. Objectives of the Study

2. RELATED OF LITRATUER REVIEW
2.1. Physical Education
2.2. Learning Approaches
2.3. Active Learning Approach
2.4. Advantages of Active Learning
2.5. Some Active Learning Methods for Teaching Physical Education
2.6. Some Methods of Teaching Practical Classes of Physical Education
2.7. The Role of Teachers, Students and Principal in Active Learning Methods
2.8. Factors Affecting the Application of Active Learning
2.9. Instructional Materials
2.10. Instructional Materials for Physical Education Practical Classes
2.11. Need of Modern Methods in Physical Education

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1. Description of the Study Area
3.2. Source of Data
3.3. Research Design
3.4. Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5. Data Collection Tools
3.6. Pilot study
3.7. Methods of Data Analysis
3.8. Ethical Consideration

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Background of the respondents
4.2 Data Collected Through Questionnaires
4.3 Data Obtained from Classroom Observation
4.4 An Analysis of Interview with School Directors

5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusions
5.3 Recommendations

6. REFERENCE

7. APPENDICES
APPENDIX-A
APPENDIX-B
APPENDIX-C
APPENDIX-D

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

The author Yared Abebe was born on September 1991 GC in Dessie, Amhara Regional State. He attended his elementary education KidameGebeya General elementary school and his higher education follows in Hote and MemhirAkalewold secondary and Preparatory school respectively. After completing preparatory school education, he joined Dire-Dawa University and graduated with Bachelor of Sport Science in 2012 GC. After certified with bachelor of science degree in sport science, he was employed by teaching profession from 2012 GC up to now and he has five years experience in teaching Physical education subject in Jama woreda, Degollo general secondary and preparatory school and then joined the school of Post Graduate Program Directorate at Haramaya University in 2015GC as summer student to pursue his M.Ed program in Teaching Physical Education.

Acknowledgments

Above all, I would like to thank almighty God, the most gracious and the most merciful, for the guidance, compassion, and mercy which He has bestowed upon me throughout my entire life and in particular while working on this thesis.

I am very much indebted to my lovely thesis promoter, Dr. Desta Enyew and Dr. Abinet Ayalew, for those unreserved guidance and counsel started from the very beginning to the completion of the study. I have sincere appreciation for those support, critical and constructive comments and tolerance. I also would like to thank all teachers of Haramaya university sport academy lecturers specially Dr. WogeneWaltenigus and Dr. ShimelsMekonen. I am very proud by all physical education teachers of Degollo general secondary and preparatory school. They give me their precious time to permit classroom observation and complete questionnaires for the study. I would also like to express my sincere appreciation to all students participate in this study and school directors who contributed to the completion of this study.

My genuine pleasure is also extended to Ministry of Education (MOE) and Haramaya University for giving me this opportunity to pursue my education and providing me with the required financial support for the thesis research work.

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ALM Active Learning Method

ASHF Association for the Study of Higher Education

CSA Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia

EHEE Ethiopian Higher Education Entrance

ICDR Institute of Curriculum Development and Research

KSA Knowledge Skill and Attitude

MoE Ministry of Education

MVPA Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity

PE Physical Education

LIST OF TABLES

1. Total population of the study

2. Characteristics of the respondent

3. Opinion of the students with classroom condition and facilities

4. Responsibilities that expected from students

5. Active learning method

6. Method of teaching the teachers frequently employing

7. Role of physical education teachers

8. Material availability

9. Number of students in one class

10. Availability of play ground or sport materials

11. Teaching methods teachers use

12. Teachers activities in the classroom

13. Students activities during lesson time

LIST OF TABLES IN THE APPENDIX

1. Physical education teachers teaching methods

2. Physical education teachers activities and role

3. Teachers believe towards availability of instructional materials

4. Factors affecting implementation of active learning

5. Class room condition and suitability of play ground

6. Items related to teaching methods teachers use

7. Items related with teachers activities in the classroom

8. Items related with students activities during lesson time

Active Learning Application in Physical Education Classes in Case of Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School at Jama Woreda, South Wollo Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to investigate active learning application in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school. The sample consisted of 338 students from 2217students, 4 PE teachers and 3 school directors. This study was used stratified random sampling technique based on sex and grade level by applying Slovin’s formula. PE teachers and school directors were selected on the bases of availability sampling. The research methodology employed in the study was a descriptive survey. Questionnaires interview and observation were the major data gathering instruments used in the study and also pilot study was employed to measure the validity and reliability of the questionnaires made by the investigator. The researcher was employed SPSS version-20 for analyzing the data collected by questioners. The results of the study revealed that the magnitude of active learning application methods during physical education was found to be low. Based on the finding the following conclusion were made PE teachers frequently employ lecture method, instructional materials and facilities were inadequate, passiveness of students, lack of recently revised/updated physical education students’ text books, shortage of physical education text book, shortage of class time table and large class size. Finally based on the finding of the study the following recommendation are forwarded PE teachers should use different instructional methods and techniques which more tends to active learning like cooperative, think pair share, demonstration, cross over group etc ,school administrators set a PE classes suitable with the air condition PE teachers tried to make some instructional material like batten, javelin.

Key Words; Active learning, Student-centered teaching, Teacher-centered teaching, Instructional material

1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problems, and scope of the study, significance of the study and objectives of the study (general objective and specific objectives).

1.1. Background of the Study

In Ethiopia the current education system provides ten years general education, consisting of eight year primary education(divided in to two cycle: grade one to four of basic education and grades five to eight of general primary education) and two years of general secondary education (grade nine and ten). The education system also offers preparatory education (grades eleven and twelve) that prepares students for university and a system of vocational and technical education parallel to preparatory education. Students who passed the Ethiopian Higher Education Entrance (EHEE) may enroll at a university (MoE, 2001)

Today, in developing countries like Ethiopia, education is considered as a means of development and eradicating poverty. The needs of society should be reflected in the educational objectives of a particular country. In line with this, the Ethiopian Education and Training Policy formulated the following general objectives (MoE, 2002):

To develop the physical and mental potential and the problem-solving capacity of individuals by expanding education in particular and by providing basic education for all; To educate citizens who can take care of and utilize resources wisely, who are trained in various skills by raising the private and social benefits of education; To educate citizens who respect human rights, stand for the well-being of people, as well as for equality, justice and peace, endowed with a democratic culture and discipline; To cultivate the cognitive, creative, productive and appreciative potential of citizens by appropriately relating education to environmental and societal needs.

The realization of the above listed educational objectives of the country requires effective teaching and learning, to facilitate effective and useful learning, a methodology that concentrates on active learning, an approach that gives opportunities for active involvement and participation of students is needed. Silberman (1998:1) emphasizes the need for active learning by the following statements:

What I hear I forget.

What I hear and see, I remember a little.

What I hear, see, discuss and do, I understand.

What I teach to another, I master.

Active learning is about learning through doing, performing and taking action. The action can be either mental or physical and it usually contrasts with a conventional teacher centered method. It involves students’ active participation in course material through carefully constructed activities. Active involvement of students in teaching-learning processes in the classroom and outside the classroom enables them to develop critical thinking skills. (Nardos 2000:24) explains that active learning is likely to be enjoyed, offers opportunity for progress, and thereby fosters positive students’ attitudes towards the subjects. One should think of active learning first and foremost in terms of students being intellectually active. By intellectually active is meant that teachers do not simply expect students to memorize and regurgitate facts. Teachers should expect students to use information critically and analytically. Besides this, students in an active learning approach have relative freedom and control over the organization of learning activities. Usually these activities involve problem solving, inquiry and investigational work (Nardos, 2000:87). In other words, active learning happens when students are given the opportunity to engage in an interactive relationship with the subject matter of a course when they are encouraged to generate knowledge rather than simply to receive knowledge.

As already indicated, one of the goals of the Ethiopian Education Policy is "to develop the physical and mental potential and problem-solving skills of individuals by expanding education for all” (MoE, 2002:42). These potential and skills are partly to be developed through educating students in mathematics.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

The paradigm shift from a teacher-center to active learning/student-center approaches has been widely advocated throughout the world. Numerous research studies have shown that active learning-based teaching methods are more effective than the lecture method, in improving student academic performance (Cook & Hazelwood, 2002:297; Saville et.al, 2005:50; Starke, 2007:15). Thus various research findings consistently have shown that the traditional lecture, demonstration and question and answer methods, that is, the teacher-centered approaches dominate in schools (Sternberg, 2003:325-329). Some research studies were conducted on the implementation of active learning approaches in Ethiopia.

The teachers in our schools predominantly use conventional types of teaching methods that are very familiar to them, perhaps even the ones that they themselves experienced when they were students at schools. More researchers support this idea. For instance, (Silberman 1998) indicated that teachers use only a small number of methods, typically teacher talk, question and answer and text book assignments. Ambaye (1999) extended this argument by saying that all available evidences indicate that among many teachers in Ethiopia, the critical determination of effective teaching; namely knowledge of the subject matter, pedagogical skills and motivation are activity lacking. There are some factors that initiated the researcher to motivate to investigate on the active learning application. First, the studies which have done by other researchers with another place or the existing research knowledge in theory initiated the researcher to examine the active learning application in Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School. Second, the Ministry of Education introduced those new instructional methods (i.e. active learning) to be implemented at all levels of education from primary to higher education institutions. But there is a great gap between the idea of policy and its application (theory and application). However, the teachers of physical education which might face them difficulties on the application of active learning approach. So, this study was attempted to survey the application of active learning methods, in specific reference to Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School that found in South Wollo zone in Amhara regional state, Ethiopia.

