TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter Title Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LISTS OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LISTS OF APPENDICES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objective of the Study
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Clarifications of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Literature
2.2 An Overview of Oil Multinational Corporations and Community Development
in the Niger Delta
2.3 Contemporary Literature
2.4 Review of Community Development Policies by Total
2.5 Empirical Literature
2.6 Theoretical Framework
2.7 Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Research Area
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Validity of Instrument
3.7 Administration of Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
3.9 Limitations of the Study
3.10 Ethical Issues
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Test of Hypotheses
4.3 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
5.5 Suggestion for Further Research
I, Kenneth Utibe EBONG, hereby declare that this doctoral thesis entitled “Multinational Corporations and Community Development: A Study of Total E and P Nigeria Ltd in the Niger Delta” was written by me and that it is the correct record of my own research work. It has not been presented for a degree in another institution. I will not present it, or cause it to be presented, for a degree in another institution. All sources of information have been appropriately acknowledged using references and other acceptable methods.
Signed:Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthaltenDate: 10-08.2021
Kenneth Utibe EBONG
This thesis entitled “Multinational Corporations and Community Development: A Study of Total E and P Nigeria Ltd in the Niger Delta” by Kenneth Utibe EBONG (17/PG/SS/PA/PhD/007) meets the regulations governing the award of the PhD degree of the University of Uyo. The work has made original contribution to knowledge. It should be submitted to the Postgraduate School for approval.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
This work is dedicated to God Almighty the giver of life, inspiration and knowledge. Also want to dedicate this work to my dear mother Deaconess Alice Ubong Ebong for her love and sacrifice towards me despite all odds. I also dedicate this work to my dear wife and children for their love and understanding throughout the duration of this study.
We are products of inputs, investment, encouragement, criticism, knowledge, and advice of many individuals whom we are privileged to have met during the journey of life. This work is the culmination of the work and support of special people.
I will like to appreciate my dear Wife and Children for their support and understanding during the period of this work. Some people supported and believed in me which has made this work possible. My Spiritual Father and Mentor Dr. David Oyedepo and Dr. Myles Munroe of blessed memory, Academic Mentors Prof. Robert Dode and Prof. Friday Iyoha.
I will like to thank the Dean of Faculty of Social Sciences, the Head of Department of Political Science and Public Administration (Dr. Manasseh Bassey), and the great staff and Lecturers of the Department. They believed in the potential of this Thesis. I want specially thank my Supervisor Professor Robert Dode for taking his time to supervise this Thesis despite his busy schedules. I also want to appreciate the inputs and support of other Lecturers in the Department such as my Co-Supervisor, Dr. Ndifreke Umo-Udo, Dr. Frank Etim, Dr. Edet Tom, Dr. (Mrs.), Eno-obong Umoh, Dr. Uko Uwak, Dr. Kofi Akpan Umoh and others.
Finally, there are people who supported and believed in me which make this work possible. My late Father, Ass. Prof. U. U. Ebong, my colleagues in Uniuyo Campus (Amoni Biambo, Ubeng Edet, Nyakno Edet and others), and my friends scattered around the world. I say a big thank you.
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have overtime been involved in community development process of their host communities. How CSR and its attendant MoU which the oil MNCs entered into with the host communities should be defined and implemented has been a contentious debate among scholars and development practitioners. In Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the failure of the government to meet the development needs of the communities has made them to depend largely on the oil MNCs to fill the development gap. Total E and P Nigeria Ltd is one of the major Oil MNCs in the Niger Delta with major operations in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States. The company is said to have entered into MoU with its host communities. The question is how has the company contributed to the development of these communities through its CSR/MOU policies? Consequently, this study was guided by four research questions and four null hypotheses. The study is anchored on two CSR theories: the theory of participatory development and the Stakeholders theory by Freeman. The research design adopted was mixed methods research which entails quantitative and qualitative methods involving survey and archival as well as utilizing Questionnaire, In-depth-Interview, Focus Group Discussion (FDG) and Observation were used as instruments for data collection. The study revealed that there is no variation in the strategies of Total E and P Ltd in community development in its host communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States; that the company adopts the strategy of entering MoU with the host communities, mobilization of local resources such as the use of local skills and contractors, that the rate of the involvement of the local people in the CD process is low, that the company has been able to fill the infrastructural gap in the host communities through the provision of electricity, health care, educational facilities and scholarships, and supply of portable water. The study found some of the challenges of implementation of CD projects which includes youth restiveness, corruption, and government interference. It is concluded that in spite of the poor rating of the communities on the contribution of Total E and P Ltd to the host communities, the company has done relatively well by complimenting the government in its development drive. This study recommended among others that CSR/MoU policies of MNCs should be reviewed and passed into law as a tool for sustainable development in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
LIST OF TABLES
Table Title Page
2.1 Top ten (10) oil producing countries in Africa, 2015
2.2 West African Main Oil Producers
3.1 Population of the Study (Community People)
3.2 Population of the Study (Company staffs)
3.3 Names of CBOs and Sampling of CBOs Members
3.4 Evaluation/Ranking Scale
3.5 Participants in the FGD and Key Personality Interview
4.1 Mean Rating on the strategies of Total E and P Nig. Ltd on Community Development in its host communities
4.2 Mean rating on the impact of implementation of MoU of Total E and P Ltd for Community development in the host communities
4.3 Mean rating on the extent of involvement of the host communities in the Community Development processes of Total E and P Ltd
4.4 Mean rating on the challenges of the implementation of Community Development projects and programs of Total E and P Ltd in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States
4.5 t-test Analysis of the mean rating of the strategies of Total E and P Nig. Ltd on Community Development in its host communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers State
4.6 t-test Analysis of the mean rating of the impacts of Total E and P Ltd.’s Community Development projects and programs on the host communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers State.
4.7 t-test Analysis of the mean rating of the extent of involvement of the host communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers State in the Community Development processes of Total E and P Ltd.
4.8 t-test Analysis of the mean rating of the challenges of the implementation of Community Development projects and programs of Total E and P Ltd in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States.
