Translation of Literature and the Problem of Finding Equivalences. The Role of Culture in Language

Academic Paper, 2015

22 Pages


Table of Contents




Cultural hidrances and solutions in some lietrary works

Strategies of translating allusions

Evalution of translation




The point of this examination is to research the translation strategies that prompted cultural losses and to underscore the important job of the interpreter as a cultural insider.Translating artistic is by all accounts the hardest undertaking to do, as a result of the cultural blocks which are confronting the translation procedure. Since the translation procedure is occurring between two different dialects, and as a conspicuous aftereffect of the communication between the two dialects, the translation procedure happens between the two different societies too, this is the reason the researcher have handled the exploration matter with the end goal to appear and comprehend the conceivable cultural deterrents that may the interpreter go over amid the deciphering procedure. Translating literature is dangerous essentially on the grounds that it includes translating the allegorical or metaphorical implications of writings. There is dependably a setting in which the translation happens, dependably a history behind a content and into which a content is transported, dependably an individual (the interpreter) having a place with a specific culture and a social foundation and dependably a readership whom the interpreter has as a top priority. The analysis obviously depicts the entanglements of translation and underscores the significance of cultural mindfulness when endeavoring to communicate. This paper has a tendency to examine the cultural hindrances in literary prose works with the end goal to get to the base of these issues and attempt to locate a genuine feasible solutions to treat them.


Literary writings contain words that are regularly unusual in some or other way and used to make an embellishment on the peruser. This embellishment is showed in plays, verse, dramatization, books and other inventive composed works. Translating literature is tricky just on the grounds that it includes translating the allegorical or non-literal implications of writings. There is dependably a setting in which the translation happens, dependably a history from which a content rises and into which a content is transported, dependably an individual (the translator) having a place with a specific culture and a social foundation and dependably a readership whom the translator has as a primary concern. Cultural comprehension amid the procedure of translation is extremely essential particularly in the translation of literary writings, which require an exertion with respect to the translator to hold the cultural information(reflected generally in the allegorical dialect) of the source message in the target content. Such cultural translation is known to be one of the most challenging parts of translation. It includes the translation of etymological structures as a piece of culture, in which the translator considers not just the identicalness of meaning, but likewise researches larger amounts of substance, setting, semantics, and pragmatics.

Translation is considered as a methods for transmitting learning, culture, and ways of life, yet the term translation itself is a long way from the above assignment, Translation is recreating in the accepting dialect the bordering proportionality of the first importance at the levels of phonetics, pragmatics, style, and culture; Consequently, translation is a procedure which happens between two dialects: The source dialect and The objective dialect; I.e. transmitting information, with respect to a high degree the first message the source dialect needed to pass on at first. Translating literary prose is the translation with reference to books, expositions, short stories, comic drama, society story, hagiography, works of feedback, sci-fi, and so on. Translation is that sort of remaking the literary prose importance from its unique dialect into the objective one similarly the writer of the SL is foreseen to pass on that significance to his objective perusers. In more straightforward words, literary prose translation is the dedicated interpretation of trite works from its SL into the TL.

This article researches 'cultural losses' happening in the translationof Arabic literary writings. We examine the strategies received amid the translation procedure to perceive how the choices assumed prompted lost the source culture (consequently cultural losses). We propose the three primary arguments. To begin with, cultural losses or in equivalences result for the most part from overlooking the scholarships or figurative of the source text.Omitting or adjusting the allegory (cultural analogies, idiomatic expressions, and sayings) of the source content is especially sensitive in literary translation and will result in a translation that is out of line to the source message, the source culture and the intended interest group. Second, the contend that cultural losses will be losses on the profound emblematic level,or the 'emics' of the source dialect henceforth, they require an exertion with respect to the translator to hold these emics and catch the cultural ramifications implied by the source author.Accordingly, the translation item would be culturally more suitable if the translator accept the capacity of a cultural insider.Finally, cultural losses are setting delicate, they are, by and large,losses of the new as are set apart to the objective readers.In this article, we initially present a general survey of literature on-figurative dialect and the etic-emic approach, at that point, we continue within analysis and exchange of cultural losses, at last, the examination investigate the losses from the perspective of notability hypothesis and propose agraded continuum of these losses.