Due to those and other reasons, the investigator interested with the intention of answering the following research questions.

1. How is the implementation of active learning in physical education classes in Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School South Wollo, Amhara, Ethiopia?
2. What are the major challenges in implementing active learning approaches in this school?
3. What support, conditions and material are provided for the implementation of active learning approaches?

1.3. Scope of the Study

The study was focused on examining active learning application in physical education classes in Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School South Wollo zone, Amhara, Ethiopia. To setup the study in manageable manner and also it is impossible also to addressing four secondary schools and it is impossible to cover all the population under the descriptive survey due to lack of time, money, transportations.

1.4. Significance of the Study

The aims of the study is to explore the nature of the teaching– learning process in line with the active learning or student-center approaches and was identify the major challenges/factors that hinder the implementation of this approaches in physical education class. The results of this study also provide information on the problems that are currently experienced in the teaching of physical education at Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School.

Furthermore the investigator believes that this study has the following significance:

- The study may help teachers to improve their methods of teaching.
- It may help students to understand issues related to active learning approaches which impact on their performance.
- It shows the level of practicality of activate learning application in Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School.
- It indicates the importance of active learning methods for both teacher and students
- The study serves as a stepping-stone for further and more extensive research in the area of active learning/student-centered approaches by identifying areas that need further research.

1.5. Objectives of the Study

1.5.1. General Objective

The general objective of this study were to examine the level of active learning application in physical education classes in Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School, Jama Woreda, South Wollo zone, Amhara regional state.

1.5.2. Specific Objectives

The specific objective of the study is:

- To identify the implementation system of active learning in physical education classes.
- To identify the major challenges in implementing active learning approaches in this school.
- To examine to what extent active learning approaches is supported by school administrative.

2. RELATED OF LITRATUER REVIEW

Review related literature is basic frame work of the study order to create linked from the past findings that serve as ladder for the present investigation. Different theories, scholar articles component of the chapter brief review of the major topic will be described. These are physical education, learning approach, meaning of active leaning (student center) approach, benefits of active learning method and some active learning method.

2.1. Physical Education

Physical Education is that aspect of the general education program that contributes primarily through movement experience in the total physical growth and mental development of each student (MoE, 2009.p-25). Physical Education is defined as education of, and through movement. It has, as its medium, physical activities. It deals with the body in action, and one of its major aims is the development of better motor control of this instrument for more effective function. Physical Education provides students with principles of human well-being. The concept of human well-being is broader than the concept of good health and relates to developing a total life-style that promotes well-being (MoE, 2009.p-25). The programs are designed to:

- Contribute to the development of cardio-respiratory endurance through participation in vigorous physical activities
- Promote muscular growth through movements that offer graded resistance
- Develop hand-eye and foot-eye coordination rhythm, body mobility, speed, agility, strength and good body mechanics through activities, games and contests, to the end that each student may achieve a high degree of motor control
- Develop high standards of fair play, self-discipline, leadership, team spirit and other traits essential to good civic behavior and good citizenship
- Develop an opportunity for social adjustments and the development of emotional control and balance
- Provide opportunities for each student to learn healthful recreational activities, which can be used for life time.

At the second cycle of secondary education, Physical Education focuses on promoting physical development and the achievement of personal physical fitness goals, developing competency in a wide variety of physical skills, which allow students to function effectively in physical activities and establishing an understanding of movement and the pertinent principles governing motor-skills performance. The contents of the subject should enable the students to (MoE, 2009.p-26):

- Know how to maintain a satisfactory level of fitness
- Possess the adequate skills needed to perform a wide variety of adult recreational activities.
- Understand the meaning of movement and serves to introduce, with principle, theories, basic concepts and skills
- Lay firm foundations for further studies at the tertiary level.

2.2. Learning Approaches

A learning approach is a method, or a way of dealing with learning material to facilitate understanding (Felder & Brent, 2001:69-74). The way that students approach learning or conceptualize their own learning goals has been the topic of extensive research over the past two decades, and has contributed substantially to our understanding of teaching and learning in school settings. Most researchers distinguish between “deep” and “surface” approaches, also known as a “meaning orientation” as contrasted with a “reproducing orientation”. Learning approaches are thought to be more malleable than learning styles. There is evidence that the design of learning experiences often encourages a move to more surface learning, largely because of the nature of most assessment tasks (examinations and tests).

2.3. Active Learning Approach

The development of methods of teaching has been traced back to ancient Greece in various literatures. The most long-lived and widespread set teaching methods are those associated with the study of language and literature, Singh, 1986 (In ICDR, 1999). Ancient educational methods emphasized memorization and analogical reasoning, a form of reasoning in which one thing is inferred to be similar to another thing in certain respect, on the bases of the known similarity between the things in other respects.

Active learning is "a method of learning in which students are actively or experientially involved in the learning process and where there are different levels of active learning, depending on student involvement. By its appearance on the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) report. In this report they discuss a variety of methodologies for promoting "active learning". They cite literature that indicates that to learn, students must do more than just listen: They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. It relates to the three learning domains referred to as knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA), and that this taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as "the goals of the learning process" (Stark 2007). In particular, students must engage in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Active learning engages students in two aspects – doing things and thinking about the things they are doing.

Active learning "derives from two basic assumptions: (a) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (b) that different people learn in different ways" (Benek-Rivera & Mathews, 2004:104-106). Research has demonstrated that students learn more if they are actively engaged with the material they are studying.

- Students are involved in more than just listening and taking notes, they participate in a variety of class activities, and often interact with one another (in discussing, reading, presenting and sharing their writing);
- Students are involved in higher-order thinking skills (including analysis, synthesis, and evaluation);
- Students reflect on their learning and their learning processes;
- Greater emphasis is placed on students’ exploration of their own attitudes and values; and
- Less emphasis is placed on transmitting information but more on developing students’ skills.

Regarding students’ learning Starke (2007:4) says that:

Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class and listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, and relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.

They use their brains studying ideas, solving problems, and apply what they learn. Active learning is fast paced, fun, supportive and personally engaging to learn something well, it helps to hear it, see it, ask questions about it, and discuss with others. Above all, students need to do it figure things out by themselves, come up with examples, try out skills, and do assignments that depend on the knowledge they already have or must acquire

2.4. Advantages of Active Learning

2.4.1. The value of active learning to the students

The most important value of active learning is that it increases students' retention and comprehension of the course material. Tasks to be executed should be made explicit. Active learning utilizes the students' data and knowledge base. Students have an opportunity to provide personal insights and interpretation. Furthermore, it positively affects the attitude of students toward self and peers in the physical education learning process. Active learning develops social experiences between students and between teacher and students. It can build community within the classroom.

2.4.2. The value of active learning to the teachers

Active learning concentrates on the physical education teaching function. It helps the teacher select objectives at the correct level of difficulty to meet the students' needs. The teacher encourages the students to be responsible for their own physical education learning. Active learning also gives the teachers time to perform the helping instructor functions of coach, listener and advocate.

The following are other key advantages of the active learning approaches, which are summarized by different authors (Duffy & Kirkley, 2004:21-42; Kane, 2004:275-286; Kim, 2005:10-18):-

Active teaching and learning approaches may, amongst other things, allow for or encourage:

- High level of participation: Students usually find such activities energizing and are likely to engage more with the subject matter as a result.
- Use of prior experience or knowledge: All students have previous experiences and knowledge of some kind and active strategies offer them the opportunity to make informal connections with things they have already learned.
- Adoption of new perspectives and positions: The opportunity to discuss topics with others and to listen to or address other points of view (as in small group work or role play, for example) may often lead to the revision of existing perspectives and to enhanced learning opportunities.
- Peer support and Peer learning: Collaborative activities (such as group work or simulations) provide students with opportunities to learn from and support each other in ways that are not facilitated by more formal, teacher-centered approaches.
- Critical reflection on action and experience: By sharing knowledge and experiences, by being encouraged to take a different perspective on a particular topic (e.g. in a debate) students may learn to reflect critically on the things they do and say.
- Development of generic communicative skills: Active learning affords many opportunities for students to develop interpersonal and communicative skills; as well as being important in any search for employment.

2.5. Some Active Learning Methods for Teaching Physical Education

2.5.1. Cooperative learning

Cooperative learning is one aspect of active learning in which students interact with one another while they learn and apply course material during physical education class. Cooperative learning is at the heart of problem-based learning. It is related to collaborative learning, which emphasizes the "natural learning" that occurs as a result of the interaction in the community in which students work together in unstructured groups and create their own learning situation (Lea et al., 2003:321-334). Cooperative learning is also a physical education teaching technique that brings students together to learn in small, heterogeneous groups. In these groups, students work interdependently without constant and direct supervision from the teacher. Assignments are structured so that everyone contributes. It is well documented that students retain more knowledge when actively engaged in the learning process and cooperative learning is often cited as an extremely effective learning and teaching method (Felder & Brent, 2001:24-25). Cooperative learning is more than students working together in teams. According to Vaughan (2002:362-364) the five essential elements of cooperative learning are:

- Clear positive interdependence between students,
- Face to face interaction,
- Individual accountability,
- Emphasis on interpersonal and small group skill, and
- Processes in place for group review to improve effectiveness.

