Translation of Traditional Terminological Words From Mongolian Into German

Horse Equipment and Staffs

Academic Paper, 2005

24 Pages, Grade: A(90)




Subjectivity to studies

Research method

Cultural heritages of nomadic Mongolians

National custom to idolize animals

Technology of fitting and manufacturing harness used for horse

Some equipment used for animal packing and riding

Brief of ancient development bridle as one of the harness for riding animal

Bridle curb



Horse currycomb

Types of the traditional saddles

Understanding about really and traditional featured words


Regularity of the terminology and its requirement

Concerning about translation

Methodology of comparative translation

Translating with interpretation


Literature / Sources


Mongolians, who are nomadic nations, had been separating their husbandry animals be their age and outlook as well as developing such equipment that are suing for herding of their animals and nomad year around. The reputation of our home country have been distributing around the world year by year and number of the German tourists have been increasing to experience the culture, nomadic life, virgin nature and ancient history of Mongolia. We have taken our attention that more tourists are interesting to make horse riding trip in Mongolia. In connection with current requirement we have to study such research works and writings concerning about horse, which is highly respected and honoured husbandry animal for Mongolians.

Here I am trying to translate some specific words, which are used for the equipment of horse, into German language, because I thought that its necessarily important for the guides and translators of German language to have such handouts and dictionaries that have included such agricultural and nomadic life every day words such as equipment of horse and other husbandry animals.

Such private organizations have established to organize its activity on tourism industry since 1990 and have been organizing horse-riding trips. Thus, I tried to involve translation methodologies of traditional staffs such as horse-equipment. It is necessarily important for Mongolians to use capacity and power of horse and camels into their everyday nomadic life and to improve and develop in further.

Subjectivity to studies

The travel and tourism industry has been developing rapidly not only in Mongolia, but worldwide. It is 10 years since the travel and tourism business started to develop and tourism business started to develop in Mongolia and several textbooks, manuals and book were published including Sh. Shagdar’s “50 routes of travel throughout Mongolia”, J. Oktyabri’s “Dictionary of hotels and hotel terms” and Sh. Shagdar’s “Mongolia: travel and tourism”. According to the information provided by the State Commission for Names and Terms, 144 dictionaries of terms used in different sectors were published in Russian-Mongolian, Mongolian-Russian-English, Mongolian-Russian-English, and Mongolian-Latin-Tibet-Chinese1.

Twelve persons have defended scientific degrees on the subjects related to horse2. The first of them is Professor B. Yarinpil, who defended the degree of Ph.D in veterinary science in 1954.

- In 1954, assistant prof. Choijoo Urtnasan /1921-1985/ received the degree of Ph. D for his thesis titled “Parasites of Mongolian horses”
- In 1989, Bekh-Ochir Jamiyan defended the thesis on the subject “Main characteristics of fluenza virus of Mongolian horses and camels” and became Ph. D in Biology.
- B. Bunchin published a manual titled “Utilization and harness of animals as transportation means” in 1978.
- In 1977, Choijilsuren Oidov was granted with degree of Ph. D of Economics for the thesis titled “The economic profitability of Mongolian horse industry and its future prospect”

Meleshko and Grekhov studied the riding, use as a transportation means, speed and strength of Mongolian horses and camels, they did not explored the animal harness thoroughly. Based on the materials collected in 1960, two brochures titled “Animal harness and methods of their manufacture” and “Let’s learn how to make the harness of simple transportation means” respectively in 1965 and 1969. It was the first to consolidate the experiences of many generations gathered in regard with animal harness. In Ts. Dorjsuren’s “The archaeological exploration of Noyon mountain”, 1955 and N. Ser-Odjav’s “Dundgovi in the Bronze Age” and “Bronze times kept in the Local Lore Museum” were published important archaeological materials about iron bronze items, cart and saddle stirrup. The study of animal riding and transportation harness of the Eurasian nomadic peoples by historians and researchers is intensifying. The works of researchers are directed to the stages of developments of riding and transportation, harness and their improvement, types and classifications of equipment, nations the harness is spread in and pertain to, and identification of lifestyle and culture from a from the point of view.

Research method

On the of collecting and studying related books, dictionaries and materials in the course of the research, I have:

- Compared the horse related terms with German counterparts
- Selected the most accurate of several translations of the same horse harness
- Studied how to translate national peculiar terms, interpreted about horse harness in German, emphasizing their usage when translating names of harness
- Selected the most accurate of several different translations of the same word
- At the end of the thesis are enclosed the references and German translations of horse harness

Cultural heritages of nomadic Mongolians

Animals can be classified in the following manner according to their main use: horse for riding, camel-for riding and transporting, and cow-for cart. The Mongolians harness of animal riding and transportation can be divided into the main and auxiliary categories3.

Saddle and bridle are important harness pertaining to the main category.

Mongolians not only cared about the comfort of use equipment, but also about the design of them.

