The Future of European Regional Airports. Strategic Options to Improve Efficiency at European Regional Airports


Bachelorarbeit, 2020

48 Seiten


Leseprobe

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.

2 Theoretical
2.1 Airports
2.2 Strategic options.
2.3 Efficiency.
2.4 Efficiency indicators at airports.
2.4.1 Airspace and Airfield.
2.4.2 Support and Emergency Services.
2.4.3 Passenger Terminal
2.4.4 Terminal Landside Ground Access.
2.4.5 Airport Ownership and Regulation.

3 Literature Review
3.1 Research Question and Objectives.
3.2 Methods used for efficiency measurement
3.3 European regional airports in numbers.
3.4 Future scenario models.
3.5 Airport efficiency and airport ownership

4 Methodology
4.1 Extended Literature Review
4.2 PRISMA

5 Findings and discussion
5.1 Efficiency and cost structure
5.2 Airport ownership and regulation influence
5.3 Strategic options in operations
5.3.1 Concept on security checks
5.3.2 Concept in passenger steering
5.3.3 Concept on ground handling
5.3.4 Concept for an improved apron control

6 Conclusion

Table of figures

Figure 1: Evolution of passenger traffic at European regional airports (2001-2015) by airport size

Figure 2: Evolution of direct connectivity at european regional airports from 2005 to 2017

Figure 3: Share of direct connectivity at European regional airports in 2017

Figure 4: Evolution of direct connectivity at small European regional airports (below 5MPPA) from 2005 to 2017

Figure 5: Share of direct connectivity at small European regional airports (below 5MPPA) by traffic in 2017

Figure 6: The contribution of European regional airports to employment & GDP..

Figure 7: Expenditure per passenger in 2013.

Figure 8: Comparison of the traffic evolution in Europe, Munich and Salzburg.

Figure 9: Monthly distribution of traffic at selected regional airports in 2015-2016.

Figure 10: PRISMA Flow Diagram

Table of abbreviations

ACI: Airport Council International

ACARE: Advisory Council of Aviation Research

ATU: Airport throughput unit

BAA: British Airport Authority

CAA: Civil Aviation Authority

DEA: Data Envelopment Analysis

DigiBA: Digitaler Boarding Assistent (digital boarding assistent)

DLR: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center)

DMU: Decision-making Unit

EASA: European Aviation Safety Agency

EU: European Union

Eurocontrol: European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation

FAA: Federal Aviation Authority

GDP: Gross Domestic Product

IATA: International Air Transport Association

ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization

IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

iVLD: Interaktive Verkehrslagedarstellung

PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

QUOROM: Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses standards developed by QUOROM

TFP: Total Factor Productivity

TOMICS: Traffic Oriented Microscopic Simulator

WLU: Work Load Unit

Abstract

European regional airports have an efficiency problem. Research has shown that different factors contribute to the efficiency problem, cost structures, airport ownership and regulations and airport operations. This study’s aim is to outline strategic options for airports in order to improve their efficiency. Through the use of the PRISMA methodology, an extended literature review has been conducted.

The review of the literature has shown that different methods for efficiency measurement are used and that European regional airports are mostly not represented in studies. Efficiency problems can be attributed to numerous aspects as airports, in general, are difficult to compare due to market situation, traffic characteristics and regulatory setting. The results are that airports have to define a clear strategy with the necessary flexibility to follow the aviation industry. Additionally, airports have to invest into new technologies and infrastructure which are facilitating passenger flow management, aircraft and passenger handling, influence the cost structure and create new revenue generation. It is recommended to perform further research on European regional airports in order to obtain numerical results which could give a clear view onto the effects.

1 Introduction

Aviation has experienced in the recent years a strong growth rate. More and more people start flying around the globe. Growing traffic numbers have an influence on airports. Investments into infrastructure, digitalization and customer experience have to be made in order to fulfill expectations and criteria established by stakeholders. In 2018, 1.1 billion people have flown within the European Union. The highest growth rate has been achieved at regional airports in Lithuania (+19%), Latvia, Poland and Slovakia (+16%), Estonia and Hungary (+14%), Malta (+13%), Luxembourg (+12%) and Finland (+11%)1. Airports have challenging years as already now capacities are sufficient to accommodate passengers and airlines adequately. Infrastructure programs, as new runways are blocked by local residents throughout Europe. For example, London Heathrow and Munich airport are since years negotiating the construction of an additional runway without success until now. Additionally, ecology and climate change are the biggest challenge for the global society. Airports, as a part of the aviation industry, have also an impact climate change and have to develop solutions.

