Diversity Management in Transnational Collaboration and Leadership. An Analysis

Scientific Essay, 2021

26 Pages, Grade: 2.0


Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Methodology

2.0 Leadership for Transnational Collaboration

3.0 The Organizational Culture

4.0 Gender Equality

5.0 The Art of Communication

6.0 The Role of Technology in Transnational Collaboration

7.0 The Role of Immigration in Transnational Collaboration

8.0 The Role of Training in Transnational Collaboration




There is a significant need to manage the working place inclusively considering differences in values, cultures, viewpoints, backgrounds, and several other aspects. This can happen only by wise, smart, equipped, and motivational leadership (Erbe & Normore, 2015). The leader requires the right communication channel with various skills to adapt quickly to the working environment and lead the employees. In an international environment, organizational culture can be a vital element because having staff members from different cultures sends the message that something that you may think is right can be wrong from an individual perspective. It is better to know your employees fast and ensure that nothing will go wrong (James, 2019). Globally, women’s involvement in the labor market can be beneficial as our worldwide economy can increase $160 trillion if we consider both males and females with equal access to the job market (WB, 2018). In a transnational collaboration and leadership, communication can help convey the right information to the right audience in a unified and transparent way. The failure to manage the data transfer in an office can weaken trust, conflict, dispute, and other consequences (Toprak, Elif, Genc-Kumtepe, & Evrim., 2014). The critical human capital in the global environment comes from immigration, and the migrants have had potential contributions to the developed countries’ economic growth with their talents and expertise. There is a projection of demand for 4.3 million workforces in the next decade (Elias, 2020), and this demand can be achieved by skilling up our workforce, conducting workshops, training, and short courses (Buvat, et al., 2017).

Is leadership the critical driver in a transnational environment? How to ensure an inclusive organizational culture for everyone? Is gender equality a positive driver in diversity management? How, as a leader, should we follow our communication? What is there for us in using the technology for collaboration? Is migration a need for developed countries? Is there a need for training in a diverse working place?

This paper explores the requirements of leading in an international environment.

1.0 Introduction

Management in the second half of the 20th century was a driving element to involve the underprivileged groups into the job market in the United States and Western Europe. Still, its scope was not as broad as it is today (Mcdonald, 2010). The more in-depth approach toward diversity management as an efficient tool, positive in organizational values, respect to the individuals’ culture, and establishing a workplace where shared vision is given for everyone, was proposed by Roosevelt Thomas in 1990 (Ashikali & Groeneveld, 2015). Globalization in today’s world has brought us both good fortunes and challenges that we should face, train ourselves, face them with our skills and innovative approaches (Erbe & Normore, 2015). Our world is diverse with various levels of mindset, thought, language, faith, and several other beauties within nations. We have many regional and international companies, organizations as profit, nonprofit with variety in their size and capital, which has provided decent work to individuals from diverse backgrounds (Erbe, 2014).

There is an opportunity for collaboration through a channel consisting of diverse educational backgrounds, career records, language, gender, and behaviors. Still, it is essential to ensure that everyone is well educated to communicate most constructively. Now, leadership makes more sense to lead the organization by establishing a framework of trust and respect for each other’s opinions, values, creed, cultures, and so forth. This will show the organization to minimize the variances and concentrate on attaining the targets and objectives (Erbe & Normore, 2015). A leader in an organization must be an expert in diversity management by being aware of his/her strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats within the working environment. The failure to manage the balance will mark him/her as a fanatic leader, influencing the organization's image indoor and outdoor, the resignation of crucial highly qualified human capital, and high cost to recover (Reuben, 2005). In addition, culture has a framework for itself, which enhances the solidarity and unity in our side-by-side existence (R.William, 1970), and a prominent leader can facilitate this structure in all sectors where humans are involved (Ahmad, Franciss, & Zairi, 2007). Transnational and global corporations have created the culture of studying and adapting to other people’s values. For instance, as of 2014 the Nike Company extended its scope of activities to 44 territories by creating 984,136 job opportunities in 715 factories, which this progress would have not been possible without conducting research about the host nation’s culture, interests, values, and other aspects (Erbe & Normore, 2015).

Communication can be a potential tool to remove the differences, understand our values, and fortify our existence on this planet (Peleg, 2010). Trust and mutual respect can be formed by having supportive coordination, as it is efficient in communication (Pearce, 2007). The collaboration process can be influenced by the variances in the number of religions, languages, values, and creeds we have among different groups of people (Kamaara, Vasko, & Viau, 2012), and yet everyone should have the ability to listen to others’ idea, analyze that, and welcome better viewpoints (Deardorff, 2006). Rivalry can be replaced and developed by collaboration if we make our decisions with behavioral and ethical orders because this way, we share one vision for everyone (Axelrod, 2012). On the other hand, technology is contributing to our communications and the accomplishment of our daily tasks. Our world is now more connected and considered a small world, which the internet has paved the ground for this progress. This progress has emerged new concepts such as international trade, online banking, global economies, outsourcing in human capital, and several other words (Gries, Grundmann, & Palnau, 2017). In this situation, companies should align their capacity with this ongoing demand by conducting more capacity-building programs in transnational collaboration and how to lead it (Hofstede, 1983). The worldwide immigration of people from developing countries to developed countries has been one of the drivers to the transnationalism concept. This helps the developed countries to complete their workforce with less labor wage, bring balance to their population, and continue being the developed world (Lima, 2010).

