The Influence of social media marketing, brand loyalty, brand awareness towards consumer purchase intention. An empirical analysis


Master's Thesis, 2018

88 Pages, Grade: 3.9


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

Abstract iv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Research Objectives
1.3.1 General Objective
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significant of Studies
1.6 Term of References
1.7 Overview of the Report
1.8 Summary

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Social Media and Social Media Marketing
2.2.1 Social Media
2.2.2 Social Media Marketing
2.3 Brand Loyalty
2.4 Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth
2.4.1 Word of Mouth
2.4.2 Electronic Word of Mouth
2.4.3 Differences between WOM & eWOM
2.5 Purchase Intention
2.6 Previous Empirical Studies
2.6.1 Social Media Marketing to Brand Loyalty
2.6.2 Electronic Word of Mouth to Brand Loyalty
2.6.3 Social Media Marketing to Purchase Intention
2.6.4 Brand Loyalty to Purchase Intention
2.6.5 El ectronic Word of Mouth to Purchase Intention
2.7 Theoretical Framework
2.7.1 Theory of Reasoned Action
2.7.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour
2.8 Conceptual Framework
2.9 Hypotheses Developments
2.9.1 Social Media Marketing and Brand Loyalty
2.9.2 Electronic Word of Mouth and Brand Loyalty
2.9.3 Social Media Marketing and Purchase Intention
2.9.4 Brand Loyalty and Purchase Intention
2.9.5 Electronic Word of Mouth and Purchase Intention
2.10 Summary

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Research Approach
3.4 Research Methodological Choices
3.5 Population and Sampling
3.6 Sampling Size
3.7 Data Collection Methods / Instruments
3.7.1 Pilot Study
3.7.2 Construct Measurement
3.7.3 Data Scale of Measurement
3.8 Variables
3.9 Reliability Testing
3.10 Statistical Testing
3.10.1 Linear Regression
3.10.2 Multiple Regression Analysis
3.10.3 Mediation Effect Analysis
3.11 Summary

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Respondent Demographics
4.3 Descriptive Analyses
4.4 Reliability Analysis
4.5 Linear Regression Analysis
4.6 Multiple Regression Analysis
4.7 Mediation Effect Analysis
4.8 Summary

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Findings through Descriptive Analysis
5.3 Discussion of Major Findings
5.3.1 H1: Social media marketing will have significant
5.3.2 positive influence on consumers’ brand loyalty
5.3.3 H2: Electronic word of mouth will have significant positive influence on consumers’ brand loyalty
5.3.4 H3: Social media marketing will have significant positive influence on consumers’ purchase intention
5.3.5 H4: Brand loyalty will have significant positive influence on consumers’ purchase intention
5.3.6 H5: Electronic word of mouth will have significant positive influence on consumers’ purchase intention
5.3.6 Mediating Effects
5.4 Implications
5.5 Limitations of Study
5.6 Recommendations for Future Research
5.7 Summary

References

Appendix

List of Tables

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of Figures

Figure 1: Theory of Reasoned Action

Figure 2: Theory of Planned Behaviour

Figure 3: Conceptual Framework

Figure 4: Gender Demographic Information

Figure 5: Age Demographic Information

Figure 6: Occupations Demographic Information

Figure 7: Years of Internet Utilisation

Figure 8: Social Media Awareness

Figure 9: Popular Social Media Platforms in Malaysia

Figure 10: Active Age Groups on Social Media Platform

Figure 11: Brand Consciousness Among Gender

Figure 12: Mediation Effect (1)

Figure 13: Mediation Effect (2)

Figure 14: Conceptual Framework

Abstract

Consumers purchase intention has developed with the help of the social media marketing, and progressively replacing the customary marketing techniques. The marketing methodology is based on social media platforms where consumers are currently looking for information about an item or service, and others encounters before resolving to purchase the item or service. The sharing of the brands, item surveys, and clients' encounters are a piece of the electronic word of mouth where data is transmitted and gotten over the web. With the impact of electronic word of mouth and social media marketing, it has an effect to the brand loyalty, and in the end towards purchase intentions. This study endeavors to study the effect of social media marketing, brand loyalty, and brand awareness towards purchase intentions. Two hundred questionnaires were collected toward the end of the review inside Malaysia. Five hypotheses were produced and tested. The results shows that the social media marketing, brand loyalty, and brand awareness are adequately impacting consumers conduct prompting purchase or repurchase intentions. These discoveries indicated that social media marketing managers need to underline the significance of positive brand awareness and word of mouth in order to leave a positive impact on consumers and maximise engagement with consumers in building brand loyalty.

Keywords: Brand Awareness; Brand Loyalty; Social Media; Marketing; Consumer Intention

CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This section contributes to a better understanding of consumers purchase intention toward items or services in Malaysia. In this research, it will particularly examine the factors of social media marketing, brand loyalty, brand awareness and electronic word of mouth (eWOM) in affecting the consumers behavioral towards purchase intentions. This section is sorted out by talking about the foundation of the research, the issue, research questions, research goals, term of references, a review of the report layout, and completed with the outline of the chapter.