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Title Page
1.1 Map of Niger Delta Region (NDR)
2.1 The various stakeholders in a company
2.2 Elements of Direct and Indirect Action of Environment on Organization
2.3 Main Industry stakeholders in the battle for the balance of interests and expectations
2.4 CSR Four Level Pyramid
4.1 A MoU template designed to depict the types used by Oil MNCs and Host Community in the Niger Delta
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix Title Page
i. Sample of the MOU between TOTAL E and P Ltd and Akwa Ibom Upland Communities
ii. Research Sample Questionnaire
iii. Focus Group Discussion Guide
iv. Research Analysis Calculations
v. Perimeters of CSR: 3 Concentric Circles
vi. Map of Akwa Ibom State Showing the Three (3) Concentric Section of the State
vii. Completed Engineering Lecture Theatre at the University of Uyo, AKS.
viii. MoU Performance Charts - Infrastructural Development
ix. MoU performance charts – educational scholarship (Post – Secondary)
x. MoU Performance Charts – Educational Scholarship (Post – Graduate Local)
xi. Health programs
xii. Completed Six Classrooms Block, Govt. Primary School, Nto Obo, Abak LGA
xiii. Completed Community Health Centre, Ikot Ntuennsit in Nsit Atai LGA
xiv. Completed Six Classrooms Block, Lutheran High School, Ikot Udo Mbang, Ukanafun LGA
xv. Completed Community Civic Centre at Iboko Offot, Uyo LGA
xvi. Completed Five Classrooms Block, Community Primary School, Ekpeneinuen, Ikono LGA
xvii. Completed Six Classrooms Block, Community Secondary School, Ikot Ekpeyak, Ikono-Uyo LGA
xviii. Completed Six Classrooms Block, Ette, Ikot Abasi LGA
xix. Renovated Ikpa Ibom Comprehensive Secondary School, Ikot Ekong, Mkpatenin LGA
xx. CSR/MOU Infrastructural Development Project Statistics in Akwa Ibom State
xxi. Statistics of Infrastructural Development Projects in Rivers State (2010 - 2012)
xxii. Statistics of Infrastructural Development Projects 265 in Other Parts of Nigeria
xxiii. Picture of EBFFP factory Built by Total in Rivers State
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CD: Community Development
CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility
EPA: Environmental Protection Agencies
EPNL: Elf Petroleum Nigeria Limited
FGDs: Focus Group Discussions
GRI: Global Reporting Initiatives
IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature and natural resources
LDC: Less Developed Countries
MDGs: Millennium Development Goals
MNCSs: Multinational Corporations
MND: Ministry of Niger Delta
ND: Niger Delta
NDBDA: Niger Delta Basin Development Authority
NDDB: Niger Delta Development Board
NDDC: Niger Delta Development Commission
IOCs: International Oil Companies
OMPADEC: Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Community
OPCs: Oil Producing Communities
SPDC: Shell Petroleum Development Commission
SLO: Social License to Operate
SPI: Sustainable Project Implementation
TEPNG: Total Exploration and Production Nigeria Ltd
UNEP: United Nations Environmental Program
UNGI: United Nations Global Impact
WWF: World Wide Fund
1.1 Background to the Study
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) also known as World Managers, Global Corporations or International Oil Companies (IOCs) have claimed that they are engine cum agent of development in the Countries and environment where they are operating. After all, global corporations do spread goods, capital and technology around the globe. They do contribute to a rise in overall economic activity. They do employ hundreds of thousands of workers around the world, often paying more than the prevailing wage. It is instructive to note that they primary interest of the MNCs are worldwide profit maximization. The position of the MNCs such as TOTAL E and P LTD is often based on the Market Place Theory, which says in effect that by enriching themselves they also enrich the whole world (Barnet and Muller, 1976: p.152).
This study would examine whether the host communities [that is the actual locations where the facilities and personnel of the MNCs drill, explore and exploit the resources] do partake in receiving the goods, capital and technology being spread around the globe to enhance development. TOTAL E and P LTD will serve as a case study. Conversely, we would also interrogate the types of development being driven by MNCs. Where their activities termed development does not resolve critical problems such as poverty, unemployment, inequality and environmental degradation in the states and hosts communities but rather escalate mass poverty and environmental degradation, then the state and the host communities’ dwellers would want development from the MNCs to have a human face. This is the point in which host communities are often labelled to be hostile to MNCs and non-receptive to development. Given the background that:
(i) MNCs including TOTAL E and P as a global corporation have profit maximization as it worldwide objective;
(ii) Global Corporation have said that they are neither charities nor welfare organization;
(iii) Global Corporation and poor Countries have different indeed conflicting interest, priorities and needs. How has TOTAL E and P resolved these contradictions in their host states and host communities?
(iv) The central strategy of global corporation is to create global economic environment that will ensure stability by controlling finance capital, technology and marketplace ideology. The pertinent question to ask would be how TOTAL E and P brought all these to bear in its host state and communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
This study examined Community Development strategies of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The study also reviewed and analyzed Corporations related policies and plans toward sustainable Community Development (CD) in the area of their operations. One of the objectives of this study was to examine the efforts and achievements recorded by Total Exploration and Production Nigeria Ltd regarding Community Development in the Niger Delta Region. The Corporations through their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) and Community Relation policies have recorded some achievements however, these attainments are in doubt and questionable. The reoccurrence of loss in revenue generation from the oil industry which is due to the unstable and heated relationship between oil corporations and host communities in the Niger Delta (ND) region of Nigeria has spurred the strategic social permission of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) to operate in the country (Mercy and Regina, 2017). Thus, MNCs have continually given attention to the challenges faced by the region through community development interventions. Community development sustainability are core to viable corporate social responsibility (CSR) whether from the part of government or from MNCs.
However, since the independence of the country in 1960, a lot of development agencies and commissions have been established by the government towards social and infrastructural development in the Niger Delta region. These agencies and commissions often combine efforts with MNCs to enforce development projects and programs in the region which consequently result in mutual benefits on both ends. The purpose of this study was to critically examine Community Development sustainability of host communities in the Niger Delta by evaluating initiatives conducted by TOTAL E and P NIG LTD.
The primacy of public policy analysis as a subject matter of great concern in Political Science and Public Administration emanates from the complex nature of societal problems and challenges governments are expected to tackle effectively as well as the need for optimum service delivery for their citizenry (Ojong, 2006). This is so because, according to the social contract theory propounded by Thomas Aquinas and expanded by such progenitors like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau, the primary essence of governments are predicated on service delivery to their citizens. Therefore, for any government to have legitimacy of existence, it must constantly strife to create policies, programs and actions that will guarantee better life, social well-being, as well as best possible outcome among other possible alternatives. This chosen course of action must also have minimum cost input among possible alternatives (Dror, 1968).