1.1 Methodology

This paper was written with the method of a literature review from printed and online sources. At first, the diversity management history and dimensions were expressed. Next, the paper focused on a leader’s role in managing the workforce in a diverse environment. This is a practical approach as nowadays leadership is required in international and multinational companies with various human capital. In this paper, the leader has been connected with the tools it needs to have a successful office leader. The first tool is having an organized and diverse organizational culture to understand and respect the differences. The second tool is the art of communication and ways to prevent the misinterpretation of the information being forwarded among employees. The third element is the usage of technology to lead the work and team physically and remotely anytime in anywhere as per the requirement. In addition, there has been concentration on two topics that should be taken into consideration in transnational collaboration, and they are keeping the gender balance in providing the opportunities, and conducting various training sessions to keep the staff up to date with the changing world. Overall the paper flow of discussing the topics have been organized in the most attractive and insightful way that refers back to the title of the paper in every paragraph. The sources have been cited from 1970 to 2020, which gives the paper the spirit of remembering the already existing concepts and how they have been changing nowadays.

2.0 Leadership for Transnational Collaboration

The transnational working environment is an inclusive type in a workplace. This variety is linked to various people in an organization about their gender, ethnicity, education, age, race, behavior, values, creed, and other aspects, making one from another different (Esty, Griffin, & Schorr-Hirsh, 1995). In this system, we should expect a workforce to work under one roof from various cultural and values backgrounds. This atmosphere requires leadership to maintain those artistic principles (Farnsworth, et al., 2002). Companies can have remarkable interest from diversity in the worksites, because the employees expand their market, develop numerous initiatives, and increase the corporate reputation (Esty, Griffin, & Schorr-Hirsh, 1995). However, there is a challenge for a leader to lead the workforce with this variety, as it is not only accepting their difference and presence, but it requires considering an equal opportunity for everyone, ensuring justice, fighting prejudice, and seeing everyone equally. Failing to do so will result in legal consequences, losing the human capital, and reducing work quality and quantity (Devoe, 1999). To change the world, it requires every individual’s contribution, and this can be easily seen in a diverse working environment, where it is expected to have mutual trust, respect, access to equal benefits, promotion, and fair behaviors (Farnsworth, et al., 2002). Leadership can be affected by international developments and technology in a transnational collaboration system. Still, to minimize the influence, the executive board and employees should learn the changes and adapt to this development (William, et al., 2016). Moreover, a leader should know what the workforce expects from him and how he should react to those expectations (Kulik, 2014). The transnational workplace leaders should transform continuously to cross-cultural directions to have unceasing leadership (Chuang, 2013). According to an assessment by the Centre for Creative Leadership in 2016 in crucial seven developing and developed countries, leaders are facing six potential challenges among other issues in their workplace as below:

1- Lack of enhancing required skills in punctuality, doing tasks before deadline, strategic planning, being efficient, and deciding comprehensively.
2- They are failing to encourage employees for more result-oriented work.
3- They are facing obstacles in terms of training the workforce.
4- They cannot be a good team player and leader, especially when facing new teams.
5- Lack of eligibility to transform the staff to the new changes smoothly and without significant reactions.
6- Lack of keeping the partnership channels productive and the office politics clean.

It is recommended for a leader to move on by setting goals and considering deadlines for each goal. Next, defining what is the exact job description and learning to say “No”. Besides, it is significant for a leader to revise her behaviors and type of relationships built with staff and quickly motivate and lead the team (William, et al., 2016). For being a good team player, it is advised to be a transparent leader, who gives everyone the space to be innovative, cooperative, and responsible, can build trust, and work with passion (Olivia, 2016). In terms of office politics, a leader should be clear about its consequences if anything is noticed by the staff action, and it should follow with decisive decisions (Martins, n.d.).

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Figure 1. Top 10 (of 34) Challenges Mentioned by Leaders in Each Country. Adapted from “The Challenges Leaders Face Around the World,” by Center for Creative Leadership, (2016). Retrieved from https://www.ccl.org/wp content/uploads/2015/04/ChallengesLeadersFace.pdf

3.0 The Organizational Culture

Cultural diversity is divided among countries, and each country has it's own social and works ethics, way of communication, traditions, behavioral values, and the leadership-labor flow of management (Brenda, Kowske, & Anthony, 2007). In Asian countries like China and Japan, the employee has an indirect communication style with gestures to pass the messages to the receiver. In Western countries like Germany and the United Kingdom, you can find direct communications with loads of messages (Hackman & Johnson, 2004). Each individual in a diverse environment has his own cultural identity mixed with his/her career, and this should be valued and accepted by all parties. After accepting, it is time to build trust for better communication, cooperation, and work productivity. Furthermore, it is essential to extend this concept among all staff members to understand each other’s ability better, and this will lead the whole organization to a common and shared goal to achieve with a collaborative spirit, but we must not add that much focus in this flow to shift the situation from collaboration to competition (James, 2019).