1.1 Background

Ever since the presentation of World Wide Web 28 years back (World Wide Web Foundation, n.d.), the development of the data age has changed how people used to interact before. Without precedent for history, the internet created a single social and social setting for everyone and also evolved on how data shares among each other, the way human behaviors businesses, and the change of technologies. The development of social media on the internet has changed the way people interact with each other and sharing of data. Social media is well accepted and prevalent among the millennial companions (Nanji, 2017). The millennial is the emergence of a new generation that is powerful and sophisticated consumers who are hard to influence, persuade, and keep (Devi and Menezes, 2016). This group of associates is heavily active on the social media networking sites and constantly hungry for data. The entire marketing landscape of the customary marketing is moving towards social media marketing (Erdogmu§ and £i9ek, 2012). Businesses are now more active on social media compare to the past (Hainla, 2017). Some businesses have more than one presences on the social media platforms to interact with the social media users. It isn't necessary to be a presence on the social media to fabricate the brand awareness, yet without it, they are very likely to be a long ways behind from their competitors that are actively engage with their fans.

Social media marketing offering businesses an interactive platform to interact with consumers in building the brands, and loyalty that beyond what conventional methods can offer before (Erdogmu? and £i9ek, 2012). Consumers are utilizing the social media as the source to search for item data, for example, the brand, manufacturer foundation, and retailers when deciding to get it (Ler, 2014). The purchase decisions are exceptionally influenced by the electronic word of mouth on the social media sites. The persuasion effect of the electronic word of mouth is seen as an open door for businesses to influence the consumers by utilizing different methods to influence them on purchase decisions. Consumers are looking beyond evaluating for the item when they are researching for it over the internet. It is additionally the experience and expectation that Malaysian consumers need (Asean Up, 2017). The 2016 Nielsen's surveys on Global Retail Growth Strategies and Global Retail Loyalty Programs concluded that three out of five Malaysian consumers enjoy setting aside the opportunity to discover deals (Nielsen, 2016). Asean Up (2017) pointed out that Malaysian e-commerce market will continue to prosper as consumers will look for more new items categories, satisfaction that beyond evaluating, for example, the ease of online payment methods, and express delivery for the items. The allegiance to brands is very imperative for businesses to maintain the fan base and manageability. However, it may not be the same for consumers especially the millennial partners when they are spoilt for choices. Advantageous advancements and low evaluating may motivate the change of brand's allegiance and it takes a very long effort for businesses to win back the consumer's heart when they are numerous related items in the market. In a report by Monteiro (2016), 3 out of 4 online shoppers all inclusive desert their shopping baskets before checking out. He pointed out that when consumers have more choices, the expectations become higher, especially how they engage with the business and receive their purchase. Hence, the very attractive price isn't just the factors yet solid customer service and delivery alternatives as well. In this regard, consumers are actively imparting their experiences to the retailer on social media sites and eventually will influence faithful customers to reconsider before checking out. Hence, not just social media marketing is critical, however great electronic word of mouth is imperative also to construct brand loyalty for the businesses. A report by We Are Social and Hootsuite (Kemp, 2017), in January 2017 positions Malaysia in the fifth place all around with the most active social media accounts. A significant increase from January 2016 from 18 million active social media users to 22 million out of 2017 (Kemp, 2017). Hamid (2016) presented that 32% of Malaysian populace are social media addicts. In general, they spend no less than 16 hours every week on social media platform to consume for data and also actively generating new contents and sentiments. Also, out of the 32% of social media addicts, around 63% are aged below 35 years old. Malaysia e-commerce is meaning to be the next e-commerce blast in South East Asia as indicated by Brewer (2017) viewpoint.

The nation has over 136% of mobile penetration rate in 2016 and 47% of them utilizing their smartphones to shop online. What's more, around 7 million consumers shop online every month purchasing day by day necessities, form, and accessories, and irregular or elusive items. Besides that, 30% of all e-commerce exchanges in South East Asia are social sales where consumers purchase over the social media sites, for example, Instagram or Facebook. Actually, Alibaba group is building their regional appropriation center in Malaysia for Malaysia and South East Asian region to support the region e-commerce activities (EcommerceIQ, 2017). Every one of these realities are critical clues for businesses to acknowledge the importance of social media marketing in pushing marketing data on the social media platform that they would prefer not to miss it. The one-way conventional marketing methods may not be that useful in this computerized world because of the social interactivities on social media sites. A business successfully sets up their presence on social media isn't the end, yet simply the beginning of this new ecosystem. Businesses need to always engage on the social media with postings and reviews that capture the heart of the users, and eventually has the intention to purchase their items.

1.2 Problem Statement

Until the ongoing years, the internet business in Malaysia were slow, as indicated by Brewer (2017). With the sharp duty by the Malaysian government to develop the online business part, and the provincial conveyance center point set up by Alibaba Group, Malaysia would be the focal point of internet business in the forthcoming years in South East Asian district. Web based business shippers in Asia Pacific were confronting to a great degree high rivalries among each other as everybody is attempting to obtain a bit of the market shares (Monteiro, 2016). The tremendous alternatives accessible for consumers, consumers will constantly look for the best offers previously focusing on the purchase, and best offer isn't really about the valuing as it were. It is too the engagement with the brands, organizations, and how they get their purchase. It is about engagement amongst organizations and consumers on the web. In other words, consumers look past valuing, for example, how business engage with them through social media, the faithfulness to the brand through marketing and word of mouth endeavors, and how this activity prompts the craving to submit a purchase.