In view of the above, cooperative learning of physical education is a structured process in which team members work towards accomplishing a common goal, stressing positive interdependence, individual accountability and group accountability. Positive interdependence is a state in which all members must cooperate to accomplish the goal. It can be as simple and informal as pairs working together in a think-pair-share procedure, where students consider a question individually, discuss their ideas with another student to form a consensus answer and then share their results with the entire class, to the more formally structured process known as cooperative learning (Slavin et al., 2003: 177-198).

2.5.2. Think pair-share

Think-pair-share is a collaborative learning strategy that was developed for school classrooms. When using this approach a teacher poses a question during a lecture, asks students to think about the topic individually for a minute, and then has them discuss their conclusions in pairs. Usage of think-pair-share results in increased participation and improved retention of information as well as higher levels of learner confidence. Students working together are engaged in the learning process instead of passively listening to the teacher presenting the reading information. Pairs of students working together to improve skill performance represent the most effective form of interaction, followed by threesomes and larger groups (Baines et al., 2007:672). The interaction is continuous and both students are engaged during the session. In comparison, during instruction students may or may not be involved by listening to the teacher or by taking notes (Weimer, 2002:26).

2.5.3. Conducting field trips

One of the most common devices used for extending the classroom in to the community is field trip (Clark and Starr, 1991). Field trip, sometimes called excursion, is visit to some location other than the normal classroom for educational purposes. It’s a method for building environmental awareness and interest and enables students to gain firsthand experience with materials and phenomena in their true natural relationship. As a teacher develops a greater realization of the importance of first hand observation and direct experiencing in the teaching learning process, the excursion assumes a leading role in the curriculum of the child.

2.5.4. Jigsaw group

Divide a topic in to four or five, depending on the number of groups in the class. Give each group a different part to work on, example in geography, set each group the task of researching information about different factors of a country, for example climate, economy, natural resources, population growth. Each group to present their information in turn, there by building a picture of the country from the component parts (Addis Ketema Sub-City educational department, 2005 cited in Beshir, 2012).

2.5.5. Goldfish bowl or fishbowl

Ask for a small group of people to sit in the middle of a large circle comprising the rest of the group. Give the inner circle a task to do that involves discussion, problem solving, or discussion making, with the group around the outside acting as observer. Decide of substitution process to allow someone from the inner circle to replace someone from the outer circle, if both agree (Addis Ketama Sub city educational departments, 2005 cited in Beshir, 2012).

2.5.6. Cross-over group

After a group discussion, ask one or two people from each group to exchange places with people from another groups. They could rotate clockwise around the room if there a lot of groups. Then get them to share the discussions of the previous group with the new group (Addis Ketama Sub city educational departments, 2005 cited in Beshir, 2012).

2.5.7. Questions and answers

This method is an effective way to hold attention and keep pertinent topics foremost in the students mind. It can be valuable in conjunction with other methods. In asking students to think up on questions we encourage them to think more deeply and to explore major themes comparison of views presented, applications and other higher order thinking skills (Daughtrey and Lewis, 1979).

2.5.8. Group discussion

Is an activity for the entire class, or students may place in small groups to examine the assigned topics. To be effective, it’s important that every person in the group has a role to play. The teacher should encourage the timed student to participate and not allow the talkative, extroverted student to dominate the discussions (Daughtrey and Lewis, 1979).

2.5.9. Role playing

It is a method of acting out an imaginary but real-life situation. Here students are asked to “act out” a part. In doing so, they get a better idea of the concepts theories being discussed. Role playing exercise can range from the simple to the complex one. Role playing is all unrehearsed dramatization. Players try to act out what they would do and how they would feel in a certain situation (Clark and Starr, 1986)it is particularly useful for motivating and developing learners feeling and attitudes. It is possible to use role playing: a. to clarity attitudes and concepts, b. to demonstrate attitudes and concepts, c. to deepen understanding of social situations, d. To practice leadership and other social skills and so on.

2.5.10. Demonstrations

This technique may be used by the students or the teacher. It must be well planned, and the necessary equipment and materials must be ready at the designated demonstration site. Demonstration also provides a type of usual inceptive that may enhance retention (Daughtrey and Lewis, 1979).

2.6. Some Methods of Teaching Practical Classes of Physical Education

The application of effective teaching of practical classes of physical education resulted in the characteristics sequences of explaining a skill, demonstrating a skill, practicing a skill, analyzing and correcting a skill, and evaluating the result of the skill performance. An analysis of current literature indicates that the changes of effective teaching are concentrated primarily up on methodology. The increasingly popular trends in the school program include individualized, prescribed instruction, role playing, programmed learning, diagnostic teaching, problem solving, independent study, teaching for specific behavioral objectives, self-check, discovery style to name only a few (Daughtrey and Lewis, 1979).

2.7. The Role of Teachers, Students and Principal in Active Learning Methods

2.7.1. The role of teachers in active learning approach

The implementation of effective teaching strategies is one of the basic criteria to be an effective teacher. If teachers are on the position to help students to learn, they must be able to select and use teaching strategies that produce learning. The common element in any form of active learning approach is that teaching is removed from teacher’s role of standing at the front of classroom and presenting the material. Rather the students are placed in to the position of teaching themselves and the instructor is converted in to coach and a helper in this process. The teacher also is required to act as a guide, a role that interpolates mediation, modeling and coaching.

According to (Aggerawal 1996) the role of teacher in student- centered education may be sum up as follows:

- Motivating children (learners).
- Developing trust and confidence in children (learners) capacity to learn.
- Becoming as a resource for creating meaningful learning experiences.
- Accepting the individual and the group.
- Recognizing and reinforcing the individual contribution.
- Becoming sensitive to the child’s needs and interesting in a way that would provide a sense of feeling and security.

2.7.2. The role of students in active learning approach

In the new approach to modern education, often called active learning, students not only receive information from lectures and books, they also collect information, record it systematically, discuss it, compare it, analyze it, draw conclusions from it and communicate about it (ICDR, 1999). Bernet et.al. (1995) one important students role of is that explorer interaction with the physical world and with other people allows student to discover concepts and apply skills. Students then encouraged reflect up on their discoveries which are essential for the student as a cognitive apprentice. Apprenticeship takes place when students observe and apply the thinking process used by practice. It is true that student must do more than just listening to teacher and note taking. They must read, write, discuss or to be engaged in solving problems. Most importantly to be activity involved, students must engage in such higher order thinking tasking tasks as analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Dirribsa 2005).

2.7.3. The role of principal in applying active learning methods of teaching

Principal can be considered as prominent figure in the school system as he/she is the one who is assigned to lead all activities that go on in the school environment. It is a common experience that the school principals are responsible for both academic and administrative affairs in the school. Sgazzin and Graan (1998) argued that so as to apply (implement) active learning the management of the school, head department and others need to understand that, active learning is the building black of long life learning. The school as a whole should do everything possible to facilitate active learning. This may involve allocating funds for additional equipment, ordering books in sets to allow use by a small group.

2.8. Factors Affecting the Application of Active Learning

There are some factors that can facilitates or hinder the application of active learning. Those are Human related factors and Non-human related factors.

2.8.1. Human related factors

2.8.1.1. The Training of Teachers

Teachers must know much more about subject matter, method of teaching, the learners and his/her growth (ICDR, 1999). A number of educators have confirmed that instructional strategies contribute a lot to promote effective learning. Nevertheless, their effectiveness depends largely upon the role and quality of the teachers who play a pivotal role in the teaching learning process.

Concerning this idea Mutassa and Wills (1995) have explained that instructional methods by themselves cannot do much to improve learning and thus, their value lies on the professional skill of the teacher in using handling them. In addition, Kakkar (1995) stressed that teacher is increasingly becoming the focus of interest because of the key role he/she plays in the delivery of quality education to the learner.

However, Ambaye (1999) noted that teachers in our current training institutes predominantly use conventional types of teaching methods, that they are familiar to them perhaps even the ones that they themselves experiences when they were students at schools. Several researches support this idea. For instance, Marshal (1990) as cited in ICDR (1999) indicated that teachers use only a small numbers of methods, typically teachers talk, question and answer and text book assignments. Ambaye extended his argument by saying all available evidences indicates that among many teachers in Ethiopia, the critical determination of effective teaching namely, knowledge of subject matter, pedagogical skills and motivation are actively lacking, although teachers are in the front line of education reform programmes. Another scholar, Kakkar (1995) stated that the changing roles of the teachers and dynamics in education necessitate that the teachers must grow in profession and practice teaching through in-service education programs. Generally speaking, as mentioned by Oslen (1976) teachers are expected to be knowledgeable, skillful and effective professional to teach the learners effectively.