These demands have made it imperative for policy scientist to constantly seek empirical, systematic, disciplined, analytical, scholarly and creative ways of analyzing public policies of government so as to enable them produce effective and well supported recommendations for action in dealing with myriad of concrete political and social problems that nations are confronted with. It is based on this standpoint that this study seeks to carry out analysis on the Community Development Policy of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) like TOTAL E and P NIG LTD who are involved in Oil and Gas Exploration in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria and how these policies and programs can be reviewed into an Act or Law just like we have the NCD Act, 2010.
Organizations play a major and increasingly important role in the lives of all citizens, especially with the growth of large-scale business and the divorce of ownership from management. The decisions and actions of management in organizations have an increasing impact on individuals, other organizations and the community. The power and influence which many business organizations now exercise should be tempered, therefore, by an attitude of responsibility by management. In striving to satisfy its goals and achieve its objectives the organization cannot operate in isolation from the environment in which it operates. The organization requires the use of factors of production and other facilities of society. The economic efficiency of organizations is affected by governmental, social, technical and cultural variables. In return, society is in need of the goods and services created and supplied by organizations, including the creation and distribution of wealth. Organizations make a contribution to the quality of life and to the well-being of the community. Organizational survival is dependent upon a series of exchanges between the organization and its environment. These exchanges and the continual interaction with the environment give rise to a number of broader responsibilities to society in general. These broader responsibilities, which are both internal and external to the organization, are usually referred to as social responsibilities. These social responsibilities arise from the interdependence of organizations, society and the environment.
The recognition of the importance of social responsibilities can be gauged in part by the extent of government action and legislation on such matters as, for example, employment protection, equal opportunities, companies act, consumer law, product liability and safeguarding the environment. This has formalized certain areas of social responsibilities into a legal requirement. It is doubtful, however, if legislation alone is sufficient to make management, or other members of an organization behave in what might be regarded as a ‘proper’ manner. Many businesses both in the Niger Delta and other parts of Nigeria are attempting to provide a more open and transparent view of their operations with a broad Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy in order to obtain social license from their host community. Eweje (2006) and Ite (2007) seem to acknowledge the contributions of CSR to community development, a plethora of findings, notably Frynas (2005), and Akpan (2006), reveal one or more weaknesses inherent in CSR policies and practices of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Nigeria’s oil sector. They are largely seen as dysfunctional, out of tune with the needs of community people, and grossly inadequate, leading to intense struggle over such benefits by groups which fuels conflict. The Multinational companies are assessing their performance not on profit margins alone but also on the welfare of their workforce and care for the environment.
The region which is known as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria lies between latitudes 40 and 60 north of the Equator and 40 and 80 east of the Greenwich. It comprises the states of Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Edo, Imo, Rivers, Bayelsa, Delta, Abia and Ondo, making it coterminous with all of Nigeria’s oil producing states. Stretching over 20,000km2 of swamp land in the littoral fringes of the country, it embraces one of the world’s largest wetlands, over 60% of Africa’s largest mangrove forests, and one of the world’s most extensive. Consisting mainly of a distinct aquatic environment which embraces marine, brackish and fresh water ecosystems, it encompasses the most extensive fresh water swamp forest in West and Central Africa, and manifests an intricate network of creeks, rivers, streams, swamps, braided streams and Oxbow lakes, besides a stretch of flat and fertile land mass. In this picturesque basin lives a kaleidoscope of ethnic nationalities which include among others, the Ijaw, Itsekiri, Urhobo, Ikwere, Andoni, Efik, Ibibio, Kalabari, Okrika, together with sections of the Yoruba and Igbo. Among these, the Ijaw seems by far the largest. In this region also lies Nigeria’s over 35 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, besides an even larger deposit of natural gas. The region currently accounts for over 80% of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and represents the economic hub of the country (Omofonmwa and Odia, 2009).
In the light of the above, this study examined the concepts of Community Development policies and sustainability in the Niger Delta from the activities of multinational oil corporations. It takes into consideration how initiatives conducted by TOTAL E and P NIG LTD are assessed by host communities, by examining the perspectives of members of some of the oil producing communities (OPCs) in Rivers State and Akwa Ibom States respectively.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Corporate firms are seen as a threat to the livelihood of the people in spite of the economic value of these corporations. An example of these problems is the on-going crisis in the Niger Delta region which has led to the destruction of lives and properties. There are accusations from the youths in these areas that Corporations misdirect their efforts and resources that they should have used to develop the community to bribe opinion leaders in order to overlook their responsibilities to the community, and these have caused a lot of acrimonies between the two parties, community and the firms. These same problems can also be identified in other areas and in other communities across the country where large companies are located. The problematic of this study focuses on how to ensure that a global corporation whose primary interest is profit maximization, which possesses finance, capital, technology and marketplace ideology – would by enriching itself, enrich the state and the host communities where its economic activities take place, as well as rehabilitate the environment for sustainable livelihood of the states and community dwellers. This constitute a problem because very often, MNCs such as TOTAL E and P pride itself as agent of development because they spread goods, capital and technology around the world, yet the indicators of these development are hardly noticed in the communities where they derived their wealth such as Akwa Ibom: Ibeno, Ikot Abasi, Mbo; Rivers: Egi, Obagi, Obite in Ogba-Egbema- Ndoni etc. It is instructive to note that while these host communities of TOTAL E and P were experiencing excruciating poverty, unemployment, inequality and extensive environmental degradation during the period under study (2009 – 2019), the corporation posted very impressive turnover of $2,029,921 Billion.
TOTAL E and P Ltd is one of the leading Corporations in Nigeria that have signed an MOU with their host communities (Akwa Ibom: Ibeno, Ikot Abasi, Mbo; Rivers: Egi, Obagi, Obite in Ogba-Egbema- Ndoni) highlighting their Community Development plans, programs and budget. The question is how effective are these programs, how are they implemented, how sustainable are the projects, are the host communities involved in the selection of the projects/programs and implementation? The interrogation of these variables constitutes the crux of the problem of this study.