This detailed research of this paper looks to focus on the cultural issues in translating literary prose. It is demonstrated that translation isn't just an association between two dialects yet in addition between two societies. Since culture and dialect are indivisible, the more the two societies are not normal for, the more issues there will be; for example, the essential issue which may go up against the prose-translator is searching for articulations in the objective dialect that may express the most abnormal amount of devotion conceivable to the importance of the source articulation. This exploration depends on specific creators specifically which may straightforwardly serve the examination's topic, unique translation expecting to research the cultural hindrances that went up against the translator and how he unraveled them, notwithstanding different assets which will be made reference to in the book index.


Translation and culture are two ideas which are different however not in restriction since culture is a piece of the dialect that would be converted into another dialect, as dialect is a piece of culture, thus it is difficult to isolate dialect from the way of life, yet translation is a test to the impediment of the way of life and information that one dialect force on the dialect speakers too, translation takes this learning to more extensive degree through the procedure of translation, Julian house pronounced that "in spite of the fact that translation can be viewed as a sort of confinement, it likewise has the contrary capacity of defeating the constraints that specific dialects force on their speakers", the translation when all is said in done and especially the translation of literary prose works have extraordinary worry with the cultural perspectives the dialect conveys; in other words, philosophy, topography, phonetic culture and so on. "Culture might be comprehensively characterized as an arrangement of convictions which administers the standards of conduct of society. These convictions incorporate religion, economy, legislative issues, literature and dialect. Hence, dialect is a vital piece of culture, and translation includes two societies, the way of life of the source dialect (source culture) and that of target dialect (target culture)".

"The translation of words alone isn't sufficient; the way of life that lies behind the words must not be overlooked" Kelly that is to state that translation isn't just the recreation of the source content to an objective one regarding dialect just however it stretched out additionally to the entire cultural legacy that must be transmitted to the objective dialect too, the emphasis mustn't be on words on the consider of culture we have made reference to over that they are indivisible, concerning this Some Difficulties in Translation "Dialects are positively affected by the way of life they are a piece of" yet the way of life can be transmitted just through dialect, Julian said in a similar issue "translation isn't just a semantic demonstration, it is likewise a cultural one, a demonstration of correspondence crosswise over societies.

Translation dependably includes both dialect and culture basically in light of the fact that the two can't be isolated", translation might be viewed as an exacting procedure, in actuality it is a strict procedure on the off chance that we see it from the view that it manages words all things considered, anyway it has a ton to manage a culture that is inserted in the source content, particularly when we discuss literary translation, "A literary translator should likewise be sufficiently talented to interpret emotions, cultural subtleties, humor and other sensitive components of a bit of work. Truth be told, the translators don't interpret implications however the messages".

Translation is the interpretation of the soul that is established in the source content (word), and it is smarter to maintain a strategic distance from strict translation as it doesn't appropriately serve the point of translation which is transporting the source message that comprises of cultural subtleties and reference that can't be transported through the exacting translation since dialects are not at all like in numerous lingual angles and cultural ones as well, phonetic culture for example is "the manner by which individuals see the outer world and what they draw between its different parts are probably going to be reflected in their dialects" in other words clearly individuals see the world's unique and solid protests differently and this is reflected in their dialects, yet it is difficult to discover 100% likeness between two dialects, thus we can't decipher the cultural foundation one dialect worried about through exacting translation, with the exception of few cases, dwindle Newmark have a different view however not direct inverse, he expressed that "Numerous translators say you ought to never decipher words, you decipher sentences or thoughts or messages. I think they are beguiling themselves. The SL content comprises of words, which are all there, on the page. At long last the sum total of what you have is words to make an interpretation of, and you need to represent every one of them some place in your TL content" and he carried on "I am not proposing you decipher disconnected words. You interpret words that are pretty much etymologically, referentially, culturally and abstractly impacted in their importance, words molded by a specific semantic, referential, cultural and individual setting", i.e. Newmark did not totally deny the need to contextualize the translation of words however he indicated the need of etymological concentrate instead of endeavoring to confine the plan to suit the objective dialect.