Furthermore, regulations and taxes by governments are restricting airports in their efficiency, like night flight restrictions limit cargo operations or additional fees on passenger handling. In the next 20 years, the number of passengers will double in Europe up to two billion passengers2.

Regional airports play already an important role in the aviation industry as they absorb capacities from larger airports. With an increase in passenger in the next 20 years, their role will become even more important in order to keep the system running. However, regional airports need strategic options in order not to collapse under increasing passenger load. However, they have not only an important role in air transport but also as an economic driver in regions. Airports attract investment, create jobs and make internationalization of regional companies possible. Numerous regional airports, especially in Spain, Italy, Greece and other tourism destinations, have benefited from the appearance of low-cost carriers to welcome tourists in their region and gaining in visibility to attract tourists.

The following paper will examine and elaborate possible strategic options for airports and regional airports to improve efficiency through an extended literature research.

2 Theoretical

The following chapter will examine and define the following words: Airport and European airports, strategic options on different levels and efficiency in aviation.

2.1 Airports

The term airport is largely known and has usually a common sense although the definitions by authorities and organizations like the FAA, EU or ICAO which have differing definitions not including national federations.

The International Civil Aviation Organization defines an airport as an aerodrome. An aerodrome is a defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft3. Aerodromes are differentiated by traffic density in the mean busy hour. The three levels are distinguished as followed: Light traffic density signifies not more than 15 movements per runway or 20 movements in total. Medium traffic density means 16 to 25 movements per runway or 20 to 35 in total. Heavy traffic density is defined with more than 26 movements per runway or more than 35 movements in total. Movements constitute either a take-off or a landing.4

The FAA has a different classification by using boarding numbers as an essential criterion. The first differentiation is between commercial service airports with scheduled flights and general aviation (no scheduled flights and under 2500 annual passenger boarding) and reliever airports (designated to relieve congestion at commercial service airport). The second level is between primary (more than 10000 passengers boarding each year) and nonprimary (at least 2500 but not more than 10000 passenger boardings). Thereafter, airports are categorized into hub sizes by the percentage of annual passenger boardings. Large hubs have more than 1% of the boardings, medium hubs have 0,25% and 1% and small hubs have between 0,05% and 0,25% of boardings.5

The European Union has defined in an outlook opinion on the capacity of regional airports, different airport categories. Category A are the large hub airports with over 25 million passenger per year (e.g.: Frankfurt Airport, London Heathrow and Paris Charles de Gaulle, ….). Category B covers national airports with a passenger volume between ten and 25 million. Category C includes five to ten million passengers. Category D comprises one to five million passengers and Category E includes a passenger volume between 200000 and one million people. The Committee of the regions identified that the current categorization by passenger volume and flight movements does not give a true image of airports. Airports from category C, D and E can be nominated as regional airport, for example, Birmingham Airport with 7.5 million passengers in 2001 and Rotterdam with 700.000 passengers. Although there are no current figures, there is a lack of definition around the word regional airport. The committee of the regions tried to give a clearer structure to the categorization by selecting different influencing factors6. The new factors are: Traffic volume, traffic distribution, function, geographical location and specialization. The new categorization attempts to bring a clearer structure to the distinction between individual airports and to redefine the term regional airport. The first two categories will remain identical. Hub airports are selected if they have more than 25 million passengers or a non-defined number of international/intercontinental flights. National Airports have more than ten million passengers or a non-defined number of international/intercontinental flights. Category C and D are focusing on regional airports. Category C are regional airports within a European transport network and eventual intermodal centers, divided into specialized airports (freight, low-cost, express flights), relief airports for hubs and system airports. Category D are regional airports within a regional network and with a regional strategy divided into peripheral airports (e.g. Frankfurt Hahn, Girona, Milan-Bergamo) and charter airports (high share of charter flights). The new categorization has not come into effect although it would make a clear breakdown7.