2.8.1.2. Teachers attitudes

Attitudes are also one factor that can facilitate or hinder the application of any educational program in general and active learning in particular. According to Lue (2000) the teacher’s attitude towards active learning largely depends on the epistemology they adhere. This is to mean that teachers who strongly support positivist epistemology assume that knowledge exists separate from the learners. Selection and training provides qualified personnel to do each job. But to get the job the individual mist also want work. What the immediate superior or towards their fellow workers, and towards other aspects of the job. Low moral can make a brilliant person to well- high- incredible feats there may be many factors that contribute to low participation and negative attitude of teachers on the active learning in classroom. Few of them as Temechegn Endgida (2002); indicated as follows:

1. in adequate teacher training
2. Teachers’ fear of losing their authority /control
3. Teachers’ resistance to change

Therefore, teachers cannot be effective in their teaching unless and otherwise they have positive attitude to the subjects and approaches of teaching and even to his/ her learners. Negative attitudes may harm to the whole process of teaching, such as: The selection of content, methods, planning activities, mechanisms of evolutions and so on.

2.8.1.3. Students Knowledge and Attitudes

The goal of any educational program is to produce knowledgeable students, to develop moral of student and more over to make students high achievement in their academicals out come. The new instructional model, active learning intends to produce active and motivated learners who can cope with the demands of the modern world. It provides pupils with greater personal satisfaction, more interaction with peers, promotion of shared activity and team work, greater opportunities to work with range of pupils, and for all members of the class to contribute and respond (Capel et.al. 1995).

In the traditional methods of teaching called “teacher- centered” teachers use very limited methods of teaching like, lecture, demonstration and explanation methods. In teacher- centered method, students are passive learner because during teacher lecture the lesson, the students are simple hearing and taking notes and the nature of this teaching method does not invite students as they actively participate and interact due to its limited to some method. In teacher- centered methods he/she is a teacher who use more time in classroom by lecturing. Therefore, it is the role of teacher making teaching effective, developing good attitude in his/her students by using different strategies of teaching, by treating all students equally, encouraging and by participating and involving learners into learning. Then they will have positive attitude and they will be successful in their learning.

2.8.2. Non- human related factors

Like human factors, non-human factors are equally important variable that can wither facilitate or hinder the effective application of active learning.

2.8.2.1. The Physical Environment and Classroom Conditions

Silberman (1996) point out the physical environment in classroom can make or break active learning of course, no one set up or class arrangement is ideal; rather there are many options. The same author has suggested ten different types of classroom lay outs, which facilitate active learning approaches. These lay out include; U-shape, team style, conference table, circle, group on group, work station, break out grouping, chevron arrangement traditional classroom, and auditorium. Moreover, Sguazzin and Graan (1998) have explained that in active learning communication is very important. The acts of the learner are doing learning and it may necessary for them to move around the classroom and even go outside to do part of an activity. This has two important implications for the classroom arrangement:

1. The arrangement of desks, tables should allow movement and communication.
2. The arrangement should be changed whenever necessary so that it is appropriate for the learning experiences that you have planned.

2.8.2.2. Class size

Class size refers to the number of pupils regularly scheduled to meet in the administrative and instructional unit, known as class or section, usually under the direct guidance of single teacher (Monere, 1956). The class size has its own impact in facilitating or influencing activities of teaching and learning.

The idea of class size is becoming a concern and an essential point of discussion among scholars because it assumed as the class size increase, students face any (or all) of the following problem as Gibbs cited in Barnet et.al (1995).

- Lack of clarity of purpose
- Lack of knowledge about progress
- Lack of advice on improvement
- In ability to support independent study
- Lack of opportunity to discussion
- In ability to motivate students.

Another author Smith (1996) has also mentioned the following disadvantage that come as the result of large class.

- Individualization of instruction is limited
- Instruction to be lecture without group participation
- Oral communication with in the classroom from pupil to pupil to teachers is minimized.

2.8.2.3. Class size for physical education practical classes

Large classes put students at greater risk of injury as well as reducing learning and teacher feedback. Large class sizes inhibit the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for each student. It is recommended that at least 50% of every physical education class should be spent in MVPA. Large classes demand more time for organizational activities thereby reducing the time for physical activity (Darst & Pangrazi, 2006; Hastie & Saunder, 1991). Large physical education classes contribute to a decrease in student learning, a decrease in acquisition of motor skills.

Large class size leads to discipline problems, less involvement of students in different activities and little or no support to individual students. In general, the number of students in a class can be a factor either to facilitate or to hinder the effective application of active learning. In fact for the effective application of active learning it is more supportive and applicable if the number of students’ small (few) in a class.

2.9. Instructional Materials

Instructional material is also one of the factors that either facilitate or influence the application of active learning. Instruction materials are all those materials that the teachers and students utilize in classroom and out of classroom, like text books, supplementary books, balls, playgrounds, gymnasiums and so on. Therefore, the availability or shortage of this material can affect the application of active learning. Mayer (2005) classifies instructional materials into three categories (1) visual aids, (2) audio aids and (3) audio-visual aids. These materials are meant to enable learners to use more than one sense. Instructional materials enable to minimize the traditional centered method of teaching, which is dominated by the talk and chalk.

2.10. Instructional Materials for Physical Education Practical Classes

Physical education can be affected by number of factors in secondary school. Among them is the availability of instructional materials (sport equipment). Different research findings reveal that instructional materials are very crucial in facilitating effective learning.

Moreover, instructional materials are critical ingredient in learning and the intended curriculum cannot be easily implemented without them. They provide information, organization the scope and sequence of information presented, and provide opportunities for students to use what they have learned (Lockheed 1991). It is difficult to teach high quality of physical education in school without real physical education facilities. If the presents of appropriate facilities and equipment so that teachers can help students to achieve the full range of benefits within the subject matter such as physical education (Siedentop, 2001).

Playground: is the cradle of democracy as games and sports are essential constituents of the total education. Every school should essentially have a due provision for the play grounds needed for all types of physical activities, sports and games, regular physical exercises. Therefore, enough area should be provided for the play grounds afford maximum number of games to the students. Due care should be taken for the maintenance of these grounds. A boundary wall should be constructed around them. There should also be provision for shady trees and grassy lawns (Singh V.K. and Singh Y.K, 2008).

2.11. Need of Modern Methods in Physical Education

The teaching-Learning process of physical education in school to be effective and to fulfill the desired objective needs modern method. According to Singh V.K. and Singh Y.K. (2008) the need of modern methods in physical education:

1. There are many roads to successful learning to be tried for meeting particular needs and situations. To make the subject interesting, vital and living the teachers should also use permutations and combinations of methods, devices, and techniques for example to lend color to class teaching. He may use lecture or discussion method or a combination of these two. The teacher should be conversant with a variety of methods of teaching.
2. Different lessons or units should be taught by different methods of teaching. It can be very monotonous to use the same methods for every circumstance in the past few decades a tremendous increase in materials, means and teaching procedures has been witnessed these should be utilized to provide variety and color to teaching physical education. To create and maintain their interest and avoid monotony children should be exposed to varied experiences.
3. No single method can be the best for all situations, and for all teachers and pupils. The suitable method should emerge out of the abundance of information and skill of the teacher. Good teacher know what to teach/ how to teach and understand the need of their pupils. In addition, they are able to communicate effectively, can plan for and organize classes efficiently and have a deep commitment to the optimal development of the pupil.

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS

This chapter presents the research methodology which was employed in the study. Hence these common elements such as the study area, sources of data, research design, sample and sampling techniques, pilot study, data collection instrumentation, data analysis techniques and research ethics were present in separate sections.

3.1. Description of the Study Area

Jama woreda, it is found within Amhara region. Amhara region have got 11 zones and every zone have its own Woredas. Among those Jama is one of the woreda which is found with in south Wollo zone and its main town is known as Degollo. Jama Woreda is located west of Dessie and 120 km far from this town and 521km far from Addis Abeba; with the area of 529,621 square kilometer or 129,251.2 ha. Jama Wereda was surrounded by other Woredas like Woreilu in the north, Mida in the south, Menz Gera in the east and Kelala in west.

The study area is located 10º 06´ 24" to 10º 35´ 45" N and between 39º 04´ 04" to 39º 23´ 03" E. The altitude range of the Woreda is between 1428m-2752 m above sea level. Average rainfall of Woreda is 1130 mm and the average land size per individual farmer is 1.5 ha. The average minimum, mean and maximum temperature of the area is 11ºc, 12ºc and 16ºc respectively. Map of the study area is indicated in Appendix E, page-69

Based on the 2007 census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA) Jama Woreda has reached to 144,441 peoples among those 72,580 were males and 71,831 were females until 2008 E.C. Agriculture was the major source of their economic back ground especially Jama is known for wheat production along the region, also cattle were their secondary economical activity throughout the year. The main economy is crop production (wheat, teff, red sorghum, barley and pulses) supplemented by livestock rearing (sheep and cattle). The main sources of cash for the middle and better-off are sale of crops, livestock and eucalyptus trees. Migrant, local/urban labor and the sale of eucalyptus tree are the major economic activities for the poor/very poor wealth groups.