Consumers are dynamically moving far from conventional media towards the advanced media for data. This is where marketers are less underscoring on conventional marketing channels. A computerized content organization, for example, Rev Asia, the biggest advanced media substance in Malaysia and positions third after Facebook, and Google in Malaysia in view of traffics was gained by customary media organization Media Prima as of late (Russell, 2017; The Star, 2017). It demonstrates that advanced substance on the web, particularly on social media platform, is quickly supplanting the significance of conventional media particularly in Malaysia when the nation is top five dynamic on social media all inclusive. Consumers are currently captivating on social media platform to contribute and too looking for data about an item, brand before choosing to purchase or not. There are high shots that organizations in Malaysia will be outpaced by built up organizations that are currently utilizing social media as the marketing agent to advance their brands, items, or services.

Brand loyalty would encounter a notable change as marketers no longer in the situation of the various leveled specialist in pushing brand's awareness that occurred in the past with customary marketing channels. Organizations and consumers are co-making together the brand loyalty through different engagement exercises on social media platform. It is essential for marketers or organizations to comprehend the marketing endeavors on social media platform and too fabricating brand loyalty as consumers may consider enjoying a brand page on Facebook is viewed as faithful to the brand. In other words, brand loyalty according to twenty to thirty year olds might be distinctive contrasted with before generations. The customary word of mouth occurs from individual to individual correspondence, and normally including individuals they confided in, for example, relatives, companions, associates, et cetera. In any case, the social media platform has turned into the novel word of mouth platform. Now, consumers are currently sharing their encounters of a brand or items that they utilized before to the mass on social media platform. This sharing is like word of mouth which is non-business driven. Be that as it may, on social media platform, the confided in wellspring of word of mouth has transformed from a known individual to anonymous individual in the online network. Furthermore, organizations also can drive the electronic word of mouth on the web as well. Therefore, the difference in word of mouth to electronic word of mouth looks for a considerable measure of comprehension for the marketers and organizations in building a positive brand involvement towards the consumers.

On the current writing audits, there are numerous research had been led in the ongoing years in abroad on the social media marketing, electronic word of mouth, and brand loyalty. While in Malaysia, there are research done as of late on other measurements impacting towards consumers' purchase intentions yet are constrained (Azira, Siti, Law, Nurliyana, and Siti, 2016; Chong, 2014; Balakrishnan, Dahnil, and Wong, 2014; Lim, Osman, Salahuddin, Romle, and Abdullah, 2016; Severi, Kwek, and Nasermoadeli, 2014). Consequently, it is critical to further approve the Malaysian consumers purchase conduct.

1.3 Research Objectives

In view of the expressed problem statement in the past area, this segment will start with the research's general objective. Along these lines, a breakdown of the particular goals to inspect the reason for this research. The goals are exhibited as following:

1.2.1 General Objective

The reason for this research is to distinguish and look at consumers' purchase intention in Malaysia through social media marketing, brand loyalty and brand awareness. Other than that, this research rushes to discover the relationships between social media marketing, brand awareness and electronic word of mouth towards brand loyalty among the consumers in Malaysia inciting purchase intentions.

1.2.2 Specific Objectives

The following are the particular objectives of this research got from the general objective in the past area.

1. To investigate the relationship between social media marketing and, brand loyalty.
2. To identify the relationship between electronic word of mouth towards brand loyalty.
3. To distinguish the significant impact of social media marketing towards consumers purchase intention.
4. To analyze the correlation between brand loyalty and consumers' purchase intention.
5. To investigate the significant effects of electronic word of mouth by network individuals towards consumers purchase intention..

1.4 Research Questions

In light of the characterized objectives of section 1.3.2, there are five research questions the researcher is intrigued to look for the appropriate responses toward the end of the research. The research questions are as follows:

1. Is there any dedicated relationship between social media marketing and brand loyalty?
2. How does electronic word of mouth positively influence consumers' brand loyalty?
3. How does social media marketing impacts consumers' conduct on purchase intention of an item or service?
4. How does brand loyalty influence consumers' behaviour on purchase intention of an item or service?
5. How does electronic word of mouth affect the consumers' purchase intention of an item or service?

1.5 Significant of Studies

The whole South-East Asia locale is seeing a blast in the web based business, and Malaysia is focusing to be the Center of the online business in the coming years. Through the administration duties and activities, and also private division, for example, Alibaba Group peering toward on Malaysia as the territorial conveyance center point for their online business organizations. Web based business dealers are anticipating that a savage battle should be aggressive, brand awareness, and the engagement with the consumers to draw in and hold customer base. Therefore, this research assumed a crucial part to give a comprehension of the momentum internet business setting, particularly in Malaysia. The basic components explored in this research has significant effect on the consumer's choice to purchase an item or service. Consumers are continuously moving far from conventional media to advanced media for everyday data. Marketers that supporter conventional marketing media now could investigate computerized marketing on different platforms. Social media marketing does works another way from conventional marketing endeavors (Erdogmu§ and £i9ek, 2012). It is where both business and consumers co-making and accepting data about an item or service. The data made through social media marketing assumed a significant part in affecting other consumers in settling on purchase choices.