The Airport Council International (ACI) defines an airport as regional if it primarily serves short and medium haul flights as well as point-to-point destinations. For the ACI, an airport cannot be labelled regional based on air traffic numbers and catchment area8.

To conclude, a clear definition is difficult to obtain as different associations and authorities use different spellings. A clear definition on a global scale might be useful although national or continental differences need to be taken into account. For this study, the definition of the ACI will be applied.

2.2 Strategic options

Strategic options result from the need to develop solutions for challenges that are approaching to the organizations. They take into account facts, actors, trends, opportunities, risks and threats from the external environment Additionally, the tool strategic options have to take into account the own strategic vision and goals in order to assess the right strategy to face the challenges that appear9.

In order to make strategic choices, a company needs to understand the underlying bases for future strategy on the level of the business unit and corporate levels and the option for developing strategy in terms of directions and methods of development.10

2.3 Efficiency

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, efficiency is a situation in which a person, company, factory, etc. uses resources such as time, materials or labor well, without wasting any.11

The operational efficiency at airports has to fulfill State performance criteria and standard. The efficiency is beneficial and has a direct impact on safety, user satisfaction and the financial performance of airports, airlines and service providers. The efficiency is characterized by the air traffic volume and characteristics, operating procedures and facility capacity. An over-provision in infrastructure will result in a surplus of capacity but an under-utilization of the facilities resulting in efficiency deficiencies.12

Additionally, efficiency is not only limited to operations but expands also on finance. Financial efficiency can be defined as an organizations ability to translate the financial resources into mission related activities. Financial efficiency measures the level of intensity with which a business uses assets to generate gross revenue and the effectiveness of producing, purchasing, pricing, financing and marketing decisions. In literature, financial efficiency is seen as a measurement method of total efficiency and a management guide to larger efficiency and the use of profitability, liquidity, productivity and capital strength as proof for financial efficiency13.

2.4 Efficiency indicators at airports

ICAO has defined different categories which influence and make airport operations efficiency measurable. These categories are named as follows: Airspace and Airfield, Support and Emergency Services, Passenger Terminal, and Terminal Landside Ground Access. Additionally, airport ownership and regulation can have an influence on efficiency. These categories focus on airport operations. Furthermore, airport ownership and government regulations have an influence on airport efficiency.

2.4.1 Airspace and Airfield

This category is in most terms pre-defined by the characteristics pre-existing at the location of the airport and the infrastructure which is planned, build and eventually added through enlargements. An airport needs an elaborated construction plan in order to gain largest efficiency in a first stage of operation without creating limitations for future expansion levels. First the runway has to fulfill certain criterions. The allocation of the runway has to be positioned at the right distance from the terminal without creating an unnecessary long taxiway to the runway and without using the runway also as taxiway creating inefficiency and limited operations in airport traffic.14

Furthermore, if the surface area permits the possibility to construct a second runway, this should be taken into consideration in order to install a dual runway system where both runways can be used simultaneously.15

Additionally, weather phenomena and air traffic control restrictions have to be considered. If a runway is only useable under limited weather maximum (certain wind speed, creation of fog in the morning) or air traffic control restrictions (runway length, steep approach procedure, restricted aircraft types), efficiency will not be given as airlines have to be cautious on weather and eventually have to provide additional training for flight crews in order to start a flight connection.16

An example here is London. London has 5 airports. In winter, high risks exists that if fog appears, all airports are at risk to be closed creating congestions in London and around the globe. London City Airport is an airport with limited space on water, a short runway of 1500 meters and has a steep approach procedure due to noise abatement and safety restrictions. Pilots require special training and licenses as well as aircrafts which have to obtain a certification by EASA.17

Another factor is the allocation of gates. An airport needs a sufficient number of gates without exceeding the number of unused gates. Depending on the terminal and apron size, the number and size of aircraft stands is influencing the ground handling possibilities. The most efficient method to board and deboard a plane is by using a jet bridge or walking to the plane while the use of buses is not efficient enough. The airport has to plan into the future as growth will influence traffic frequencies and traffic type with changing destinations and planes. Large planes require larger stands while small planes require small stands although small planes can also use large stands. A terminal has to have the possibility to welcome large planes in order to grow further.18

2.4.2 Support and Emergency Services

The category concentrates mainly on turnaround, servicing and operational safety for airplanes.