Similarly, the problem of this study is to identify some loopholes in the MoU for analysis. There are some of the lacunas which the MoU (See attached Appendix I for details) has created which the study would evaluate against the backdrop of whether it could guarantee peaceful operations in the communities and bring about the required sustainable development in the region.
The lacunas highlighted in this study are:
i. This MoU shall be implemented in accordance with the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) approved by the Parties and annexed to this MoU.
The question is were the host communities people party to the establishment of the Standard Operating Procedure?
ii. Constitution of negotiating Body
The question is who select the negotiating body? How do we know if the people selected are not influenced by the Company by which they could be loyal to Total E and P Ltd rather than their community?
iii. Each party shall pay its own cost and expenses of arbitration (including arbitration fees) irrespective of which side prevails.
It is going to be problematic to follow the provisions in the MoU by the local community people as disputes with MNCs are often follow the ‘frutration-agreesion” paradigm. Also, the community people do not have the funds and resources to take care of their expenses.
iv. The parties hereby agree that the Chairman of the committee or any member of the committee acting in his/her stead shall be nominated by the company and the Secretary or any member of the committee acting in his/her stead shall be nominated by the Upland Community while a desk officer to be known as Deputy Secretary of the committee shall be from the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources.
When the Chairman of Implementation, Monitory and Evaluation Committee is chosen by the company, then every action and decision may till in favour of the company.
Based on the above analysis of the Total E and P Ltd.’s MoU with their host communities, there is need, therefore, to examine the strategy of CSR/MoU for community development by MNC, the impact of MoU projects and programs for community development in the host communities, the extent of the involvement of the host community in the implementation of MoU projects and programs for community development and the challenges of implementation of MoU projects and programs for community development in the host communities. Since Total E and P operates basically in Akwa Ibom and Rivers State, the question is: Are there variations in its MoU practice for community development in its host communities in these two states. To answer these questions is the problem of this study.
1.3 Research Questions
The research questions to guide this study are:
i. What are the strategies of Total E and P Nig. Ltd on Community Development in its host communities?
ii. What are the impacts of Total E and P Ltd.’s Community Development projects and programs on the host communities?
iii. What is the extent of involvement of the host communities in the Community Development processes by Total Eand P Ltd?
iv. What are the challenges of the implementation of Community Development projects and programs of Total E and P Ltd?
1.4 Objective of the Study
The main Objective of this study is to evaluate the capacity of TOTAL E and P Nig. Ltd as a Multinational Corporation to generate Community Development initiatives and strategies in its host communities in the Niger Delta Region. The specific objectives of the study are to:
i. Examine the strategies of Total Eand P Nigeria Ltd for Community development in its host communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States.
ii. Examine the impact of Total E and P Ltd Community development projects and programs on host communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States.
iii. Examine the extent of involvement of host communities in the Community Development processes by Total E and P Ltd in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States.
iv. Examine the challenges in the implementation of Community Development projects of Total E and P Ltd in its host communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will be tested at 0.05
Hypothesis 1: there is no significant difference between Akwa Ibom and Rivers State in the strategies of Total E and P Nig. Ltd on Community Development.
Hypothesis 2: there is no significant difference between Akwa Ibom and Rivers State in the impacts of Total E and P Ltd.’s Community Development projects and programs on the host communities.
Hypothesis 3: there is no significant difference between Akwa Ibom and Rivers State in the extent of involvement of the host communities in the Community Development processes of Total Eand P Ltd.
Hypothesis 4: there is no significant difference between Akwa Ibom and Rivers State in the challenges of the implementation of Community Development projects and programs of Total E and P Ltd.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study examined the CD practice of TOTAL in the Niger Delta Region. The significance of this study is enormous. Theoretically, the findings of this study will expand the frontiers of knowledge and provoke further debate on CD practice and theory among the Multinational Corporations (MNCS) operating in the Niger Delta Region. Also, it could contribute to the development of theory of Community Development, CSR, as well as the possible passage into law or an Act to be called Community Development Act (CDA).
Practically, the findings of this study will be beneficial to the researcher as Community Development Consultant, and Community Development Managers, policy makers, stakeholders and host communities. To managers and corporate firms, it will enable them to effectively align their CD policy and programs to the needs of the host communities and use it to foster a better corporate relationship with their host communities. It will also enable corporations to promote the corporate image and have a peaceful business environment and improve their performance with increase profit. To the communities it will enable them to use the CD to foster their community development and have a better relationship with companies they play host to. It will also enable them to align the CD programs and projects to their community vision and follow the part of sustainable development of community asset and community capital. The Corporate–Community Relationship in Nigeria has been characterized by conflict and mistrust, similarly most CD projects has failed to meet the desired impact because of the level of participation of the people in the design and implementation of the CD projects and programs. Community Development is very popular in the oil sector in the Niger Delta, However, there has been agitation of youths and community leaders for increased CD projects in some States in the Niger Delta Region. Yet, very few researches have been geared towards addressing the failure of CD and the level of participation of people in the implementation of CD project in the region.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The geographical scope of the study is the Niger Delta Region. The region consists of Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Rivers, Cross Rivers, Delta, Edo, Ondo, and Imo States. However, the study is further delimited to selected communities in Akwa Ibom and Rivers States which play host to Total E and P Nigeria Ltd. The communities are Ibeno, Ikot Abasi, Mbo, Obagi, Obite, Egbema. See figure 1 map of the Niger Delta Region showing the host communities.
The content scope of the study covers the Community Development policies of Total E and P Nigeria Ltd, the implementation of MoU in its host communities, the extent of the participation of the people in the Community Development process for the implementation of the MoU, sustainability of the Community Development Projects and programs embarked upon as part of the MoU, the impact of the Community Development projects in the host communities and the challenges of the implementation of CD projects of MoU of Total E and P Ltd in its host communities. The period of analysis covered between 2009 - 2019.
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Host Communities: Ibeno, Ikot Abasi, Mbo, Egi, Obagi, Obite, Egbema
Figure 1.1: Map of Niger Delta Region (NDR)
Source: Field Work (2020)
1.8 Clarifications of Terms
In order to drive home the full import and intentions of the topic under review, it is necessary to provide a working definition of some key concepts on the crest of which the research will revolve. The concepts are:
Multinational Corporation: A multinational Corporation is one which is incorporated in one country (called the home country); but whose operations extend beyond the home country and which carries on business in other countries (called the host countries) in addition to the home country.
