Employee satisfaction. Influencing factors and effects on employees and companies

Academic Paper, 2013

37 Pages, Grade: 1,0



List of abbreviations

1. Introduction

2. Definitions of employee satisfaction

3. Theories related to employee satisfaction 3.1 The two-factor theory according to Herzberg 3.2 The concept of motivation potential according to Hackman and Oldham (job characteristics model) 3.3 The model of Bruggemann

4. Factors that can influence employee satisfaction 4.1 Working atmosphere 4.2 Remuneration 4.3 Attractiveness of work activity 4.4 Working time regulations 4.5 Employee Management & Operational Communication

5. Impact of employee satisfaction on the company 5.1 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Employee Satisfaction 5.2 Performance 5.3 Absenteeism and fluctuation

6. Impact of employee satisfaction on the person 6.1 Job satisfaction and life satisfaction 6.2 Personality development

7. Consequences of a lack of employee satisfaction 7.1 Internal termination 7.2 Consequences for the company 7.2.1 Absenteeism 7.2.2 Fluctuation

Bibliography (including further reading)


List of abbreviations

OCB = Organizational Citizenship Behavior

ABB = Arbeitsbeschreibungsbogen (Job description sheet)

1. Introduction

The construct of employee and job satisfaction has been investigated in many different ways to this day. Especially within work and organizational psychology, this concept was examined very intensively. On the subject of "job satisfaction", more than 11,000 articles had been published by the year 2000.1 This work is now intended to take a closer look at this multi-layered and complex construct. First, the definitions of employee satisfaction are considered. Below is a brief overview of the theories on the topic. This construct is influenced by various factors and has a corresponding effect on the individual and the human being. In addition, the effects that a corresponding lack of employee satisfaction has resulted in are examined in more detail. The term "job satisfaction" is used within this work synonymously with the term "employee satisfaction".

2. Definitions of employee satisfaction

For the construct of employee satisfaction, no generally valid definition has yet been defined. The oldest definition on the subject of job satisfaction goes back to Hoppock: Job satisfaction is "... a combination of psychological, physiological and situational conditions that cause the person to make an honest statement: I am satisfied with my work."2 Other authors refer to the fact that employee satisfaction is the result of a target-actual comparison of expected needs and expectations. This statement represents e.g. Agnes Bruggemann: "We assume that situation-specific needs and expectations arise when a worker learns to what extent the characteristics of the work situation affect his generally given needs. This results in a more or less conscious target value for concrete satisfaction possibilities from the employment relationship. The actual satisfaction possibilities correspond to the actual value. The balancing comparison between actual and target value leads to a judgment on the scale "satisfactory- unsatisfactory" or "satisfied-dissatisfied."3 The most frequently cited definition of job satisfaction in the literature is that of Edwin Locke. This refers to the fact that job satisfaction can be achieved if certain personal values (which are related to one's own needs) are fulfilled.4 From the different definitions, it can already be seen that the concept of employee satisfaction is a complicated one. Lorenz Fischer (based on Neuberger & Allerbeck, 1978) therefore subdivides the definitions of job satisfaction as follows: Operational definitions (e.g. Hoppock), job satisfaction as satisfaction of needs, job satisfaction as a (cancelled) target-actual difference, job satisfaction as the achievement of certain values (e.g. lock), satisfaction as a pleasant person-immanent state or affective evaluation reaction, job satisfaction as a state of equilibrium, work satisfaction as a result of complex information processing (e.g. Bruggemann), job satisfaction as the equivalent of a Expectations and work satisfaction as an attitude to work or to aspects of the work situation.5

3. Theories related to employee satisfaction

There are various theories in the literature that try to explain or describe employee satisfaction. These theories can be distinguished between content and process theories.6 Content theories describe "... according to which law man strives for which goals..."7. In the process theories, however, the goal of behavior is unknown or very different, but humans still want to maximize their benefits. They are more concerned with how the goal is to be achieved.8 Both theoretical approaches go back to the general motivation theories. This is due to the fact that there is no independent theoretical concept for employee satisfaction per implies, which is why it has been adapted to the motivation theories. This is explained by the fact that motivation leads to satisfaction and satisfaction in turn to motivation.9

In the following subchapters, content theory is aimed specifically at the "two-factor theory" according to Herzberg and at the Concept of motivation potential according to Hackman and Oldham (Job Characteristics Model). In terms of process theory, agnes Bruggemann's job satisfaction model is considered.

3.1 The two-factor theory according to Herzberg

The two-factor theory according to Herzberg applies "... as a very important paradigm of job satisfaction, which still has an effect on science today..."10 as Lorenz Fischer puts it. This theory belongs to the content theories of work motivation.11

There are two variants: The two-factor theory in the narrower sense and in the broader sense. The two-factor theory in the broader sense refers to work motivation in general.12

For employee satisfaction, according to Agnes Bruggemann, the two-factor theory in the narrower sense must be considered in more detail. In contrast to the two-factor theory in the broader sense, this refers to the two different modes of action of the factors for job satisfaction.13 This is about measured job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. Within this model, job satisfaction is measured by satisfaction in certain situations of work, and job dissatisfaction is measured by the frustration or non-satisfaction of the workers.14 Herzberg examined the perceived satisfaction of the workers in certain situations. He asked the workers in which situations they felt particularly comfortable at work and in which, on the other hand, they felt rather uncomfortable.15