For airlines, aircrafts on ground cost money and have to be back in the air as fast as possible. Depending on airports, ground handling is provided by external companies or the airport itself providing another cash inflow. The turnaround time has to be made as brief as possible while every service has to be performed carefully. Moreover, airports have to be prepared to provide during winter periods aircraft anti and de-icing, snow clearance and water removal to keep the airport operable.19

Another important task of an airport is the bird control and hazard reduction. Most bird strikes happen during takeoff or landing of an airplane, causing great damage to the engine, aircraft skin and eventually hitting the cockpit windshield. According to a safety analysis on bird population trends and their impact on aviation safety conducted by the European Aviation Safety Agency, 95% of bird strikes occurrences happen below 2500 feet (approximately 762 meter) above ground with 48% during takeoff and 36% during approach and landing20. Bird strikes cost the aviation industry every year more than one billion euros, resulting from direct damage of the aircraft, delays and other direct associated costs. A substantial segment of the caused costs is related to non-damaging bird strikes which cause delays, missed connections, fuel dumping and go-arounds. Airports have a high interest in reducing the possibility of an eventual bird strike in order to keep the operations running.21

Additionally, preventive maintenance programs have to be carried out in order to minimize the risk of a (part) closure of the airport. Small investments at the right time can prevent unexpectedly large maintenance investments into infrastructure.22

2.4.3 Passenger Terminal

According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a terminal has to fulfill certain time and facility requirements.

Passengers of an international departure flight should be processed within 60 minutes from the first processing point (check-in) to the scheduled time of flight departure while international arrival passenger should take 45 minutes from disembarkation to the ultimate clearance process. On top, a guidance system should be installed for transit stops, transit connections, walking distances, flight information display systems, baggage handling.23

Furthermore, other performance indicators for passenger and baggage handling concern queuing times, processing times, delivery times for baggage, transfer connection times, walking distances and information systems24. As already mentioned, the optimized allocation of aircraft parking stands needs to be as close as possible to the terminal to provide a rapid passenger embarking and disembarking, while remote stands should be limited to aircraft parking to have jet bridges available.25

2.4.4 Terminal Landside Ground Access

An airport needs to provide a good ground access in order to have an appeal for the passengers. A fast and reliable connection between city and airport is a must.

ICAO has defined different performance indicators and facilities for private cars and taxis and rail and bus services. Private transport should take into account travel time, distance, congestion and delay as well as the parking availability with an access to the terminal and the terminal curb access capacity (short term parking in front of the terminal). Public transport should consider service frequencies, reliability and travel time as well as platform location and access to terminal and cabin space, comfort, baggage check-in and handling.26

2.4.5 Airport Ownership and Regulation

Airport efficiency is directly linked together with airport ownership and regulations. Economic regulation of infrastructure services is beneficial and essential in case markets have a lack of competition and are imperfect. If a monopoly takes place or competition takes place without the required criteria, then operators tend to misuse airports with an inefficient service, high prices and poor quality. Numerous airport characteristics urge for regulation, especially the monopolistic features with economies of scale, scope and density, which stimulate the practice of market power.27

3 Literature Review

In the following section, the research question is outlined together with the research objectives. Additionally, the literature, used in this dissertation will be reviewed in order to assess the proficiency of the literature used.

3.1 Research Question and Objectives

The research question resulting from the title of the dissertation with the title " The future of European Regional Airports: Strategic options to improve efficiency at European Regional Airports." is set as follows: What are strategic options to improve efficiency at European Regional Airports?

Moreover, the following objectives have been elaborated in order to answer the research question.

The aim is

1. to compare and contrast theories on efficiency at airports
2. to analyse general efficiency of European regional airports
3. to determine strategic options for efficiency at European regional airports
4. to analyse the effectiveness of those strategic options
5. to conclude on strategic options and efficiency at European regional airports

3.2 Methods used for efficiency measurement

The literature on airport efficiency has developed considerably, while changes in the airline sector and airport governance have appeared. During the process of the literature review, new knowledge has been acquired while also gaps have been identified. Efficiency at airports has already numerous studies, although they usually only concentrate on one central aspect, i.e. passenger steering. Additionally, regional airports are represented in a limited number of studies as the focus lies on the big hub airports, for example, Paris Charles de Gaulle, London Heathrow, Amsterdam Schiphol or Frankfurt Airport. These airports identify as the leading players and trendsetters in Europe for the airport industry. Regional and hub airports have similar problems.