Community Development: This refers to finding effective ways of helping and teaching local people new methods and to learn new skills for quality living. This process is however, done in such a way as to retain community control and community spirit.
Strategies: A course or principle of action adopted or proposed by Government or Organization to achieve her set goals.
Sustainability: The concept emphasis the need for development to meet the need of the present without compromising the ability for upcoming generations to handle their own needs.
Niger Delta Region: Located at the southern regional zone of the country, the borders of the ND are shared with the Atlantic Ocean and Cameroun. The region’s surface area is about 112,110 square kilometers and has its population around 31 million inhabitants, the region consists of nine states, namely: Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross Rivers, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo and Rivers states and the inhabitants are mainly Edos, Ijaws, Isekiris, Isokos, Ibibios and Urhobos.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Literature
One theoretical contribution that research can make is to throw new light into a concept. The examples below show different approaches to how this can be done in the context of the study of community development. The study tried to give us the general idea of different concepts adopted by Multinational Corporations towards community development and to discuss other major key concepts in this research work. Let us now review some concepts like Community Development, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), Sustainable Development, and Environment.
2.1.1 Community Development
According to Frank (2016), one of the critical tools for effecting changes in the rural areas is Community Development (CD) approach. It was invented in 1948 at the Cambridge Summer Conference on Africa, while searching for the most viable option for African development. It was designed to:
i. Promote better living to a whole community through active participation;
ii. The development was intended to be on the initiative of the community;
iii. Where the initiative was not forthcoming from the community, the Government was expected to catalyst or stimulate it in order to obtain active participation by the local people.
On the contrary, it is the view of this thesis that development did not come from the community and government is not also doing their best to bring about development. We therefore expect that Oil Multinational Corporations should attract the much-needed development to their host communities. This is one of the oldest means of generating development especially in Africa pre-colonial. It is both a program and method of driving development in Nigeria. The Ibos of Eastern Nigeria have been known to develop their communities through CD (Self-help projects) approaches (Frank, 2016). In 1956 the UN adopted CD and redefined it as;
As a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are augmented by those of Government or authority to improve the communities, to integrate these communities into the main stream of the nation and enable them to contribute fully to national development.
Based on the above definition, it is vital for the Nigerian Government through the oil Multinationals Corporations to ensure that oil host communities are given the necessary attention that will lead to development by way of legislation (Bill or Act). CD first involves the people initiative to improve their well-being. Secondly, it requires the provision of technical and social services by the government through MNCs in ways, which encourages local initiatives.
At this point we want to ask if in the practice of local government administration in 774 LGAs in Nigeria, if the above have been achieved? Do they even have a desk on CD, if they do, are the desk officer knowledgeable on the methodologies of CD? What incentives have been instituted to stimulate local initiatives in CD? This is a role, which the LG Councils and the government at both the state and federal levels have failed respectively (Frank, 2016). However, we expect the MNCs to fill this gap through their CD policies and programs especially in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. It would be recalled that there are many community schools, health centers and civic centers etc. created through this method. The colonial masters had built many roads, railway, bridges etc. through this system even where it was forced labor. Its success in the early colonial days made CD an option for Rural Development in Africa. The system received high appeal as means for rural development because its acceptability by the rural people. CD desks were established in the Ministry of local government and rural development, since the very idea of local government was meant to boost RD. CD desks were to grant assistance to local efforts by rural communities for RD (Frank, 2016).
Expediencies of Community Development
Given that CD is executed with all the parties particularly the government performing its own part and the community its own, the following advantages should be expected;
i. It encourages local initiative and democratic participation
ii. The participation of the local people in the process and owning up the project help to fact track social change.
iii. It enhances participation and program planning that meet the needs of the people.
iv. It harnesses local efforts and resources for both local and national development.
Challenges of Community Development
i. Conflict of interests between the central planners and the self-help developers
ii. CD projects are often non-revenue generating (town hall) hence sustainability is difficult.
iii. The strategy of CD usually involves matching grant from the Government by which offers are made to incentives. Some community with greater resources would attract more grant than the others. The Government policy should establish standard for granting incentives to community self-help effort so that other communities are not short-changed.
Challenges of Host Communities in the Niger Delta
a. Provision of water and sanitation, rural feeder roads, electricity, industries etc. (these are the infrastructures required to bring up the standard of living in the Niger Delta).
b. The second challenge is that CD had been conceptualized, however the real problem is in the implementation and the political will to execute the plans.
c. Low intellectual capacity, which is compounded by customs and traditions, some of which inhibit changes in the region.
d. Beautiful paved roads, highways and waterways etc.;
Are not signs of development if only five to ten per cent of the population can afford to make use of them? Neither are 80 million telephone lines signs of development when only about five per cent of the population can afford to use them. Nor do poultry fowls constitute development when not a single unit of that production will go to feed our fellow brothers and sisters in rural areas.
In this thesis, we are concerned with charting a new paradigm for Community Development in the Niger Delta and Nigeria where community development had become a perennial problem. In this work, we will continue to examine the various attempts made by Nigeria and MNCs to enhance community development, from the civil through the military governments. It is critical to ask, why community development has continued to elude Nigeria especially the Niger Delta where over 80% of the Country’s revenues are gotten and despite these robust programs by MNCs towards CD. Why has rural areas been on the increase in-spite of the attempt and the presence of 774 local government areas created to be the catalyst for rural development. What are the principal issues, which have continued to constitute a bulwark against Community Development in Nigeria? These issues would serve as research problems to guide the search for a progressive strategy of community development in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Community Development (CD) has been interpreted by professionals and practitioners in the field of Business and Management as “locality development” (Bhattacharyya, 2004). Scholars in the fields of social and management sciences believe it is the “most practical” agenda for societal change for people and their localities (Tan, 2009). It emphasizes the importance of an oppressed society in the course of dealing with superficially imposed social challenges. CD is the application of “community structures” to handle a society’s challenges and empower its inhabitants. The importance of this definition is emphasized in the so-called community structures which got its roots from sociology. This is at a more macro level theory unlike the psychology theories which are at the micro level of definition. CD is understood to be a strategy for bridging the gap between the micro and the macro levels of social works (Perkins, 2008). In some cases, CD theory outlines its tenets in terms of: the organization of various communities as clusters, the bringing together of knowledgeable idea that will benefit all communities in a certain locality and to allow for social and structural change. It also involves the strategies of “partnership, participative and integrative act of social involvement, as well as the willingness to promote human development. In another vein, Schiele (2005) explains CD as a cooperative and communal solution to social challenges, a type of support-system and an empowerment strategy.