3.2. Source of Data

Jama Woreda has three high schools and one Secondary and Preparatory school. Since the researcher was to apply active learning on preparatory school, the investigator selects one of the four schools which have preparatory level purposefully. So Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School is the study area to investigate the implementation of active learning. The data were gathered from different respondents who have adequate exposure to the application of active learning during Physical Education (PE) classes in Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School. The sources of categorized in to: primary data sources and secondary data sources. The primary data sources were: Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School PE teachers, students and school principals as well as written documents books, journals and internets were served as secondary data sources.

3.3. Research Design

In this study a mixed methods was employed and the descriptive survey design was applied. Regarding this, the use of mixed approaches and methods leads to a better understanding of the issue under investigation (Cohen, et.al, 2003:31-34). Hence, a mixed-method approach using a survey design for obtaining descriptive statistics from quantitative were supported by a qualitative method in the study. Thus, as full a picture as possible of this issue was obtained and the limitations of one approach can be offset by the advantages of another (Creswell, 2009:204-226).According to (Cohen, et.al, 2003:24-28), “use of both forms of data allows researchers to simultaneously make generalizations about a population from the results of a sample and gain a deeper understanding of the phenomena of interest”.

Moreover, this study was used a mixed methods to describe, identify, analyze and interpret the current conditions that exist in relation to the active learning approach and factors that hinder application of active learning in teaching physical education in this school.

3.4. Sample and Sampling Technique

In this study stratified random sampling was used and the researcher employed Slovin’s formula (Jeffry J.tejada& Juyce Raymond-2012 p.129) to take sample size of the total population in the particular area. In this school the total number of the students is 2217. From these, 338 students were chosen to investigate active learning application in physical education classes. On the one hand, the researcher was used the availability sampling technique for four PE teachers and three (3) principals of the school to get the available data about this single study.

All in all, the researcher was applying based on Slovin’s formula to select the students from the total population. So here it is:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 1, Total population of the study

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3.5. Data Collection Tools

As it has been mentioned in chapter one (section 1.5), the objective of this research is to explore the application level and major factors that hinder the implementation of active learning at the focus of student-centered approaches in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school physical education classes. In a mixed methods approach, the study was adopting data triangulation. (Gay and Airasian 2000:201) points out that triangulation gives broad coverage of education characteristics and allows for crosschecking of information. The aim of triangulation is to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings. Hence, questionnaires, observation and interviews were employed for data gathering in this particular study as follows:

3.5.1. The questionnaire

Questionnaire is very important instrument in the process of conducting research for the collection of data. Questionnaires were prepared by investigator these questionnaires are containing open ended and close ended items was administered to PE teachers and students. The respondents were respond different items concerning their use of active teaching/learning approaches and the major problems/challenges that hinder the implementation of this approach in physical education.

3.5.2. Observation

In this study the observation method of data collection was used two times practically to identify the level of implementation of active learning approaches in physical education classes. The observation was take place during physical education practical class implementations as well as theoretical classes. The class observations were focus on the following areas: (a) what teachers and students do at the start, during and at the end of a lesson? (b) To identify which appropriate active learning methods are applied/implemented by teachers or not; and(c) Whether students individually or in a group are free to express their opinions and to interact with each other and their teachers. The researcher was sat in the participants’ class in their regular physical education time and was use an observation check list to record what he saw, heard, and experienced during a teaching session (Gay & Airasian 2000:213).

3.5.3. Interview

Semi-structured interviews were used to conduct data from three principals. In this research, interviews was used for collecting rich information regarding the nature of the teaching–learning process in line with the active learning approaches and the major problems/challenges that teachers experience that hinder the implementation of this approach in physical education at school.

3.6. Pilot study

A pilot study is a research study conducted before the intended study. Pilot studies are usually executed as planned for the intended study, but on a small scale, Anonymous (n.d.). In this study the pilot study was used to check reliability and validity of a research question. To apply this investigator were chosen 20 students out off the sample size members of students randomly from each grade level to conducting a pilot study. Conducting a pilot study before hand allows a researcher were design and execute a large scale project in as methodologically rigorous a way as possible and can save time and costs by reducing the risk of errors or problems( http://www.thoughts co.com). Therefore the result of pilot study were show that there is no improvements is in ordered or the questioner that made by the investigator is easily accepted or understand by the students.

3.7. Methods of Data Analysis

The quantitative data collected using the questionnaires was tabulated and fed in to the SPSS 20.0 for window statistical software to change the raw data in to the percentage in tables, frequency of response in the table was represent appeared in different items. Whereas, the qualitative data obtained through observation checklist and interviews with the PE teachers of the school was analyzed qualitatively or using words.

3.8. Ethical Consideration

This study was going in line with ethical issues. The privacy of participant was protected. Generally, this research was conducted as pre rules, policies, and research ethics of Haramaya University.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter the investigator tried to describe the result of the finding that gathered by questioners, observation and interviews and discuss the results.

4.1 Background of the respondents

Table 1: Characteristics of the respondents

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Key No= total number of respondents

As shown in table 4.1 above, 169 (50%) of the students are male and 169(50%) of the students are female, 3 (75%) of the teachers are male and 1(25%) of the teacher is female and all 3(100%) of the school principals are males.Regarding age, the majority 332 (98.2%) of the respondents age found between 15-20 years and 6(1.8%) of the students age found between 20-29 years, 3(75%) of the teachers age found between 20-29 years and 1(25%) of the teacher age found between 30-39 years and 1(33.33%) of the principal found between 20-29 years of age and 2 (66.66%) of the principals are found between 30-39 years. Regarding grade levels the majority 165(49%) of the respondent students learned in grade 9th, 74(22%) of the students learned in grade 10th, 68(20%) of the respondent students are learned in grade 11th and the rest 31(9%) of the students are grade 12th students. Concerning experience in teaching or work 3(75%) of the teachers teaching experience is found between 1-5 years and the rest 1(25%) of the teacher experience is found between 6-10 years experience and all 3(100%) of the principal work experience is found between 6-10 years. The level of education of all 4(100%) of the teachers are qualified with bachelor degree. 1(33.33%) of school principal qualified with bachelor degree and the rest 2(66.66%) of the school principals level of education is masters degree.

4.2 Data Collected Through Questionnaires

4.2.1 Response of Students

Table 2: Items related to the opinion of students with classroom condition and facilities

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KEY No= represents number of respondents

Table 2 shows, the opinion of students with classroom condition and facilities. The data in this table indicate that 265(78.4%) of the students responded that their classroom conditions are not attractive to learn and the rest 73(21.6%) the respondents have marked option “Yes”. Regarding sport instructional materials 262(77.5%) of the students replied that sport facilities like balls, gymnastic apparatuses and athletics materials are not balanced with the ratio of students for practical classes but 76(22.5%) of the student respondents replied sport instructional materials are balanced with the ratio number of students. Also the last item in the above table shows the conduciveness of facilities (chairs), 333(98.5%) of students replied that the seating (chairs) are not conducive to make group discussion in classroom but also 5(1.5%) of the respondents replied that the chairs are conductive to make group discussion in the classroom.Therefore, the playground and sport instructional materials are not enough, balanced, attractive and suitable for practical classes of PE and the classroom conditions and facilities for theoretical classes of PE are not conducive to make different activities in the classroom.

However, as many educators underlined that arranging and managing students seating and activities to implement active learning is mandatory. In general, classroom condition and facilities promote effective active learning. Mutassa and Wills (1994) for instance, explained that the condition of the classroom should be conducive for students and teachers, so as to implement active learning in classroom.

Table 3: Items related to the role (responsibilities) that expected from students during active learning.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No= represents number of respondents

Table 3, response indicated that 199(58.9%) of the respondent have marked option “Yes” for item number one, but 139(41.1%) of students has not confidence to express their feeling in the class. In the same table, students were asked whether they know roles (responsibilities) that are expected from them during active learning PE in classroom, 95(28.9%) of respondents reported that they know the roles (responsibilities) that are expected from them, whereas 243(71.9%) of the students responded that they do not know the roles (responsibilities) that are expected from them during active learning in classroom. Simultaneously, respondents who replied “Yes” were requested to mention those roles (responsibilities) that are expected from them during active learning of PE classes. Moreover, even though, the majority of students responded as they know their roles (responsibilities) in the implementation of active learning, the roles they mentioned were not related to the assumption of active learning. However, the roles that majority of students mentioned tend to the traditional methods (teacher-centered) such as, respected the teachers, listening carefully, respecting the rule of the school,not disturbing, hard study, writing short note, completing a home works, wearing uniform, punctuality etc. Therefore, this indicates that students have confusions on their roles (responsibilities) in the application of active learning in classroom Moreover, even though, the majority of students responded as they are not know their roles (responsibilities) in the implementation of active learning, the roles they mentioned were not related to the assumption of active learning. Therefore, this indicates that students have confusions on their roles (responsibilities) in the application of active learning in classroom.