Efficiency can be measured in different ways, depending on the type of stakeholder28. Throughout the literature, different methods are used which are outlined in the following paragraph. Financial measurements can be relatively easy through total generated revenues. In order to obtain a general output ratio of an airport, physical quantities as aircraft, passenger or freight are used. This assessment method cannot state other possible options as these numbers are only based on physical output. However, this ratio can be used to compare with other competitors to establish a ranking and by recognizing possible advantages. In order to gain a clear view of efficiency performance, formulas need to be more specific by including other operational indicators on the terminal side and airside. LeighFisher established a vital formula in its annual global benchmarking report. It measures the airport throughput unit (ATU)29:

The ATU provides an accurate result by setting passengers in a relation 1:10 to freight and also includes air transport movement. The value of 100 derives from the past. The handling of one air transport movement requires approximately the same effort ass 100 WLU. One WLU compares to one passenger or 100kg of freight. Although critics say that airports should more concentrate on the passenger value as freight handling is in most parts an airline business and has a small impact on an airport's economic performance.30

Another essential factor is the inter-airport performance. Airport benchmarking can be assessed through self-benchmarking, which can show trends over the years and give headings for the airport management. The analyze is only possible if the airport is analyzed in total isolation without competition. As a consequence, airports are not able to identify performance areas with a substandard as comparisons with other airports or what may be achievable. Internal benchmarking seems to be more popular than inter-airport benchmarking. From 50 airports in Europe, 18 undertook internal benchmarking only, 14 took on external benchmarking only. In order to produce inter-airport severe performance indicators, airport data has to be standardized. Comparability problems occur due to a variety of activities which are produced by an airport itself or are outsourced. Raw data can give managers a false impression as airports may have more activities with higher costs and revenue levels while labor productivity remains poor. A uniform set of activities have to get selected in order to standardize airport data.31

An example may be ground handling. If an airport operates ground handling while another has outsourced ground handling, assumed costs, revenues and staff have to be deducted in order to be comparable. LeighFisher uses this approach. However, standardization of data will create adjustments which move away from reality and are less helpful for airports.32

The overall performance measure is used to give not a partial and one-dimensional view on performance indicators and measures. In order to cover all areas, many indicators are needed while particular factor substitution cannot be taken into account (substitution man versus machine). The assessment of an overall efficiency can be provided through averaging evaluations or comparisons with a defined efficiency frontier. An alternative method is the use of a non-parametric index number method, such as the Tornqvist total factor productivity (TFP). TFP uses an aggregation of all output weighed into an output index and all inputs into a weighed input index. The Tornqvist method has no underlying assumptions or estimates on parameters of production or cost functions.33

The most popular method is the use of non-parametric frontier methods and in particular, data envelopment analysis (DEA). The data envelopment analysis produces a weighted output index linked to a weighed input index similar to the TFP. The DEA method has the advantage as it does not include the estimation of underlying production or cost function and the weights for input and output are not predetermined, but the result of the programming procedure. DEA is more attractive than the TFP as data requirements are lower if a study has to deal with multiple input and output activities. DEA assesses the efficiency of decision-making units (DMU) that are performing the same function with efficiency being measured not in absolute terms but in relation to the sample. The most efficient DMUs have a relative index of one. The second advantage of a data envelopment analysis is the possibility to measure scale effects on airports. The limitation of the DEA is the high sensitivity to outliners and parameter selection as results may differ with non-similar input and output data.34