The social media marketing remains as a medium to advocate marketing to the consumers. In any case, electronic word of mouth is a vital component in social media marketing where positive or negative messages can be sent or imparted to a more prominent gathering of people at a small amount of times. It can make significant repercussion where it would enable marketers to upgrade the marketing endeavors to better contacting the wider groups of onlookers. The unimportant of holding faithful customers are ever harder with advanced marketing channels. Consumers are presented to numerous brands each day on social media platform and there is a notable change in the brand loyalty. The advancing needs of various generations in this computerized age, and the loyalty promise to brands are no longer agreeable on the grounds that consumers are widely presented to more up to date brands each day on social media that are flourishing to build up the association with consumers rather advancing the items.

Therefore, it is an open door for marketers to viably engage Malaysian consumers to fabricate the brand affections.

1.6 Term of References

The terms utilized as a part of this research are widely characterized and translated in view of various settings. Thus, it is important to give clear meanings of the key terminologies utilized as a part of the present research. The following terminologies are characterized with regards to this research and displayed as follows:

Social Media - Social media deciphered as the "websites and applications that empower clients to make and offer substance or to take an interest in social systems administration" (Oxford University Press, n.d.). Case of social media: Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and so on.

Social Media Marketing - Social Media Marketing portrayed as a type of Internet marketing used the social media as a marketing device where clients create and share content in helping business to expand brand understanding and widen customer achieve (Rouse, n.d.) that isn't conceivable by means of conventional marketing channels (Weinberg, 2009).

Brand Loyalty - Brand loyalty does not result just in steady purchase design, it can likewise bring out positive impression towards the brand, which isn't basically tied with the purchase of the brand (Aaker, 1991; Gounaris and Stathakopoulos, 2004; (Severi et al, 2014).

Word of Mouth (WOM) - An unpaid type of marketing push to pass encounters commendable data to other individuals the amount they like or aversion a brand, item, or service (Entrepreneur Media Inc., n.d.; Whitler, 2014).

Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) - eWOM alludes to the effect upon the enticing intensity of networks' individuals over the social media platform including the brand, and item (Anderson, Black, Machin, Marcouse, and Watson, 2014; Danieli, 2016; Severi et al, 2014).

Purchase Intention - Purchase intention is very much characterized as the likelihood the consumer will purchase the items (Danieli, 2016) later on which mirrors their intentions to purchase the items in view of their dispositions and feelings (Kim, Chun, and Ko, 2017).

1.7 Overview of the Report

This research endeavors to distinguish the effect of social media marketing, brand loyalty and electronic word of mouth on consumers' purchase intention, and to survey the relationship among social media marketing, and electronic word of mouth towards brand loyalty.

Part One: Introduction

Part one, the presentation, gives an expansive outline that features the rationale behind the research subject. This is finished by underlining the pertinence of the research subject and the significance in Malaysia consumers conduct towards purchase intention of an item or services. Meanwhile, this section is auxiliary including the Research Questions, and Objectives, Significant of Studies, Term of References, and finished up with a Summary for this part.

Part Two: Literature Review

The part furnishes a far reaching writing audit beginning with the general presentation of the theme when all is said in done and centers setting in Malaysia. Followed by the behavioral investigations of consumers that prompt the dialogs of every independent variables. The section structure is followed by past observational investigations, the theoretical framework, and the reasonable framework before prompting the hypotheses advancements. This section is partitioned into 10 sub-headings going for finding how social media marketing, and electronic word of mouth can influence brand loyalty, and from various angles to discover how social media marketing, brand loyalty, and electronic word of mouth can influence consumers purchase intentions.

Part Three: Methodology

Part three will layout the means on how the research is planned to be done regarding the research procedure configuration, kind of research, populace, the variables, the instruments, or strategies utilized for data accumulation, and different measurable testing techniques to help the data analysis in Chapter Four.

Part Four: Results

In this part, the raw collected data will housekeep before nourishing into factual software IBM SPSS Statistic rendition 23 for nitty gritty measurable examinations. Furthermore, the result of the factual investigations will be introduced in this section and too.

Section Five: Discussions

This section will examine the finding from the research, elucidation of the discoveries and whether the hypotheses are bolstered by the data or not. Furthermore, this part will incorporate the talk of impediments, and proposals for future research.

1.8 Summary

The improvement of social media has changed the way individuals cooperate with each other and how data is gathered and shared around. This is extremely normal nowadays with the millennial associates and continuously affecting the marketing endeavors particularly advancing the brand, item or service are done over the web on social media platforms through electronic word of mouth. Through the improvement of social media marketing as a prominent marketing channel over customary marketing channel, it additionally affected the consumers brand devotion as well. Business and consumers are co-making brand loyalty together through different engagements and distinctive when contrasted with before generations. Subsequently, the research may give shrewd data how Malaysian consumers respond to social media marketing, electronic word of mouth, and brand loyalty towards purchase intention of an item or service.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

In this part, the writing audit is sorted out with exhaustive surveys of the research theme through auxiliary data. As the part builds up, the surveys of important theoretical models are talked about before building up the calculated framework. In the following area will build up the hypotheses in light of the theoretical framework before consummation with an outline of this part.