However, the aim that active learning intends is to produce active and motivated learners, who can cope up with the demands of modern world, learners have marked degree of freedom and control over the organization of learning activities, which are usually problem solving, inquiry and investigational works. In addition as many scholars described it that students are more active in their role as learners and in playing major part in many aspects of classroom activities because learning is meaningful only when students can use it, connect it to their lives or actively participate in it. As Fiseha (2001) expressed it that, in active learning learners/students energetically strive to take a greater responsibility for their own learning. They play more dynamic role in deciding how and what they need to know, what they should be able to do and how they are going to it. Their roles further intend in to educational self-management, and self-motivation become greater force behind learning.

Table 4: Items related with active teaching method

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Key No represents number of respondents

In the teaching-learning process, its teachers’ activities and the techniques they use to make learning attractive and meaningful as facilitators during lesson presentation, so as to acquire the use of different techniques and activities to meet the demands of new generation. Therefore, it’s the role of teachers to carry out those activities and techniques to achieve the demands of students in the classroom during lesson presentation and students feel interested and attractive towards his/her presentation. As shown from table 4, about active teaching method 197(58.3%) of the student respondents reported that they are not interested with techniques and activities that teacher`s use during presentation and 141(41.7%) of the students’ responded that they are interested with teachers presentation. In addition to students’ response, the classroom observation also supports the response of students. The teachers’ techniques of presentation do not give attention to students’ participation and does not motivate/encourage students. Therefore, the absence of this techniques and activities makes the students as they are not interested with teacher’s presentation. Lowinterest with the teacher’s presentation makes students to develop negative attitude towards the subject and techniques of teachers use during presentation. Therefore, teachers have to use different techniques and activities which are helpful in maximizing the opportunities for interaction then the learners feel interested and attracted towards teachers presentation and be successful or get benefit from the learning. Students have to have positive attitude towards subject matter and method of teaching. Regarding teaching methods, the majority 255(75.4%) of the students responded that, their teachers not use different teaching methods, where as the remaining 83(24.6%) of the students replied that teachers use different teaching methods. Also by supporting students’ response, the data obtained from classroom and practical class observations and the teachers’ response assured it that, the majority of teachers do not use different instructional strategies. Teachers tend use the talk and chalk method which is lecture and some demonstration for practical classes. In the same table, students were asked methods of the teachers use mostly. Accordingly, the majority 246(72.8%) of the students responded that their teacher use “lecture/explanation” during teaching-learning process, 74(21.9%) of the student’s responded demonstrations, 15(4.4%) of the students responded group discussion, 3(0.9%) of the respondents replied role play methods mostly. However, instructional methods which are listed in the above table that more related with active learning were not implemented. The cooperative learning, think-pair-share, cross over group, gigsaw group and etc are not employed during teaching-learning process. Therefore, a lot has to be done to effective implementation of ALMs during PE classes in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school. Finally, students were asked, to state or mention teaching methods that are appropriate and they need to learn by it. Accordingly almost all students mentioned similar response that they need; lecture, discussion, group work and few of them responded that demonstration, question and answer methods. No one can mention cooperative learning and think pair shares methods. This indicates that the awareness of students towards active learning approaches is low.

4.2.2. Response of teachers

Table 5: Items related to physical education teaching methods. Frequency of employ different instructional methods by teachers in classroom.

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KEY No= represents number of respondents

As table 5 shows that, the frequency of teachers’ in employing different instructional methods in classroom, all 4(100%) of the teachers’ responded that they “Always” employ lecture method which more tends to teacher led and 1(25%)of the teacher responded that “Always” employ demonstration . In addition to teachers’ response, the conducted observation result also confirmed that, all teachers use lecture method to deliver lesson for students. On the other hand, all 4 (100%) of the teachers responded that they are “Not at all” use think-pair-share, gigsaw group, gold fish bowl, cooperative learning, question and answer, conducting field trip and cross over groupand 2(50%) of the teachers replied “Not at all” for discussion and 1(25%) of the respondent replied that “Not at all” for demonstration in classes. The rest of the teachers 2(50%) of respondents replied that they “Sometimes” employ for discussion and demonstration and 3(75%) of respondents replied that “Sometimes” for role play. A large number of educators have confirmed that instructional strategies contribute a lot to promote effective learning. Nevertheless, their effectiveness depends largely up on the role and quality of the teachers who play a pivotal role in teaching learning process. The implementation of effective teaching strategies is one of the criteria to be an effective teacher. If teachers are on the position to help students to learn, they must be able to select and use teaching strategies that produce learning. Active teaching and learning involves the use of different methods, which are helpful in maximizing the opportunities’ for interaction.

Table 6: Items related physical education teachers’ activities and roles.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No= represents number of respondents

As table 6 shows that, the role of teacher’ frequently perform in their classes. But the majority of the roles/activities that are expected from teachers are not as expected; for instance, energizer activities are used by 3(75%) of the teachers respondent replied “Not at all” and 1(25%) of the respondent replied “Sometimes” in the classes. However, using energizer activities before starting lesson has a great contribution to relax learners, to make students alert (active) and to attract the attention of students.The other responsibility that is expected from every teachers is using lesson plan and all 4(100%) of the teachers responded that as they use lesson plan for every session. But in contradiction to this idea the observation results revealed that around 3(75%) of the teachers did not use lesson plan.However, as many educators agreed, every teacher has to use lesson plan in classroom in order to implement activities by keeping sequence. Because it’s a lesson plan which the teachers (address clearly the teachers’ activities, students’ activities and the objective of the lesson). Therefore, what we conclude from this data, the probability of teachers in applying active learning is rare.So, in order to make lesson plan effective and implement active learning teachers should have to use lesson plan.

The response of teachers for items three indicate that, 1(25%) of the respondent replied that they “Always” clarify the learning objective in their classes and 3(75%) of the respondents replied “Sometimes” clarify the learning objectives. Surprisingly the response of teachers is contradicted with the result of the observation; all teachers are not clarifying the learning objective. Regarding arranging students for different classroom activities and in inviting students to reflect their ideas on the lesson 3 (75%) of the teachers respondents responded that they are ‘not at all’ and 1(25%) of the respondent replied “Sometimes”. The other responsibility that is expected from every teachers are encouraging students to become actively participate in the classes and 2(50%) of respondent replied that ‘always’ and 2(50%) of the respondents respond that “Sometimes” and also in the above table 6, item number 6 shows, 3 (75%) of the teachers respondents replied that they “Sometimes” provide help when students needs and the rest 1 (25%) of the teacher provide the right amount help for students “Not at all”. Majority 3 (75%) of the teachers responded that they “Always” give constructive feedback for students and the rest 1(25%) of the respondents replied “Sometimes”.

Regarding associate, relate and match the classes’ lesson with the real life experience of students and create activities (problem) that requires higher order thinking and critical thinking skills majority 3(75%) of the respondents replied that “Sometimes” and the rest 1(25%) of the respondent replied “Always”.Therefore, this indicates the majority of the teachers totally focus only on the content of the subject matter.However learning is more meaningful for learners when teachers associate the lesson with the real life of students by using different examples and should create higher order thinker students.

In general, as the result of observation and teachers responses indicated the majority of activities and roles are expected from the teachers were not as expected. Therefore, we can conclude that most of the activities which are expected from teachers were not implemented. However, as many educators, strictly underlined that teachers play a crucial role in the application of active learning. As Fiseha (2001) explained that the teachers’ tasks in active learning approach have to use class room methods that encourage the learners to be as active as possible by analyzing and interpreting knowledge through the use of high order thinking skills.Also in supporting this idea Hofstetter (2005) explained that, the role of teachers in active learning is to facilitate the students learning by providing a frame work (activities students to complete) that facilitate their learning. For example, the teacher`s post activities or questions that students complete project including writing papers, reports, conducting research and answering open-ended questions. The teachers must guide and manage the activities she/he must make sure that all learners are working productively on the activities and must monitor the progress of all learners.

Table 7: Items related to material availability.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No= represents number of respondents

Concerning availability sport materials and play ground all 4(100%) of the teachers replied that “Poor”. As various researches have shown that, instructional materials have a great role in teaching learning process. Dale (2003) had argued that instructional materials create the access to world of reality, enhancing understanding and enriching experiences. Instructional materials also assist in making relationship between the real world and symbolic world. It’s a process of bringing the world in to the classroom and the classroom in to the world. The data obtained from observation was synonyms with teacher`s responses. Even though the play grounds were present it’s not good in location, quality and even some of them were not attractive and comfortable. But more or less it’s appropriate to implement active learning approaches. In line to this idea Mutassa and Wills (1994) explained that the condition of classroom should be conducive for the teachers and students so as to implement student centered (active learning) in classroom. Also (Singh V.K. and Singh Y.K, 2008) explained that, play ground is the cradle of democracy as games and sports are essential constituents of the total education. Every school should essentially have a due provision for the play grounds needed for all types of physical activities, sports and games, regular physical exercises. Therefore, enough area should be provided for the play grounds afford maximum number of games to the students.