3.3 European regional airports in numbers

Regional airports in Europe facilitate connectivity between regions and enabling economic activity, development and growth. In Europe, 500 regional airports create a European air transport network35. EUROCONTROL has made a forecast on the future of air traffic growth in Europe which will be limited by the lack of capacities at airports. 12% of air traffic demand cannot be fulfilled due to bottlenecks in capacities by 2035. This will result in 1.9 million flights not taking off and 237 million passengers staying on the ground36. For numerous regions, an airport is the door to the world, provides them with essential services, and supports economic integration and business development by creating tourism and a simplification for export and import transactions. According to the ACI, 90% of the European airport network consists of regional airports with 209 operating carriers, 14600 routes and 724 destinations. Through a liberalization of air traffic rights, new airline models emerged promoting the use of regional airports. Before, regional airports had regulatory constraints which limited the traffic on feeder services for the big hubs and network carrier. With the appearance of low-cost airlines and point-to-point traffic, regional airports could develop their position as alternative to the big hub airports. Traffic at regional airports in Europe has increased by 173% between 1993 and 2015 to over 800 million passengers per year.37

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Evolution of passenger traffic at European regional airports (2001-2015) by airport size

(Source: ACI Europe [2017], P. 16)

As can be seen in graph 1, the highest development in passenger numbers has been reached by regional airports between 1 and 5 million passengers. They reached a growth rate of 130% to 179%. Furthermore, regional airports have increased the number of direct connectivity flights by 39.1%, which is nearly twice as much as hub airports. This is possible through low-cost airlines.38

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2: Evolution of direct connectivity at european regional airports from 2005 to 2017

(Source: ACI Europe [2017], P. 19)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 3: Share of direct connectivity at European regional airports in 2017

(Source: ACI Europe [2017], P. 19)

As can be seen, larger regional airports with over 25 million passenger per year have the smallest share and the highest evolution in direct connectivity. These airports have an evolution of 87% between 2005 and 2017 while holding in 2017 a share percentage on direct connectivity of approximately 11%. The second strongest category are the regional airports with passenger numbers between five and ten million passengers. Those airports have an evolution of 46.2% while holding a share in direct connectivity of 23.3%. Regional airports below 5 million passengers per year have the smallest evolution in direct connectivity of nearly 30% while the airports hold a share in direct connectivity of 39.9%.39

[...]


1 Cif. Eurostat [2019], P. 1

2 Cif. Ebd.

3 ICAO [2016], P. 2.

4 Cif. Ebd.

5 Cif. FAA [2020], n. p.

6 Cif. Committee of the Regions [2003], P.54.

7 Cif. Committee of the Regions [2003], P. 58-60.

8 Cif. ACI Europe [2017], P. 9.

9 Cif. MDF Training and Consultancy [2005], P. 1

10 Cif. MDF Training and Consultancy [2005], P. 1.

11 Cif. Cambridge Dictionary [n. d.], n. p.

12 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 3-6.

13 Cif. Shukla, A. M. [2015], P. 5.

14 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 11.

15 Cif. Ebd.

16 Cif. Ebd.

17 Cif. Frommberg, L. [2017], n. p.

18 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 11.

19 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 12.

20 Cif. Maragakis, I. [2009], P. 12-16.

21 Cif. Maragakis, I. [2009], P. 9.

22 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 12.

23 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 13.

24 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 14.

25 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 15.

26 Cif. ICAO [1999], P. 17.

27 Cif. Cunha Marquez/Pestana Barros [2010], P. 31.

28 Cif. Andriotis [2019], n. p.

29 Cif. Graham [2018], P. 104.

30 Cif. Ebd.

31 Cif. Graham [2018], P.108.

32 Cif. Graham [2018], P. 108.

33 Cif. Graham [2018], P. 110-113.

34 Cif. Graham [2018], P. 114-117.

35 Cif. ACI Europe [2017], P. 12.

36 Cif. ACI Europe [2017], P. 13.

37 Cif. ACI Europe [2017], P. 14-15

38 Cif. ACI Europe [2017], P. 16.

39 Cif. ACI Europe [2017], P. 19

Ende der Leseprobe aus 48 Seiten

Details

Titel
The Future of European Regional Airports. Strategic Options to Improve Efficiency at European Regional Airports
Autor
Jahr
2020
Seiten
48
Katalognummer
V1148430
ISBN (eBook)
9783346531551
ISBN (Buch)
9783346531568
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
future, european, regional, airports, strategic, options, improve, efficiency, strategy
Arbeit zitieren
Tom Ehlinger (Autor:in), 2020, The Future of European Regional Airports. Strategic Options to Improve Efficiency at European Regional Airports, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1148430

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