2.1 Introduction

The utilization of social media as the cutting edge marketing instrument has changed the way marketers used to market the items and services in customary marketing channels. Marketers are currently pushing advantageous marketing efforts to pulls in the online network. In light of the focused social media marketplace, brands are eager to win the core of the twenty to thirty year olds through electronic word of mouth. Hamid (2016) announced that 32% of Malaysian are social media addicts, spending over 16 hours online in seven days. With the high number of hours online seven days, it is an advantage for the brands and marketers to target them on social media. With the internet shopping pattern is developing, consumers desire on web based shopping will challenge brands and marketers past costs (Asean Up, 2017). As indicated by EcommerceIQ (2017), Malaysia internet business market was evaluated at US$1billion in 2015 and anticipated that would build the web based shopping market measure by eight-folds to US$8billion. Subsequently, it is vital to consider the factors impacting the consumers' purchase intentions.

2.2 Social Media and Social Media Marketing

2.2.1 Social Media

The term of "Social Media" is built from correspondence science and human science which clarified in the correspondence setting as a means for putting away or conveying data while social systems are social structures made up of an arrangement of social performing artists with a mind boggling set of dyadic ties among them (Peters, Chen, Kaplan, Ognibeni, and Pauwels, 2013). Further detailed that, social media are 2-way correspondence channels which empowers the intelligent web's substance creation, collaboration and trade by people that framing a virtual network on social media platforms (Zeng and Gerritsen, 2014). Social media are generally extraordinary too contrasted with any conventional media due to their social system structure and libertarian nature (Peters et al, 2013). Diminishes et al (2013) contended that a brand is only a social performer in the system, which has no specialist in progressive '1: n' structure. In other words, a brand is much the same as other clients in the system and no longer appreciate the customary marketing benefit in forcing business messages presentation as in other media. Or on the other hand only a distributed correspondence channels which empower collaboration and trade by its clients (Zeng and Gerritsen, 2014). The following segment will examine the part of marketing in social media.

Hainla (2017) as of late distributed that social media is proceeding to pattern and developing.

Taking Facebook for instance, in 2015, Facebook had effectively affected 52% of the consumers on the web and offline purchasing conduct when contrasted with 36% of every 2014. In actualities, there are 50 million independent companies worldwide are currently utilizing social media channel, for example, Facebook to associate with their customers. A stunning of more than 4.4 million recordings were transferred to Facebook specifically back in February 2016, and effectively produced more than 199 billion perspectives from social media clients worldwide. On various platform, Twitter has 328 million dynamic clients, and it is extremely dynamic among its individuals in tweeting. The intensity of Twitter has demonstrated that more than 78% of individuals took the grumbles to a brand by means of Twitter are relied upon to be replied inside 60 minutes. Instagram, the photo, and video posting social media platform are famous among the organizations to engage with their followers which anticipated that would ascend to 70.7% by 2017 (Parker, 2016). As indicated by Parker (2016), more than 80% of the clients are from outside of the United States. Along these lines, it isn't only a social media platform for sharing recordings or pictures, however a marketing channel for organizations to engage with their followers.

2.2.2 Social Media Marketing

Social media is a great part of a coordinated marketing channel that its platforms included online journals, microblogs, email, and social systems administration sites gives numerous advantages to the two marketers and consumers to accomplish marketing correspondence and branding social objectives (Kaur, 2016; Smith, 2014). Social media has turned into an elective specialized instrument supporting existing relationships and exercises happily that can enhance the clients' involvement, said Kim and Ko (2010).

As opposed to customary marketing endeavors, Weinberg (2009) remarked that social media penetration would be proceeding to develop and Internet has turned out to be progressively social. Along these lines, this is a proceeding with drift where clients are swinging to social media for data, then conventional techniques. Weinberg further remarked that with the move of customary media to online social media, the consumer trusts on conventional media frames has declined and not as compelling as it was before any longer. This is because of moving into a customer-driven course than tuning in to brands just (Hutter, Hautz, Dennhardt, and Füller, 2013).

In examination with conventional marketing and the developing of correspondences, consumers are playing the lead part in marketing being a functioning maker and influencer. This phenomenon moved a few forces of brands straightforwardly to consumers in social media platform as per Hutter et al (2013).

Social media marketing empowered brands or people to advance their websites, items or services through the social media platform and connect with a bigger client network. The type of advancing is through checking on the substance or finding a helpful substance and advancing it inside the social media. The endeavors underlined all things considered rather than individualized as in conventional marketing channels (Weinberg, 2009).