Dialect, culture and literary translation are interrelated ideas "a standout amongst the latest improvement in translation hypothesis is the presentation of culture as a factor during the time spent translation, sees literary translation as a component of literary dialect, and is in this manner a cultural movement which enhances the cultural legacy of nation", and literary translation is a methods used to release the content from its "reliance on earlier cultural learning". In spite of the fact that there are not kidding hindrances while transmitting society from SL to TL


Translating literary prose works "is certainly not a smooth and direct movement, which can without much of a stretch be done. Translators have dependably run over confusing issues and troubles while completing their undertaking”1. By complexity translation isn't unattainable and these troubles could be uncovered through after some exceptional translation systems that may help in illuminating such challenges, for example there is the thought of cultural comparability, some valuable translation speculations other than the cultural channel and the nearby proportionality… ..and so on . In the accompanying subsection it is chosen to recognize the light on some feasible solutions for the cultural hindrances in literary prose translation. Graedler proposed a few solutions for translating society particular ideas (CSCs):

- Making up new words
- Explaining the meaning of the source language expression in lien of translating it
- Preserving the source language intact
- Opting for a word in the target language which seems similar to or have the same “relevance” as the source language term2.

Culture-specific concepts (CSCs) are cultural terms that has a place with a specific culture portraying specific viewpoints and benchmarks inside the social network, and it is difficult to render them into the proposed target dialect in view of the cultural esteem they conveyed, they were additionally called culture-bound terms (CBTs), Harvey3 additionally contributed in finding a feasible solutions for the made reference to hindrances by proposing various methodology for translating CBTs:

1. Functional Equivalence: It implies utilizing a referent in the TL culture whose capacity is like that of the source dialect (SL) referent,
2. Formal Equivalence: or semantic identicalness, it implies a 'word-for-word' translation.
3. Transcription or 'borrowing' (i.e. imitating or, where essential, transliterating the first term): It remains at the furthest end of SL-situated strategies. On the off chance that the term is formally straightforward or is clarified in the unique circumstance, it might be utilized alone. In different cases, especially where no information of the SL by the peruser is assumed, interpretation is joined by a clarification or a translator's note.
4. Descriptive or plain as day translation: It utilizes conventional terms (not CBTs) to pass on the significance. It is suitable in a wide assortment of settings where formal proportionality is viewed as inadequately clear. In a content went for a particular peruser, it very well may be useful to add the first SL term to maintain a strategic distance from uncertainty.

Newmark additionally has an important commitment in taking care of cultural bound articulations issues by advancing a few translation procedures:

Transference: it is the way toward exchanging a SL word to a TL content. It incorporates transliteration and is the equivalent as what Harvey named "translation."

Naturalization: it adjusts the SL word first to the ordinary elocution, at that point to the typical morphology of the TL.

Cultural equal: it implies supplanting a cultural word in the SL with a TL one. be that as it may, "they are not exact"

Functional proportional: it requires the utilization of a culture-impartial word.

Descriptive equivalent:in this methodology the importance of the CBT is clarified in a few words.

Componential analysis: it signifies "contrasting a SL word and a TL word which has a comparative importance yet isn't an undeniable coordinated identical, by exhibiting first their normal and after that their varying sense components."

Synonymy: it is a "close TL proportional." Here economy trumps exactness.

Through-translation: it is the strict translation of basic collocations, names of associations and parts of mixes. It can likewise be called: calque or credit translation.

Shifts or transpositions: it includes an adjustment in the language structure from SL to TL, for example, change from solitary to plural, the change required when a specific SL structure does not exist in the TL, change of a SL verb to a TL word, change of a SL thing gathering to a TL thing et cetera.

Modulation: it happens when the translator recreates the message of the first content in the TL message in similarity with the present standards of the TL, since the SL and the TL may seem different as far as point of view.

Recognized translation: it happens when the translator "typically utilizes the authority or the for the most part acknowledged translation of any institutional term."

Compensation: it happens when loss of significance in one a player in a sentence is repaid in another part.

Paraphrase: in this strategy the importance of the CBT is clarified. Here the clarification is substantially more point by point than that of engaging proportional.

Couplets: it happens when the translator consolidates two different strategies.

Translating cultural bound-words and articulations made a test for the most able translators, what prompt the development of the cultural specific concepts strategies that added to some degree to the enhancement of literary translation, and these cultural hindrances does not diminish the estimation of the deciphered content but rather it is an indication of the estimation of the cultural legacy that the work conveys, there is no full finished translation, anyway through the utilization of the above arrangement relying upon the circumstance of utilization, the translator may respect to a high degree the message that was planned to pass on in the source dialect4.