Saddles of unique design with silver ornaments and exclusive appearance are not only highly valued in Khalkh lands but used as decoration in times of ceremonies and festivals. “Saddle preparation ritual” has become a custom carried out at wedding ceremonies where saddles are regarded as a “furniture” of home. But is should be noted here that this custom was not used commonly depending on the wealth on the of families.

National custom to idolize animals

Animal husbandry is the source of subsistence, traditional labour tool, and products our people and is the main to satisfy Mongolians physical and intellectual needs.

In books written on the history and literature of Mongolia, frequently found notes about exclusive customs such “saddle song” and “song keeping”. These are all customs and unwritten laws created in the periods related with the materials arts and statehood of Chinggis Khan.

When Chinggis Khan sent messages to this ministers and army leaders, he used to have his envoys memorize messages in the form of succinct and meaningful rhymes for the sake of, firstly, security, secondly, easiness to memorize. It was ancient custom or law that envoys used to repeat them in whisper or vocalizing while riding on horse in order not to forget them and convey them in the exact sense4.

Among the names of land areas, there are still some directly related with the distinctive customs of animal husbandry. On the territory of Taragt soum, Ovorkhangai province, there are several places named after horses like Joroo (Amble), Kheer Aduu (Brown Horse), Khar Aduu (Black Horse), and Khongor (Light bay). As a result of an inquiry it was found out that there lived a wealthy man named Ahai Gun having one hundred thousand horses. Since it was impossible to count his horses by heads he used to count them be herds. The pasture lands of his horses are named as Kheer Aduu (Brown Horse), Sharga (Whistish Yellow), and Khar Aduu (Black Horse).

On the territory of Kheechin 1st bag, Tolbo soum, Bayan-Olgii province is a spring named Shiiriin Rashaan on the south of Shiiriin Burd oasis. In the neighbourhood of the place, there are several places named after parts animals such as Del (Mane), Suul (Tail), and Suuj (Pelvic Bone)5.

There are also lakes named “Doroo nuur” (Stirrup Lake), 2395 m elevated above the sea level on the territory of Tolbo soum, Bayan-Olgii province and one elevated 1420 m above the sea level on the territory of Jargalan soum, Govi-Altai province. There is a mountain named “Jirem” (Girth Belt) to the west south of Khatanbulag soum, Dornogivi province.

Dr. Prof. E. Ravdan noted in his book titled “Types of land names of Mongolia”-that names related to animals are many times less than names related to humans. On the other hand, the structure of names is not sufficient to represent all the five domestic animals and their frequency is low. But the names of sheds, fences, enclosures and manure are encountered more frequently. Places named after harnesses used for animal husbandry are as follows. Doroo 97, Doroogiin 23, Doroon 7, Doroonii 4, Doroot 10, Jirem 17, Jiremnii 107, Jiremt 1, Jiremtiin 2, Emeel 3, Emeelch 2, Emeeliin, Emeeltseg, Emeeltsgen and Emeeltiin, Yel 27, Zeliin 16, Yelt 3, Zeltiin 4.

Anyone who speaks Mongolian language can imagine the appearance of places named “Doroo nuur” (Stirrup Lake), “Doroo tolgoi” (Stirrup Hill), “Jirmenii nuur” (Girth Belt Lake), “Jiremnii khotol” (Girth Belt Pass), “Emeelt khar” (Saddled Black) and “Emeel tolgoi” (Saddle Hill). For instance: we understand long strip be the name of Jirem and inward depression by the name of Emeel.

Technology of fitting and manufacturing harness used for horse

Our people have a rich heritage of culture and folk arts adapted to their unique nomadic lifestyle. They have also many stuffs for stationary lifestyle. Mongolian people’s culture and art stuffs have common features adaptable to animal husbandry, hunting, and agriculture alike.

Saddles are distinguished for the purpose of use as for riding, loading and racing and by their makings as khalkh, durvud, darkhad, borjgon and buryat. But they don’t differ much by the used materials and general appearances.

Some equipment used for animal packing and riding

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

According to the above scheme the riding of horse went through several stages of development starting from riding a pad put on horseback, then saddle sloth, mayuz saddle cloth, agtavch saddle cloth and saddle6.


1 Jambaldorj S., “Morin erdene” Ulaanbaatar, 1996, S.227

2 Dogsuren. Ch., “The terminology of Mongolian language and improving” Ulaanbaatar, 1988, S. 83

3 “History of the People Republic of Mongolia” Ulaanbaatar, 1966 S.62

4 Adiyasuren Ch., Bat-Ireedui J. “The thesaurus of Mongolian tradition and culture” Ulaanbaatar, 2001, S.91

5 Ravdan E. “Geographical condition of Mongolia and literature study” Ulaanbaatar, 2004, S. 108

6 Bunchin V. “Usage of husbandry and its equipments” Ulaanbaatar, 1978, S.28

Excerpt out of 24 pages


Translation of Traditional Terminological Words From Mongolian Into German
Horse Equipment and Staffs
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
Linguistic, Culture, German Language, Mongolian Language, Traditional Words, Horse Equipment
Quote paper
Munkhtsetseg Badarch (Author), 2005, Translation of Traditional Terminological Words From Mongolian Into German, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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