Hutter et al (2013) contended that the result of social media marketing efforts on consumers' perception of items and brands, and the impact on purchase intention required more investigations for better understanding. In spite of the dangers and questions, brands cannot go out on a limb being truant in such great correspondence channel. In spite of that, Zeng and partner (2014) contended utilizing the social media to market items has ended up being a magnificent technique as a result of itself as a critical device. Furthermore, in this manner, brands persistently putting resources into social media exercises for being a piece of it and marketing their items and services. It is impactful as Tey (2015) composed that around 70% of Malaysian swing to brands' social media platform to research about the items previously submitting a purchase.

2.3 Brand Loyalty

To comprehend brand loyalty, it is critical to get brand from higher meta-level. As indicated by Keller (2013), a brand can be rational and unmistakable, or more representative, enthusiastic, and elusive. Keller (2013) further disclosed that to be substantial, it can be identified with the execution of the item; while impalpable more identified with what the brand speaks to. Brands are essential to the two consumers and organizations. For consumers, brands help to distinguish the producer of the item, go up against exceptional meaning for the consumers. Through some knowledge about a brand, consumers don't have to invest more energy in researching and becoming acquainted with the brand. While for organizations, a brand has a one of a kind affiliation and meanings that separate itself from other items. The quality and satisfaction of the brand will convert into brand loyalty that makes it more troublesome for other organizations to enter the market (Keller, 2013). While brands matter, it is essential to further investigate the brand value as an additional value for organizations in marketing idea (Vahdati and Mousavi Nejad, 2016). Aaker (1991) characterized that brand value is multidimensional theories and it incorporates attitudinal and behavioral measurements, which comprise of brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand affiliations, perceived quality, and brand exclusive. Brand value has been contemplated in money related and consumers' viewpoint. The past point of view is concentrating on the market value of the organization's benefit, while the last one responds towards the brand name (Severi and Ling, 2013). Vahdati and Nejad (2016) contended that brand loyalty assumed a significant part in brand value. Consequently, this segment would further talk about on brand loyalty while other measurements would be interests in future research.

Brand loyalty can be conceptualized as the last measurement of consumer brand reverberation symbolizing the with a brand, said Devi and Menezes (2016). Devi and Menezes (2016), and Severi and Ling (2013) remarked that brand loyalty get deals, market share, profitability, helping business to the group or keeping up themselves in the marketplace is where brands have increase selective, positive, and unmistakable meaning in the psyches of extensive quantities of consumers. The procedure of brand loyalty creation included a few variables among are the brand connection and network responsibility, where network individuals' promise to the network results in extra connection to the brand around which the network is focused (Balakrishnan et al, 2014). Consistent acquiring of one brand after some time and declining to move to contenders' brands is an indication of brand loyalty (Severi and Ling, 2013; Calvo-Porral and Lang, 2015; Sasmita and Mohd Suki, 2015). Branding has turned out to be more open and consumers are picking which brands to collaborate with and forming the brand values themselves (Smith, 2014). Smith further clarified that consumers sincerely put resources into the brand, more dedicated and faithful to the brand whom they are associated with the brand networks through the brand fan pages. Erdogmu? and £iqek (2012) remarked that organizations have better advantages when utilizing social media marketing in social media platform to engage and construct brand loyalty with consumers over the customary platforms. In other words, social media encourages brands to construct brand loyalty. What's more, it can be effortlessly connected with the electronic word of mouth that associates audit and discussion give better validity and in this manner help the brand acknowledgment and brand loyalty.

2.4 Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth

Consumers are accepting high quantities of data with respect to the brands, items, and services day by day. The tremendous measure of data is through numerous notices promoted on various marketing channels. With numerous data at hands, it makes a troublesome circumstance for consumers to choose (Erkan, 2016). Therefore, WOM ventures in as a standout amongst the most solid wellsprings of data for consumers since it comprises of confided in consumers suppositions and encounters than marketer promoted (Erkan, 2016; Huete-Alcocer, 2017; Gfrerer and Pokrywka, 2012; Nakayama, Wan, and Sutcliffe, 2010).

2.4.1 Word of Mouth

Word of mouth or WOM is viewed as one of the most established strategies for passing on data (Huete-Alcocer, 2017). It is characterized in a frame where verbal correspondence occurred between individual to individual in a non-business setting (Nakayama et al, 2010). Nakayama et al (2010) clarified that verbal correspondence is comprehensive of trade of remarks, musings, and thoughts. Gfrerer and Pokrywka (2012), and Huete-Alcocer (2017) displayed that WOM is a widely acknowledged notion in the teach of consumer conduct that molding consumers' mentalities and practices toward the brands, items, or services. The correspondence between consumers is viewed as independent and non-business driven on the relational trade of data for the item or service. In other words, consumers dependably settle on the choice to purchase on the guidance given through word of mouth rather than confiding in the sponsor's guarantees. In other words, WOM is considered as an abnormal state dependable, reliable, and sound wellspring of data when contrasted with promoted media as a less solid source. Items audits and testimonies from known sources (the case of relatives, relatives, companions, associates, and companions) are viewed as confided in source in WOM and is very convincing in adjusting consumers demeanors and practices. Other than that, the level of knowledge which the sender or the wellspring of WOM assumes a vital part as well. It happens when the recipients perceived that they obtained qualified data and persuaded. Therefore, it will influence the consumers, or the recipients wanted for purchases (Erkan and Evan, 2016). The impact of WOM is much stronger when consumers thinking about purchasing perplexing, tough, costly, or basic items, for example, house, auto, money related and medicinal services (Nakayama et al, 2010).