Cultural hidrances and solutions in some lietrary works

Cross-cultural translation causes a considerable measure of issues, since culture varies from dialect to another at the level of geographic, religious, social and material culture; the researcher devoted the accompanying lines to a few models concerning the cultural hindrances and their conceivable solutions, and shows how they were treated by the piece of the translator.

Land culture: is that ecological space identified with atmosphere, creatures and nature in its more extensive importance, with the end goal to delineate progressively the researcher utilized models, the cross-cultural translation in the accompanying precedents will be between the standard Arabic which is named a Semitic dialect and is for the most part talked by the Muslim Arabic nations and English dialect which is a piece of western culture as Azziz characterized in his book Principals of Translation, the two dialects has a place with a totally different biological space and culture, Arabic nations are for the most part portrayed by an exceptionally sweltering climate and high temperature while western nations embodied by chilly, wet and sparing atmosphere Azziz expressed that "inside these two cultural systems, the different geological terms will obtain different shades of significance for individuals utilizing them", yet to represent increasingly the researcher will give models from literary content5:

1.Suffolk. A wilderness is sufficiently crowded. So Suffolk had they brilliant organization

البرية مزدحمة بما فيه الكفاية. لذلك كان سوفولك منظمة رائعة

This model manages the feeling of A wilderness as a cross geological culture, in western land culture "wilderness" is where water and wild plants are there in the complexity Arabic desert dry and void, and we can see how the translator found an in the middle of answer for the word wilderness. To more readily comprehend the cross topographical culture the researcher expressed Aziz's case for the ideas of "warm" and "cold" in Arabic contrasting with their utilization in English dialect. The Arabic articulation "may your eye turn out to be warm "سخنتعينكand "may your eye wind up cold", the first is a sort of annoyance, and the second as Aziz said "had a positive sense and implied well-wishing .This is justifiable in a hot atmosphere, where "coolness" is alluring… ", and this may make a snag for the translator, and it could be explained just through close to home assiduity from the piece of the translator by attempting to don't mean his group of onlookers a similar vagueness he felt.

Religious culture: it is that culture that implies rationalities and acknowledges and acts that a social occasion of people practices and it meander from culture (tongue) to another, to clearly demonstrate this point here are a couple of models

: Albakry's translation of the Moroccan short story the homes the researcher took this entry to outline the issue "What number of peculiar things the human body conveys without our monitoring them! There are two heavenly attendants for instance, one on the correct shoulder recording the great deeds and the other on the left chronicle the terrible deeds. The human body may likewise be occupied by villains, and in this body there is additionally a soul whose pith we can't know since it is from an order of the Lord."6, this section conveys three religious viewpoints, the first is clear on the grounds that the evil spirit's essence inside the human body existed in every single religious conviction while heavenly attendants and soul has a place specifically with the Islamic religion "and the English peruser should be made mindful of their scriptural inceptions" ,from the holly Quran "When the twin managers [angels] get him, the one situated to his right side, the one to his left side, each word he articulates will be noted around a cautious watchman"7. What's more,8 "They get some information about the soul, say: "The soul is from a direction of my Lord and I have just given you [people] a little measure of the learning"9, with the end goal to take care of this issue Albakry proposed "These references, and other comparative in nature, are a piece of the earlier cultural information underestimated by the writer composing for an overwhelmingly Muslim Arab audience. To give the nearest guess of the source dialect, hence, it was important to choose 'glossing' or utilizing informative footnotes”10


1 Salem. Bahameed. Hindrances in Arabic-English Intercultural

2 abu Hatab, Wafa. "Cultural problems in literary translation from English into Arabic."The ecosystem of the foreign language learner. Springer, Cham, 2015. 185-200.

3 Harvey (2003:2-6)

4 Newmark, Peter. About translation. Vol. 74. Multilingual matters, 1991.

5 Aziz, Yowell Y. "Principles of translation." (2000).

6 Albakry, M. (2004). Linguistic and cultural issues in literary translation

7 Surah 50, stanza 17

8 Surah 17 section 85

9 Dawood. (2000). Qu'ran (trans)

10 Albakry, M. (2004). Linguistic and cultural issues in literary translation

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Translation of Literature and the Problem of Finding Equivalences. The Role of Culture in Language
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translation, literature, problem, finding, equivalences, role, culture, language
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Salah Saedi (Author), 2015, Translation of Literature and the Problem of Finding Equivalences. The Role of Culture in Language, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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