The concept models itself as more of a service and collaborative effort with the integration of individuals in the community. Therefore, a group of individuals in a locality can get together to proffer ideas through social actions and activities (Gregson and Court,2010) that will in turn cause a change for the benefit of the locality either economically, socially, and/or environmentally depending on the level of push for change that is being applied. Currently, the concept of CD has gone beyond its conventional limits which are the development of localities, building the socio-economic environment of the people, towards the improvement of human development psychologically (Perkins et al. 2002). It is the coming together of members of a community towards working hand-in-hand with corporations, governments and non-governmental organizations to carry out initiatives and resourceful projects in the social setting of the community in order to promote welfare and the wellbeing of the inhabitants (Oyebamiji and Adekola, 2008). Consequently, this brings about social and infrastructural development in communities with a moral sense of belonging. One of the objectives of CD is to bring to reality the possibility of people having at least the basic necessities of life and making room for transition to take place in the moral sense where the people feel safe in their own domains at all times. Basic necessities could be in the form of provision of good roads, health centers, schools, basic adult education, capacity building and sensitization. (Oduaran, 1994). According to Inuk and Obits, in Oyebamiji and Adekola (2008), some of the main goals of CD in Nigeria should be to:
i. Aim towards a proper democratic nation state and work towards the improvement of human development.
ii. Bring about the strengthening and support of social and political consciousness in order to spur community members towards being responsible citizens to their own affairs and those of the nation state.
iii. To promote education and improve the value system of community members.
iv. To bring about positive change in various localities and in the country in general
v. To improve on the living standards of the inhabitants.
Anyanwu (1981), summarized community development into the following:
i. The provision of basic amenities for the inhabitants. These include education, health care, and good roads.
ii. Provide community members the opportunity to take up leadership roles in the various communities.
iii. To indoctrinate in the inhabitants, a certain sense of civil awareness and consciousness.
iv. To improve and support democracy at the grass root level in the community. This is made possible through the establishment of institutions that give room for local participation.
v. To bring about peace and harmony among communities and their inhabitants.
vi. To cause a positive change in the lives of community members and a create a stress-free environment for all.
The essence of CD has gone beyond its contemporary meaning and measures towards a more strategic approach which involves a more psychological and emotional process of developing a community and creating peace and unity for its inhabitants. One of the unique qualities that separate man from the other animals on planet earth is his capacity for self-transcendence, the ability to make himself his own project. Man can stand “outside himself” and evaluate where he has been and a direction in which he can adapt to changes, either self- generated or externally imposed (Coomer, 1981:1). Rural development also refers to Community Development is conventionally regarded as the improvement of the life qualities or welfare of the various micro units of a vast macro rural system (CBN 1992). A Central Bank of Nigeria and Nigeria Institute for Social and Economic Research (CBN/NISER) study team (1992) went on to re-qualify and specifically define the rural areas as it concerns Nigeria. In their specification, they captured the rural economy as the sector in the national economy that encapsulates agriculture and other rural enterprise as well as rural life. They went further to characterize the rural sector thus:
(i) a population of not more than 25,000 people;
(ii) overwhelming farming economy;
(iii) poor living conditions;
(iv) lack of basic amenities such as health facilities, good drinking water;
(v) low or no savings; (vi) no real investment;
(vi) very low quality of food; and
(vii) a larger proportion of income is spent on consumption.
The CBN/NISER report (1992) confirms that the above characterization put over 75% of the Nigerian population in the rural areas. Although Nigeria’s rural sector is an expression of a gloomy picture of underdevelopment; the economy of the nation is sustained by this sector. The agricultural and mineral resources of the country lie in these rural areas. This fact underscores the pressing need to develop the rural areas, which are currently agitating in a very violent manner.
Okonny (1994) see the objectives of Community Development as including:
(i) Sustained improvement of the quality of life and standard of living of a majority of the rural populace. That such included provision of regular potable water, regular electricity supplies for domestic and production use, and all–season roads for evacuation of farm products;
(ii) raising the quality, value and nutritional balance of their food intake at affordable prices;
(iii) enhancing the improvement of their health condition through accessible and reliable health services;
(iv) improving their housing and general living and working condition including easy procurement of farm inputs and transportation of farm harvests;
(v) creating greater human resources development and employment opportunities, more importantly, self-employment, which in turn would lead to improved productive capacity and income levels within communities.
Another very important need for Community development has been observed by many including, Mensah and Ojowu (1991), Ekong (1991) Ekong (1998), among others, as curbing the menacing rural-urban migration. They all see urban development as a pull- factor to rural development. The absence of equivalent development in the rural areas in terms of good roads, potable drinking water, electricity, etc., pushes the rural dwellers to migrate. Of course, such out-migration implies severe reduction in agricultural productivity and rural labor–force. Several efforts have been made by the Nigerian government and International Financial Organizations to finance rural development in Nigeria. The World Bank in 2003 and 2004 reported that it spent over $400 million in Nigeria for several rural development programs which had all failed. The Nigerian Government corroborated the World Bank assertion by the confirmation that the country had spent billions of dollars in rural development programs in the country without commensurate compensation.
The jettisoning of nearly all past rural development programs and projects by the Obasanjo’s government was a clear testimony to the unsustainable state of several rural development projects by these agencies. The conviction that Community Development projects if well-articulated and sustainably implemented can lead to national development, informed this study. Thus, the objective of this study is to show how stakeholders’ participation, institutional capacity, managerial capacity, monitoring and training in project planning and implementation can lead to a sustainable Community Development project implementation which would then ensure a sustained development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.