The employees can be trained through organizational culture. These organizational cultures can affect our career journey, connect us within its values and objectives, give us a broad identity, and involve us in a manner to feel as organization's success is our success. These internal cultures persuade everyone in a specific structure on how to make decisions and think, where to speak up, and to whom specific matter should be forwarded, overall it is a complex bond of each value and way of leading the task within an organization (Cirnu & Boncea, 2017). On the other hand, scheduling social activities as part of organizational culture can reduce work stress, create an informal chat atmosphere, feel more like a family with shared goals, and so forth. This can happen by celebrating a significant goal accomplishment, sports events, games, and other amusing activities (Towers, Mark, & Spanyi, 2004). Cultural diversity can allow everyone to learn from each other’s success, skills, mistakes, innovative ideas, and perspective, leading to fruitful results, and increasing the organization’s image and interests. For instance, 48% of corporates had an increase in their market value compared to another 33% in the US in 2013, and the main factor for this difference had a diverse workforce in the leadership (Clarke, n.d.).

4.0 Gender Equality

According to the global gender gap index, developed regions have the highest gender gap than developing regions. For instance, Western Europe is leading this gap by 73%, but the Middle East and North Africa jointly have 60% (WEF, 2018). Women participation has been facing gaps in key two sectors; there is a 77.1% gap in political engagement and 41.9% less involvement in the economic area globally. In terms of head of government, only in 17 countries are women in the lead out of 149 territories. This is going to cost us 202 years for the economy and 107 years for political gap recovery. Data indicates that worldwide, 24% as senate or parliament members and 18% as a minister are women (WEF, 2018). Illiteracy is another primary concern for women, which 20% of their population is affected in 44 countries, and compared to men paid jobs, they spend more time doing housework than participating in jobs with income. In addition, the mean enrollment level globally in school is 66% male and 65% female students along with 39% of girls and 34% of boys are attending university. Our world requires 108 years to minimize this gap in 106 territories (WEF, 2018).

It is a smart approach and beneficial for a company or an organization to use from men and women (ILO, 2015). One of the factors in diversity management is to keep the balance of gender diversity in our workforce without imposing any prejudiced actions to their potential (Dźwigoł-Barosz & Leooski, 2019). Women participation in the 21st century has increased in the global labor market (Ali, Kulik, & Metz, 2011), and this growth has created diverse teamwork stations in various industries across our world, which the result can be seen in a dramatic rise in the quantity and quality of their work productivity (Dwight, et al., 2003). Moreover, there is a direct link between how inclusive you have gender groups in your workforce and the expectations you have from the amount of work being executed by the employees, but this relationship’s dominant element is cultural differences, which this value should be perceived before judging on the outcomes (Dick, et al., 2008). According to a survey in Poland, it was found that in leadership, men are hard-hearted in attaining the given goal, take risks comprehensively, are very skilled in leading teams, and take swift decisions in a short time compared to women. However, women are found more cooperative in teamwork, more alert in identifying the sentiments and equipped with more carefulness compared to men (Wilk, 2011). Having inclusive women participation in the economic sector can assist countries, communities, and families in transforming the overall economy of the country and its GDP to an ideal status. Gender equality with access to equal opportunities globally in the labor market can increase the global economy to $160 trillion (WB, 2018). The businesses following both genders in leading positions have an advantage compared to those companies that fail to do it. These businesses have indicated 48% more operational performance, business development level is 42% further, incomes have received 45% added value, and their decision-making art is 73% more result-oriented (Garijo, 2019).

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Figure 2. Global Gender Gap Index 2018, by region. Adapted from “The Global Gender Gap Report,” by World Economic Forum, (2018). Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-gender-gap-report-2018

5.0 The Art of Communication

The working environment worldwide is transforming swiftly to diverse workplaces due to globalizing developments. Despite the advantages it has brought to various industries, but it still has obstacles in its front (Lauring, 2011). In an international context of collaboration and exchanging information, which requires mutual understanding in a unified way, communication is the only bridge to fill this gap by interpreting the cultural differences, visions, conflict of ideas, values, and so forth. Communication in a diverse environment facilitates togetherness, shared value, common objective, and approaching the issue as one group (Toprak, Elif, Genc-Kumtepe, & Evrim., 2014). Communication is vital as today the corporates and businesses are not disconnected from the world as they used to be. Now it is time to expand their work scope with other parts of the world to have continuous progress. It is better to have an efficient way of exchanging information to play better in the competitive market (Ober, 2006). Intramural communication channel by the human resource section of an organization is not only conveying data, facts, figures, but also includes some spirit of being thankful, encouragement, persuading for more involvement in the matter, and keeping the teams satisfied (Lockley, n.d.).


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Diversity Management in Transnational Collaboration and Leadership. An Analysis
Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences
Sustainable Development Management
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ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
Diversity, Management, Transnational, Leadership, Collaboration, business, startup, international, gender, technology, communication
Quote paper
Sayed Ahmad Fahim Masoumi (Author), 2021, Diversity Management in Transnational Collaboration and Leadership. An Analysis, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/997746


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