The reason consumers participating in WOM is because of the sentiments consumers' accomplished. Consumers that feels fulfilled or disappointed are more disposed to engage in WOM exercises. Consumers who encounter positive emotions have the inclination to share data supporting their brand. In other words, these consumers are considered as the dedicated consumers (Gfrerer and Pokrywka, 2012). Consequently, the sharing of encounters in WOM are viewed as honest to goodness and dissimilar to promotions made by marketers that isn't powerful.

2.4.2 Electronic Word of Mouth

Electronic word of mouth is the change of customary word of mouth as how individuals connect in conventional word of mouth (Hodza, Papadopoulou, and Pavlidou, 2012), yet on a platform over the Internet (Erkan and Evan, 2016; Gfrerer and Pokrywka, 2012; Huete- Alcocer, 2017; Nakayama, et al, 2010). As opposed to WOM, eWOM is composed type of the WOM on the Internet through the social media platform, and online client networks' sites. eWOM worked as a more up to date correspondence frame to widespread the item surveys and testimonials to numerous consumers in a shorter time contrasted with WOM. It has the open door also to spread the underlying message online that considered boundless reach.

What's more, it is viewed as solid, valid, and reliable since the consumers have no business interests towards the item or the brand (Erkan and Evan, 2016; Gfrerer and Pokrywka, 2012; Huete-Alcocer, 2017; Nakayama et al, 2010; Hodza et al, 2012; Smith, 2014; Balakrishnan et al, 2014). In spite of the fact that it is accepted to be reliable and begun from consumers without self-premiums, electronic word of mouth can be roused and affected by marketers to direct consumers' in posting remarks in the way they need it (Erkan and Evan, 2016; Hodza et al, 2012). The web is ceaselessly developing with the eWOM as correspondence turn out to be speedier, less demanding with technologies. Consumers can look for marketer created data and also consumer-created data for the item they mean to purchase. For sure, eWOM has the better advantage over customary WOM in light of the fact that the two consumers and marketers can post visual components, for example, pictures, and recordings that give other consumers a chance to better comprehend the data, and thusly helping them to settle on better choices (Erkan and Evan, 2016). Moreover, eWOM gives organizations the platform to recognize the consumers' needs and perceptions in cost-successful behavior (Huete-Alcocer, 2017). Huete-Alcocer (2017) further contended that eWOM has turned into an essential divert in social media marketing.

2.4.3 Differences between WOM & eWOM

One of the primary contrasts amongst WOM and eWOM is the consideration of eWOM to be the electronic adaptations of customary WOM. Nonetheless, the examinations proposed more than that. Huete-Alcocer (2017) contended the validity of in conditions including numerous senders and collectors, and influencing the end consumers. The believability of the sender's message or data in WOM could be modified or twisted amid passing the data to the following recipient and eventually the end consumer. While in eWOM, the first message is in composed frame, for example, audits, remarks, or testimonies, diminished the dangers as the first message can be followed back to the sender and expanded the consumer confidences. Notwithstanding, validity in WOM is exceedingly positive also when the beneficiary knows the sender in person which is considered as the confided in wellspring of WOM (Gfrerer and Pokrywka, 2012; Huete-Alcocer, 2017; Nakayama et al, 2010). Conversely, sender in eWOM could remain in anonymous, hence diminished the validity of the relationship between both the sender and recipient. Huete-Alcocer (2017) further remarked that protection in WOM between the sender and recipient is high while in eWOM, data shared never again is private and can be seen by anybody over the web. The speed and simple entry to data assumed a significant part to recognize both WOM and eWOM. In eWOM, data can be acquired all the more rapidly without the need to sit tight for the confided in source to offer a conclusion. Other than that, it can be utilized to approve the gotten WOM audits. As WOM correspondence happens individual to individual, correspondence in eWOM isn't limited by time and area confinements (Erkan and Evan, 2016; Huete-Alcocer, 2017). Albeit both WOM and eWOM are apparently comparable, and in the meantime exceptionally divergent. It is concurred that both are exceptionally compelling on consumer purchase practices.

2.5 Purchase Intention

Intention to purchase has been checked in numerous assorted research circumstances by researchers. For instance, Lim et al (2016) tested the purchase intention as mediating part in web based shopping conduct; while Danieli (2016) research on social media marketing framework intending to expand purchase intention. Other than that, Chang, Dewanti, and Pratiwi (2016) investigate the brand and purchase intention; while Praharjo, Wilopo, and Kusumawati (2016) research on the effect of electronic word of mouth on repurchase intention mediating by brand loyalty and perceived hazard. Purchase intention is communicated as consumer's will to guarantee certain action identified with future utilization or probability of buying later on (Kim and Ko, 2010). Balakrishnan et al (2014) further clarified that purchase intention conveys a few meanings which are the readiness to think about purchasing, an intention to purchase later on, and the choice to repurchase. Past that, purchase intentions allude to the level of perceptual conviction of a customer to purchase an item. Kim and Ko (2010) specified that purchase intention is relying upon a few factors, for example, prompt that triggers consumer towards considering an item or a brand to be incorporated into their consideration set. Consumers will experience a procedure of perceiving the expected item to purchase, then will further research and break down the item before resolve to get it (Lim et al, 2016).