According to Tom and Attai, (2014), Community development is therefore a process by which efforts of the people, individuals, agencies or governments are designed toward enabling a community to realize their potential, build self-confidence and lead lives of dignity and fulfillment evidenced in improved quality of life and standard of living. It leads to higher levels of civilization (Ake, 1996); control over productive forces (Anikpo, 1984); reduction in the rates of poverty, unemployment and inequality (Seer, 1970); access to basic social amenities (electricity, potable water, etc.) institutionalization of democracy, advanced infrastructural development, enhanced education and improved productivity (Onuoha, 1999). So conceived, community development is divided generically into two groups namely organic and mechanistic types of development (Strauss, 1953). Organic development is innate, self-propelled, and natural. The inference from the organic theory is that community development is a natural process. Accordingly, it is nothing new to the people. Long before governments of Nigeria became interested in community development in a formal sense, as Umoh (1985) observed, both rural and urban communities had been engaging in the development of their communities. What is observed, even today, as positive qualitative change in many communities throughout the state is, for the most part, of the organic nature. The communities provide themselves with better homes and modern facilities like water and electricity. Many rural communities still provide themselves with roads, bridges, town halls, markets, etc. without reference to the government. All their attempts to improve their conditions through communal sponsorship and execution of development projects are expressions of organic development.
Mechanistic kind of community development program as Wheeler (1936) opined, on the other hand, depends on the principle of organic development which assumes that the people have ideas about their needs and wants. They need, therefore, only to be given opportunity, guidance, and motivation to cause them to develop themselves (Peet and Watts, 1996). In other words, mechanistic kind of community development is founded on the Promethean theory that the ability to shape a good life for himself is innate to man and that, with knowledge, he is capable of providing himself with comfort and good life.
Unlike organic development, mechanistic type of community development according to Fanolumi (2002), Chino (2004), and World Bank (2002) is stirred up or generated from outside by a factor or an agent that is external to the community or, if it is within the community, an urge or a motivation which is particular to the sponsor or agent and, strictly speaking, non-communal. Again, there are about two variations of this type of development – public and private. The public mechanistic type of community development is the one sponsored by the government through its authorized agencies and ministries. The project is planned, funded, and executed as well as managed by the government or the agencies. In the case of the private typology, contend that sponsorship comes from individuals, social clubs or unions, and corporate bodies urged by profit motives or humanitarianism or hedonistic feeling of philanthropy. Many of the schools, hospitals, industries, agricultural estates, etc. in a number of communities in Akwa Ibom State are examples of mechanistic type of community development (Tom and Attai, 2014).
In other words, community development involves creating conditions which is conducive to the growth of people’s self-esteem and institutions, which promote human dignity and respect with overall goal of improving lives in the community (Tom and Attai, 2014). Generally, community development should imply whatever is done to ensure social progress locally, the steps taken and the methods used to do with human welfare and humans cooperating with each other, helping each other, assimilating new ideas, adopting new ways of living and habits of doing things. It has to do with raising funds, acquiring new technology and techniques from outside experiences for the social and economic improvement of the whole community. In other words, development should evolve from and revolve around human.
A New paradigm for Community Development
According to Tom and Attai (2014), for community development to record greater success than it has been doing so far, however, the concept of community development has not only to be restructured, but it must also be given a new and proper focus. Community development has to become homocentric and be conceived, therefore, as the improvement of man himself and his pattern of behavior or habit in order to enable him to strive always to live at greater ease, comfort, and with security. It is well established in the government literature that when the local population participates in the conception and implementation of projects affecting their lives, the success and sustainability is assured. This explains the recent emphasis on the promotion of participation in the implementation of grassroots-based projects by many development agencies. In Akwa Ibom State a recent study by Nkpoyen (2008) indicated that over 65 per cent of community population did not take part in any activity connected with the conception and implementation of the projects in their community.
In view of their pivotal position in the scheme of community development, therefore, the people must become both carriers and patrons of development, both organic and mechanistic, to the extent that development programs and development efforts not only minister to them, but they also become part of the leading administrators, devisor, initiators, in short, efficient causes of their community development. Man should be regarded as the sole dynamic of nature. He is the generator of all causative and innovative impulse aim at taming, harnessing, and directing the force of nature and the natural tendencies of man, for the total progress and happiness of his species.
Popular participation should be promoted by the government through collaboration with the communities right from the earliest stages of planning, through decision making (choice and site selection for the project) implementation, utilization, maintenance, monitoring and evaluation.
Community education which involves a holistic approach to the betterment of communities should be promoted by the government rather than concentrate on only rehabilitation of physical structures in the formal school system. This will enhance the welfare of the communities through mass education and general enlightenment in the area of agriculture, local industrial development, health, adult education, farm productivity, environmental education, cooperative and enterprise development. This will lead to skill acquisition, growth in people’s capabilities and increase productivity.
MNCs and Government should help to promote a dynamic communication process through building of excellent communication linkages between itself and rural communities. To achieve this, community level institutional structures vis-à-vis social organizations such as town and village unions, youth groups, women groups, cooperative groups and community-based organizations (CBOs) should be strengthened and made viable. This will serve as veritable platform for linkages effective and timely dissemination of information concerning community projects involving the community and external agent like MNCs. This will help to build a functional chain of awareness – understanding – motivation – participation and subsequent sustainability of development initiatives (Tom and Attai, 2014).
Sustainable approaches to community development such as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) which employs a bottom-up strategy that ensures the full involvement of the community in problem identification, solution, planning and implementation should be employed by the agents of community development in identifying communities’ problems and appropriate intervention to address them. New inconveniences should not be the communities’ trade-off new projects. To give water or telephone to a community, road is cut up and left for months unamended or poorly mended to the great inconvenience of the road users. Green Revolution, at one time, and the River Basin Authority, at another, were meant to the rural communities, for example but in some areas, they were also a source of woes because they deprived the people of their useful land. These happened in areas where the projects were sited at the usual farm lands of the communities. Such communities could have benefited more and the projects could have constituted an increase in economic opportunities if they were sited at the jungles which, for lack of tools, know-how, and finance, the people had left virgin and unexploited.
At this stage of technological development, moreover, there is sufficient foreknowledge about socially or environmentally undesirable by-products of projects. Scheme to safeguard the community against them should be concomitant with the general plan for the project. Disposal arrangement for example, should be part of the planning for industries that produce waste while others that issue unpleasant fumes should equip themselves with deodorizing facilities to remove the nuisance from the air and save members of the entire community in its eco-environmental sense from breathing unpleasant air. Projects should not wait until the known possible accident occurs before thinking starts. Prevention and remedy should precede the incident. The traditional occupation of the people not likely to benefit from employment in the project should not be jeopardized as a result of the scheme but rather protected to afford them their usual means of survival (Tom and Attai, 2014).