Table 8: Teacher’s response towards number of students in one class

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No=numbers of respondents

As indicated in table 8, teachers were asked about the average number of students in one class. All 4(100%) of the teachers replied that the average number of students in one class is between 51- 60. In supporting this idea the observations results revealed that, the total number of students in a single section in each classes averagely was between 51- 60. From this data one can understand that the average number of students is very big which may hinder the application of active learning methods. In supporting this idea Smith (1996) has also mentioned the following disadvantage that come as a result of large class size:

- Individualization of instruction limited
- Instruction to be lecture without group participation
- Frequency of repetition is limited
- Oral communication in the classroom from pupil to pupil to teachers is limited.

In general, the number of students in a class can be a factor either to facilitate or to hinder the effective application of active learning. In fact for the effective application of activelearning it is more supportive and applicable if the number of students’ small (few) in a class.

Regarding item two about the size of play ground can serve large number of students 4(100%) of respondents replied yes. The teachers’ response is similar to the result of observation. Concerning with the ratios of students to instructional materials are balanced for PE practical classes 4(100%) of teachers replied that the ratios of students to instructional materials are not balanced. A balanced instructional material is very important to implement active learning. Most scholars support this argument that instructionalmaterials can make an excellent base for building interesting higher order learning activities that calls for critical thinking and other higher mental process (Callahan 1988). Instructional materials provide information,organization the scope and sequence of information presented, and provide opportunities for students to use what they have learned (Lockheed et. al, 1991).

4.3 Data Obtained from Classroom Observation

The table here below presents the classroom condition and suitability/availability of playgrounds or sport materials.

Table-9: Classroom condition and suitability/availability of playgrounds or sport materials as observed by the researcher.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No= represents number of observed classes

As shown in table 3, the data obtained from classroom observation proved that in the observed classrooms regarding seating space, (100%) there are enough seating space for all students it’s appropriate for the application of active learning approaches but the chairs are not easily moveable because the chairs are combined. The observation item 3 in the above table shows, (100%) there is adequate space for movement between chairs; it’s not difficult for teachers to give comment and advice to students during classroom activity. Regarding the attractiveness of playground/field (100%) of observed fields are attractive. Regarding the number of students in a single classroom, (100%) of the class size is not appropriate for the application of active learning. However, regarding class size, it’s more advisable if the number of students is below 30 in a single section for effective application of active learning. Appropriate class size helps in facilitating teaching-learning process at maximum level. However, the total number of students in a single section in this school is averagely was between 51- 60. Monere (1956) stated that, without having appropriate population of students in a classroom, learning cannot occur properly. In line to this, Mutassa and Wills (1995) explained that the classroom condition should be conducive enough so that students feel free and comfortable to make group or move freely. As shown in item 6 of table 9 above, (100%) of observation shows the presence of different play grounds this helps studentsto practice different sport activities. The others (100%) of observed classroom shows the ratio of students with physical education student’s text book was 1:2and for practical activities there was a shortage of sport materials/equipments. In general, good classroom conditions, teaching materials and seating arrangement have a great contribution for the effective application of active learning in classroom.

Table 10, Items related to teaching methods teachers use.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No= represents number of observed classes

The observation results of table 10, shows that all 4(100%) of the teachers employ lecture method which tends more to teacher-centered methods and all 4(100%) teachers not employ cooperative, jigsaw, gold fish bowl, cross over, think-pair-share in the classes. Regarding item 7, 2(50%) of teachers employ discussion method in the teaching learning but the rest 2(50%) of teachers are not employ discussion method. 3(75%) of teachers use demonstration methods in the classes and the rest 1(25%) of the teacher not employ. Regarding to use different instructional methods 4(100%) was not employed. Therefore, to be effective in the teaching learning process, teachers must use different instructional methods and techniques. Thus, different active learning methods create the best match for students to learn how to learn.

Table 11, Items related with teachers activities in the classroom

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No= represents number of observed classes

In table 11 above, the classroom observations results indicated that, the majority of the activities which are expected to be demonstrated by the teachers were not observed. For instance, all 4(100%) of the teachers did not clarify the learning objectives, arranging students for different classroom activities, goes around the group and motivate the students and Provide opportunities for students to reflect on lesson. 3(75%) of the observation result revealed that teachers did not use lesson plan. According to give direction and encourage students 2(50%) of the teachers employ but the rest 2(50%) are not employed. Regarding to give constructive feedback 3(75%) of the teachers used it. Regarding item 9, all 4(100%) of the teachers have a good interaction between teachers and students.

Many educators have strictly underlined that, teachers play a crucial role in the in the application of active learning. As to Fiseha (2001) the teachers tasks in this approach is to use classroom methods that encourage the learners to be as active as possible by analyzing and interpreting knowledge through the use of higher order thinking skills. In addition, the teacher can suggest sources of consultation that encourage and support the learning process, guiding and direct as required and highly important to provide critical feedback and also provide opportunities for students to reflect idea on the lesson and the learning process itself. Moreover, in active learning, teachers have to create meaningful learning experience, because learning is effective only when it’s meaningful to students. However, from the data which was obtained through observation, we can conclude that most activities, which are expected from teachers, were not implemented.

Table 12, items related with students activities during lesson time.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

KEY No= represents number of observed classes

The instructional model of active learning intends to produce active and motivated learners, who can cope up with the demands of the modern world. So, to achieve this aim/goal, the roles of students are very important. The students should be interactive and actively participate in the classroom and out of classroom. Whereas the observations results indicate that the activities or roles that are expected from students were not observed well for instance all 4(100%) of students are not ask teachers, not interactive among themselves, not reflect on the lesson and not appropriately grouped. 3(75%) of students are not equally participate, not express their need and not participate in group discussion and also the rest 1(25%) of the students are equally participated, expresses their need and participate in group discussion, but all 4(100%) of students are listening carefully the teachers lecture. However, as expressed by different scholars, students are more active in their role as learners and are playing a major part in many aspects of the classroom activities.Learning is meaningful only when students can use it, connect it, connect it to their lives or actively participate in it. In addition Silberman (1996) express that during active learning, the learner is seeking something to answer a question, information to solve problems, or do tasks while discussing with others.

4.4 An Analysis of Interview with School Directors

School directors can be considered as prominent figure in the school system as far as he/she is the one who is assigned to lead all activities that go on in the school environment. It’s a common experience that a school director is responsible for both academic and administrative affairs in the school. Therefore, they have a great contribution for the effective application of active learning. Mazure (1978) as cited by Yonas(2006). So taking idea as a root, the researcher made interview with three directors in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school.The two school principals are a second degree holders and with above nine years experience the rest one vice director have a first degree holder and with five year experiencein teaching and other position in the school. For the question that were presented for them to explain about the awareness (understanding) towards active learning, all of them explained that they have awareness about active learning and concerning why the educational training policy gives emphasis to active learning strategies, for this question their responses were summarized as the traditional methods gives more focuses for teaching than learning. In this case it’s a teacher who does a lot in a classroom by lecturing where as students are passive learners and in teacher centered methods more focuses is in memorizing fact than applying what they learn and to enhance the quality of education.

Regarding teachers training on active learning sometimes the zones educational bureaus gives training for few teachers but PE teachers does not get the chance for attaining the training because, thetraining mostly concerning the teachers of language teachers and physics, chemistry, and mathematics subject teachers. Concerning the availability of PE educational facilities almost all school directors knows as there is shortage of sport instructional materials especially for practical activities which may affect application active learning, but in the near future they are on the way to solve those problems. The last question to the school directors were about the major factors influencing the applicability of ALMs. Their responses were; lack of adequate training on teaching methodologies and shortage of instructional materials/recourses.

Finally, the data showed that a lot has to be done to the effective application of active learning approaches during PE classes in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school, particularly, training for teachers to improve the quality education.

5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The main purpose of this study was to investigate active learning application in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school. The sample consisted of 338 students, 4 PE teachers and 3 school directors. Regarding sampling technique, students were selected from each grade level by using stratified random sampling technique by applying Slovin’s formula. PE teachers and school directors were selected on the bases of availability sampling. The research methodology employed in the study was a descriptive survey. Questionnaires interview and observation were the major data gathering instruments used in the study and also pilot study was employed to measure the validity and reliability of the questionnaires made by the investigator.The researcher was employed SPSS version-20 for analyzing the data collected by questioners based on this frequency, percentage and descriptive phrases were used to analyze and interprets the data. The results of the study revealed that the magnitude of active learning application methods during physical education was found to be low. Almost all of the teachers employ lecture method mostly and frequently which more tends to teacher-led, the teachers did not take necessary training concerning teaching method and active learning methods, which enable them effective professional teacher and even though they believe in contribution of active learning for effective education, they lack awareness about those methods and how to apply in classroom. Beside this, the other factors identified were instructional materials and facilities were inadequate, passiveness of students, lack of recently revised/updated physical education students’ text books, shortage of physical education text book, shortage of class time table and large class size.

5.2 Conclusions

The application of active learning approach requires different interrelated human and materials resources without fulfilling these essential elements, realizing the expected objective is found to be difficult. Therefore, based on the findings the following conclusions were made.