Erkan (2014) contended that data quality, data believability, and data convenience are the few factors impacting consumers' purchase intentions. He inferred that higher quality surveys prompted having stronger purchase intentions; while the positive relationship was seen between tenable data towards purchase intentions. Furthermore, the value of data is significantly connected with purchase intentions. In spite of the fact that the previously mentioned factors are affecting consumers' purchase intention, Tariq, Abbas, Abrar, and Iqbal (2017) called attention to that purchase intention is expanded with cost and advancement, brand acknowledgment, and too the expanded awareness with the brand. As indicated by Ajzen (1991) in the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), person's behavioral intention is influenced by the perceived mentality toward the conduct, and the subjective norm, the perception of social weights from the general population encompassing them. Hansen, Jensen, and Solgaard (2004) clarified that TRA is worried about rational volitional and precise conduct in light of the fact that most practices are social importance and under volitional control and unsurprising from intention which the individual has control. Ajzen (1991) clarified that the mentality toward the conduct portrays how much a man has a positive or negative assessment or evaluation of the conduct being referred to. While, the subjective norm is an element of an arrangement of convictions named normative convictions that alludes to the perceived social strain to perform or not to play out the conduct (Ajzen, 1991; Yousafzai, Foxall, and Pallister, 2010). As subjective norm portrays the impact or the weight of society on people. Electronic word of mouth is a method for showing the potential, present or future remarks either positive or troublesome in regards to an item or brand on the web (Cheng and Huang, 2013) that prompt purchase intentions. Further strengthen the Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model placed better lucidity that a man is expected to play out certain conduct if the individual has real control over the conduct (Lim et al, 2016). Subsequently, when a man has ideal mentalities and subjective norm, it will prompt an acceleration of purchase intentions of an item or service.

2.6 Previous Empirical Studies

Experimental investigations are the logical technique for testing a hypothesis through the accumulation and analysis of essential data that in view of quantitative and subjective methodologies. The significance of experimental research is important to demonstrate past the theory and unique thinking featured by researchers, scholastics, and researchers (Better Thesis, n.d.; Ithaca College Library, n.d.). Therefore, in this area, the research will feature past observational investigations led by researchers to draw regard for the measurable relationship between variables (Better Thesis, n.d.).

2.6.1 Social Media Marketing to Brand Loyalty

Devi and Menezes (2016) led an organized questionnaire with 281 dynamic social media clients, and followed no less than a brand on social media platforms. The results of the study demonstrate that social media marketing efforts framed positive states of mind towards brand loyalty which is positively significant.

In 2015, Zheng, Cheung, Lee, and Liang (2015) led constructing brand loyalty through client engagement in online brand networks in social systems administration sites focused on 185 dynamic Facebook clients and collected the data through an online survey. The result of the study demonstrates that client engagement impacted brand loyalty both straightforwardly and by implication. Erdogmu? and Qiqek (2012) considered the effect of social media marketing on brand loyalty in Turkey on customers who followed no less than one brand on the social media. Questionnaire was utilized to gather data from 338 individuals. The results of the study demonstrated that customers' brand loyalty was positively influenced by the social media marketing offered by the brand.

2.6.2 Electronic Word of Mouth to Brand Loyalty

Severi et al (2014) directed the impact of electronic word of mouth on brand value in 2014. The study collected an aggregate of 300 helpful data by means of questionnaires in one of the private college in Malaysia. The result of the study delineated that electronic word of mouth significantly affected the brand loyalty in this particular affiliation.

Balakrishnan et al (2014) examined the effect of social media marketing medium towards purchase intention and brand loyalty among generation Y in Malaysia. The test results were significant where electronic word of mouth has a positive impact on brand loyalty. This study was conducted via the questionnaire with 200 students.

2.6.3 Social Media Marketing to Purchase Intention

Danieli in 2016 used mixed method configuration to gather and examine both qualitative (email meet) and quantitative data (online survey) on the social media marketing systems towards the expansion of consumers' purchase intentions. Through her discovering, social media marketing is observed to be persuasive upon purchase intentions. Mao, Sang, and Zhu (2014) examined the consumer purchase intention in light of social media marketing with an aggregate 283 questionnaires reclaimed. From the analysis, social media marketing positively impacts the consumers' purchase intention

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Title
The Influence of social media marketing, brand loyalty, brand awareness towards consumer purchase intention. An empirical analysis
College
Limkokwing University of Creative Technology
Grade
3.9
Author
Year
2018
Pages
88
Catalog Number
V996400
ISBN (eBook)
9783346367587
ISBN (Book)
9783346367594
Language
English
Tags
social media, marketing, brand loyalty, brand awareness, consumer purchase intention
Quote paper
Yusuf Balarabe Abdullahi (Author), 2018, The Influence of social media marketing, brand loyalty, brand awareness towards consumer purchase intention. An empirical analysis, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/996400

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