As a process, community development is a well-articulated program and should therefore include an effort to assist individuals to acquire attitudes, skills and concepts required for their democratic participation in an effort toward solving their own problems in order of priority and as determined by their increasing level of competence. Community education which involves a holistic approach to the betterment of communities should be promoted by the sponsors of the community development rather than concentrate on only rehabilitation of physical structures. Enhancement of the welfare of the communities through mass education and general enlightenment in the area of agriculture, local industrial development, health, adult education, farm productivity, environmental education, cooperative and enterprise development must be made part of the community development. This will lead to growth in peoples’ capabilities and sustainability.
Sustainable approaches to community development such as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) which employs a bottom-up strategy that ensures the full involvement of the community in problem identification, solution; planning and implementation should be employed in identifying communities’ problems and appropriate intervention to address them. According to Tom and Attai, (2014) in their work, they maintain that human beings are at the center of community development. Accordingly, all planning should be guided by an ever-present awareness that the focus of community development is the human population but not the infrastructures qua infrastructures. The people who live in the rural community are the interests to be developed. They are also the media that manifest or express development. Community development cannot succeed without the active participation of the community. The people are the measure of success or failure of development efforts (Tom and Attai, 2014).
Concept of Community Needs and Areas of Basic Needs
Much hc development and basic needs projects (Ebong, 1991; Aglobenebo 2005; Agbor 2004). Erring et al (2006) stated that communities have always been concerned with proving some basic needs of life to their members. They stressed that in Africa, for instance, in time past (and still remains) the tradition for local communities was to undertake communal work, whereby members of the community combined effort to address a common problem of the community. Erring et al (2006) asserted that the provision of basic facilities to meet the needs of society has really been the socio responsibility of government. Communities have always helped one way or the other. They argued that in the contemporary situation where society is faced with ever increasing myriads of problem, it is even more imperative that communities should join hands with government in meeting basic needs.
Owuamalam’s (1991) study on community development in action, an eastern Nigerian experience indicated that projects designed and implemented by communities are usually a response strategy to community needs. He states that self-help projects are projected that address community needs such projects are accomplished by maximum efforts of the people by way of communal free labor and a maximum of cost of terms of capital investment. Owuamalam (1991) reported from his study that there were several examples which could be quoted from every one of the thirty Divisions which existed in Eastern Nigeria then of projects embarked upon to address community needs. Community development projects such as maternity homes, dispensaries; schools, village halls, water points, postal agencies, market stalls, thousands of kilometers of roads and hundreds of bridges. According to Owuamalam (1991) the Community Development Training Center at Awgu was established with the aim of stimulating local initiatives and making local government councils and their staff more efficient agencies for fostering the spirit of community development at village level. This was ostensibly aimed at responding to community needs. Jackson (2004) observed that community development ideas are response approaches to community needs. he asserted that, today apart from trunk roads, express highways, electrification and other sophisticated projects clustered around the cities, nearly every new project undertaken in rural areas in either built through the communal efforts of the people concerned, or in a few cases, such projects attracted government “matching grants” as a means of stimulating the enthusiasm of the people to provide themselves with those amenities they require in their villages. Each community project addressed a community need.
In the context of community development, Erring, et al (2005) provided a useful outline of projects that could be undertaken to address areas of community needs. This is expressed in the schedule below:
Areas of basic needs Examples of C.D projects
i. Shelter Community Hall, classroom block
ii. Food Community farm (crops, poultry, animal husbandry, garri processing, rice milling, co-operative food and provision shops, markets
iii. Water well, boreholes, pipe borne water, Maintenance of local streams
iv. Health community’s health center, drug stores, dispensary, health loan scheme, environmental sanitation
v. Education day care center, nursery Schools, classroom, bursary/scholarship schemes, school fence, teachers’ quarter
vi. Social education Civic center, viewing center, recreational facilities (playgrounds, packs gardens), special homes etc.
Erring et al (2006) stressed that the schedule identifies areas of basic needs in the society and indicates a few examples of projects which communities could embark on to meet specific needs. He observes that these are only a few examples because there are indeed myriads of CD projects which could be undertaken to improve conditions in different spheres of life. Meeting basic needs is not the exclusive pressure of special type of community, both urban and rural communities, as well as communities in developing and developed regions can embark on CD to meet its needs. Erring states that the more advanced and sophisticated the society, the more exotic its CD needs. At any level of society community needs must be met.
To explore the concept of community needs as the objective, community development is whether communities can create opportunities for their local leaders to express emotional needs for change in creative projects which are capable of improving the lot of the communities or whether the leaders should wait for opportunities favorable for their needs to exist. Batten stressed that this situation gives rise to the philosophy of felt needs; also, their own assessments and values of how to develop their communities. To them, community needs mean development. Development means the building of modern markets, civic centers, town halls, electrification, pipe-borne water supply, building of schools, church, health institutions, mechanized agricultural projects sophistication express highways and post offices to boost their socioeconomic lives.
In studies carried out by Riddle et al (1995), on community needs and government assistance, they found that community needs exist to draw attention to the necessity for improvement of the individual and group socioeconomic lot of their communities. Therefore, community development programs must be geared towards meeting these needs. These researchers stated that community-based projects have dualistic purposes: to meet the community needs and to develop the community.
Community development programs targeted at addressing community needs lead to reduction of poverty, unemployment and income inequalities in rural areas. Nwankwo (1994) in support of Riddle et al (1995) stated that the community development crisis of sustainability of projects is evident of how inadequate such programs have been in trying to solve community problems of food, shelter, education, health and other livelihood needs. Nwosu’s (2003) findings showed that community development activities as direct response to community needs include community empowerment scheme which will respond in needs for skill acquisition, employment, wealth creation through enhanced income generation, improved social status; rural energy and power supply, portable water, rural transportation and telecommunication, waterways and jetties development; quality informal education and literacy classes, qualities health care delivery services, small scale enterprise development etc.
Aims and Objectives of Community Development
Any community project that is undertaken for the development of the community should be such that reduces suffering and hardship. It should put smiles on the faces of the people and give them the desire to live and the capacity to face life’s challenges.