- A great number of educators have stressed that the conduciveness and accessibility of instructional materials play a crucial role for the effective application of active learning. Regarding these, the findings of the study revealed that, the all of the PE teachers reported that the availability of sport instructional materials including PE students’ text book is ‘poor’.
- Scholars stressed that the condition of the classroom condition should be as conducive as important the real implementation of active learning. Regarding this, the findings of the study depicted the classroom condition is more or less conducive for the application of active learning.
- The result of the study shows that one credit-hour per week for each class is not relevant to implementing active teaching and learning approach. The hot air condition also affects to teaching PE practical activities.
- An effective teaching method requires the use of different instructional methods to meet the different individual needs of the learners. In this findings however, the study revealed that all of the PE teachers employ lecture methods ‘frequently’. Therefore, teachers use teacher-centered method which is lecturing and the probability of students to interact/participate in different activities is low.
- The interaction and active participation of students is one of the most important aspects of educational process, it determines the effectiveness and quality of education. However, the findings of the study revealed that participation and interaction of students is low. The major reasons accountable for the low participation of students are; methods of instructional teachers use, don’t invite them to participation which is lecturing, lack of confidence, shortage of instructional materialsetc.
- The findings of study revealed that, most of roles and activities which are expected from PE teachers do not demonstrated (implemented). Thus this may happen due to less orientation of the teachers on their roles and about application of active learning.
- The result of study revealed that the awareness PE teachers towards active learning and its contributions respond were found to be high. But there are numerous problems that tackle them to implement in classroom such as large class size, passiveness of students, absence of recently revised and updated PE students text book, lack of sport instructional materials and lack of necessary training on how to teach and make students learn using different instructional methods. Furthermore, from this result it can be deduced that most of the teachers are still with an ideology of teacher-centered approach.
- School directors are a prominent figure in the school systems as far as they are assigned to lead all activities that are going in the schools and successful implementation of educational program. However, the results of the study indicated that school directors of Degollo general secondary and preparatory school were low in accomplishing most of the activities that were expected from them. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that the school directors were either less oriented about educational benefits of active learning or they were less committed to carry out the expected activities.

To sum up, the findings of the study shows improvements have to be done to effectively application ALMs in those preparatory schools. Teachers should be encouraged to become more knowledgeable and skillful in implementing active learning approaches. This can be done through workshop, seminaries and inter-staff discussion.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of study, the following recommendations are forwarded, that might help to promote the application of ALMs and as a means to alleviate the problems encountered in the process of implementing ALMs in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school.

- In order to maximize the probability of students to interact as well as to participate in different activities and to be effective in teaching learning process and to help students to learn, PE teachers should use different instructional methods and techniques which are more tends to active learning like cooperative learning, think-pair-share, demonstration, cross over group etc. depending on the topic/lesson and need of learners rather than lecturing as much as possible.
- To implement active learning in the school should set PE classes suitable to the air condition for the successful active teaching learning process and the ministry of education should be increased the credit hour for PE subject.
- It is important to update the PE teachers through in-service training to make them aware about active learning.
- The sport instructional materials should be developed in a way to enable learners enriches themselves in a knowledge and skill through active learning approach. Schools and community together should strive to fulfil instructional materials and facilities for physical education and PE teachers make some materials like Baton, Javelin etc.
- To minimize the effect of large class sizes the teachers selects appropriate teaching methods which help to implement active learning in the classes.
- It is recommended that school directors should be equipped with necessary knowledge and skill, which would enable them to play a crucial role in facilitating teaching learning process in general and the application of active learning in particular.
- The education office should create an opportunity for PE teachers to participating in the training to mastering the knowledge about active learning.

Generally, as the findings of the study revealed that the magnitude of practicing active learning during PE classes in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school was found to be low. Similarly, the degree of exercising different active learning instructional methods, techniques in Degollo general secondary and preparatory school during PE classes was not adequate, due to the absence of necessary training on the area of active learning for PE teachers.

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7. APPENDICES

APPENDIX-A

Questionnaire to Teachers

Purpose: This questionnaire is designed to gather data on the nature of the teaching– learning process in physical education and the problems that hinder learning. The data to be collected through the questionnaire is used for academic purposes only. Information that you provide will be treated as confidential.

General directions:

- Please follow the instructions carefully.
- Respond to all questions.
- You do not have to write your name or identify yourself in any way.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION!

A. General Information

Part One: Please show your answer by circling the appropriate number on the right of each of the items.

Back Ground Information of Teachers

1. Name of school Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School
2. Your gender: Male 1
3. Age: 20- 29 years 1 30-39 years2 40-49 years3 50 years and older4
4. Experience in teaching: Less than one year 1 1-5 years2 6-10 years3 11-15 years4
5. Level of Education/ Educational qualification/s: Bachelor degree 1 Masters degree2 Doctor’s degree3

B. Main data

SECTION A: Physical Education Teachers: Teaching Methods

Instruction: Items Related With Different Teaching Methods (Approaches) Are Listed in the Table Below. Please, Select the Correct Answer That Represents How Often You Have Been Employed These Methods (Approaches).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SECTION B: Physical Education Teachers: Activities and Role

Instruction: Items listed below are activities and roles of teachers that they have to use (employ) it during active learning in class room. How often you employ these activities:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SECTION C: Material Availability

Instruction: Items related with teachers believe (view) towards availability of instructional materials in implementing active learning:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SECTION D: Class Size and Numbers

Instruction: items related with the size and numbers of instructional materials with students ratio to implement active learning:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SECTION E: Factors Affecting Implementation of Active Learning

Instruction: To what extent the following factors affecting active learning method in physical education class.

Key 1. Strongly Disagree, 2. Disagree, 3. Undecided, 4. Agree, 5. Strongly Agree

Items related with factors affecting implementation of active learning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: self made

THANK YOU IN ADVANCE!!!

APPENDIX-B

Questionnaires for Students

Dear students! The purpose of this questionnaire is to get pertinent information about application of active learning methods during physical education classes. The study can be successfully accomplished only when you complete items honestly and frankly. Thus, hence the genuine concern and willingness of the person who fill the questionnaire strongly determines the success of the study. You are kindly requested to fill all the questions honesty.

Note: the information you give will be used only for academic purpose. So, please cooperat me by filling this questionnaire.

Thank You for Your Cooperation!!!

N.B:- No need of writing your name

A. General Information

Part one: Please Show Your Answer by Circling the Appropriate Number on the Right of Each of The Items.

Back Ground Information of Students

1. Name of school Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School
2. Your gender: Male 1
3. Age: 15-20 years 1 21-25 years2 Above years3
4. Grade level: Grade 9th 1 Grade 10th2 Grade 11th3 Grade 12th4

B. Main data

Instruction A: Item Related With Classroom Condition and Facilities

1. Is your classroom condition or play ground (sport fields) attractive and suitable for teaching-learning process?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2. Are the sports facilities like balls, athletics materials, gymnastics apparatuses and play grounds are balanced with the ratio of students for practical classes of physical education?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3. Are the facilities like chairs conducive to make group discussion in classroom?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Instruction B: Items Related To the Role (Responsibilities) That Expected From Students during Active Learning

1. Do you have confidence in expressing your need and feeling freely in the class?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2. Do you know the roles (responsibilities) that expected from students during active learning?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3. If your response for question No 2 is “yes” what are those roles (responsibilities) that expected from you/students?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

INSTRUCTION C: Item Related With Active Teaching Method

1. Are the techniques and activities that your teacher uses during presentation is attractive and interesting to you?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2. Does your teacher use different teaching methods during teaching- learning process in classroom?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3. From the following teaching method, which methods (strategies) does your teacher use mostly during teaching learning process?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4. From the above teaching methods by which methods of teaching do you need to learn? Writedown:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: self made

THANK YOU IN ADVANCE!!!

APPENDIX-C

Observation Check List

A. General Information

1. Observer name:
2. School:
3. Grade and Section
4. Number of students in class:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Please mark (x) in space provided that crossponds to the statement (question) in column.

I. Items Related With Class Room Condition and Suitability/Availability of Playgrounds or Materials:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

II. Items Related to Teaching Methods Teachers Use

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

III. Items Related With Teachers Activities in The Classroom:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

IV. Items Related With Students Activities During Lesson Time:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: self made

THANK YOU IN ADVANCE!!!

APPENDIX-D

Interview for School Director

Basic Guiding Interview Sample Questions

1. Would you please tell us your qualification, position, and experience?
2. Would you explain your understanding (awareness) about active learning method?
3. Would you please explain briefly why the education and training policy give emphasis to the Active learning strategies?
4. Have your teachers taken any training on Active learning method? If your answer is yes what kind of training they took?
5. How do you think the applicability of those trainings in real class room situation especially during physical education session?
6. How do you evaluate the availability of physical education educational facilities and quality in your school? Do you think the availability of this facilitation have an influence on active learning process?
7. Would you please explain the major factors influencing the applicability of ALM (active learning method)?

Source:self made

[...]

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Details

Titel
Active learning application in physical education classes. Case of Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School at Jama Woreda, Ethiopia
Hochschule
Haramaya University
Autor
Jahr
2019
Seiten
78
Katalognummer
V992969
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
active, case, degollo, general, secondary, preparatory, school, jama, woreda, ethiopia
Arbeit zitieren
Yared Abebe (Autor), 2019, Active learning application in physical education classes. Case of Degollo General Secondary and Preparatory School at Jama Woreda, Ethiopia, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/992969

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