Based on the survey results obtained in this way, Herzberg assumes that only certain and not all factors of the work contribute to the satisfaction of the employees.16 In contrast to the one-dimensional model, Herzberg distinguishes in his two-dimensional model between the satisfaction dimension and the dissatisfaction dimension (see also Fig. 1).17 The factors that generate satisfaction are classified within the framework of "neutral (no satisfaction) – satisfied". These factors are called "satisfiers".18 The "satisfiers" have to do with the work or the work content itself and are therefore referred to as "content factors" or as "motivators".19 Motivators motivate employees to perform at a higher level. They express higher-value needs such as the pursuit of growth (for more examples, see Table 1). Only they can guarantee job satisfaction in the long term, as they are aimed at the intrinsic motivation of the employees and thus their own motivation without external influence is in the foreground. The absence of these factors does not lead directly to dissatisfaction, but only to a lower level of satisfaction.20

On the other hand, there are factors that promote employee dissatisfaction. These factors are in the range of "neutral (no dissatisfaction) – dissatisfied". They are called "dissatisfiers" or "context factors".21 The contextual factors are also referred to as "hygiene factors". This refers to factors that are desired by every person and should definitely be fulfilled so that dissatisfaction does not occur. This includes, for example, the relationship with colleagues (for further examples see Table 1). "They prevent the emergence of negative states (dissatisfaction), but do not lead to positive (satisfaction)".22 The hygiene factors are caused by external influences of the work (extrinsic mode of action). If the hygiene factors are not met, this leads to dissatisfaction.23

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: The two factors of the two-factor theory according to Herzberg

Table 1: Examples of account and context factors

Source: Own presentation based on: Fischer, L. (1989) p. 34

3.2 The concept of motivation potential according to Hackman and Oldham (job characteristics model)

This model provides information on how the work tasks should be designed in order to increase intrinsic motivation, performance and job satisfaction and still offer workers personal opportunities for development.24 The model assumes that the work is done not only on the basis of extrinsic incentives, but also on the basis of incentives arising from carrying out the work activity itself.25

Hackman and Oldham assume that intrinsic motivation is also decisive for the development of job satisfaction, among other things. According to this model, the emergence of intrinsic motivation depends on the personal characteristics (psychological states of experience) of the individual person. These are influenced by the core dimensions of the work situation. Depending on the perception of the core dimensions (positive or negative), these have a corresponding influence on the psychological experience states of a person.26 So it must be tried that the core dimensions are all fulfilled, so that a positive change in the psychological experience states can occur and thus the intrinsic motivation is promoted.

The job characteristics model of Hackman/Oldham is described in more detail below (see also Fig. 2). It is based on three mutually influencing variables. These variables are denoted as follows:27

- Core dimensions of the work situation (task and activity characteristics)
- Critical psychological states of the person and
- Personal and work-related results

The "core dimensions of the work situation" are again divided into five different dimensions:

Variety of requirements: 28 This dimension describes how diverse a work situation is for the individual worker and how much it demands the individual skills and knowledge of the worker.

Holistic approach of the task: 29 The issue here is how much the worker is involved in the development process of his task, or whether he can follow his work from beginning to end and thus identify as part of this work.

Significance of the task: 30 This dimension indicates how important the task the worker performs is for the future users of the product and how his work is related to the work of other departments.

These three dimensions contribute to the psychological state of experience "Experienced significance of one's own work activity".31 When you see what you do, how future users of the product benefit from it and what is required of you, you realize the importance of your work for others and also for yourself. Thus, the work gets a corresponding importance and the work task is experienced as meaningful. If these dimensions are fulfilled, the intrinsic motivation is increased.32

Autonomy: 33 This characteristic exists when the employees can work independently and they are given a certain amount of leeway.

The core dimension "autonomy" influences the psychological state of experience "Experienced responsibility for the results of one's own work activity". Depending on the degree of autonomy, the worker feels responsible for his task and pursues it with more vigour and joy.34 In addition, he can thus also put his skills and knowledge to better use than would be the case if all work steps were prescribed.

Feedback from task fulfillment (job feedback): 35

The dimension "feedback of the fulfillment of tasks" influences the psycho-logical state of experience "knowledge about the current results, especially the quality of one's own work". This is not about the feedback from colleagues or superiors, but about the feedback from the task itself. This cannot be influenced from the outside like employee feedback, but is either fulfilled by the individual worker or not. In production, for example, displays are conceivable that display the produced parts of the individual worker so that he has feedback on the number of parts produced by him.36

The already described "psychological states of experience" lead to the "effects of work". Only when the "psychological states of experience" are experienced and evaluated by the workers in a positive way can the following "effects of work" occur.37

- High intrinsic motivation
- High quality of work performance
- Reduction of the fluctuation and absenteeism rate
- High job satisfaction and
- Low absence and fluctuation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2: The Job Characteristics Model according to Hackman/Oldham (1975)

Source: Own presentation based on: Fischer, L. (1989), p. 41

All three variables (task characteristics, psychological experience states and effects of work) are subject to the need for personal development. This is considered the central intervening variable.38 People with a strong need for growth react particularly positively to challenging activities. They are more closely linked to the core dimensions and the impact of work.39 They need a high degree of autonomy and an interesting and varied work activity so that they can be satisfied.40 Accordingly, people with lower expectations react less positively to an expansion of tasks, as they could quickly feel overwhelmed. Consequently, there are people who have a greater

Need for personal development than others. The Job-Charactericstics model thus takes into account that not all people react equally to the same task.41

Job Diagnostic Survey

This survey is derived from the job characteristics model described above after Hackman and Oldham. It serves to find out to what extent employees consider their work activity to be motivating and whether measures need to be taken to improve motivation potential.42 The survey consists of a 7-step grading scale to assess various statements that are directly related to the five core dimensions.43 This scale is used to determine the values for the activity characteristics used in the formula below.

From the five core dimensions of the work situation, a formula for calculating the motivation potential is derived:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Diversity of requirements, holistic approach to the task and significance are additively linked, while autonomy and feedback are variables that are indispensable for the emergence of intrinsic motivation.44

Both the Herzberg model and the Job Characteristics model of Hackman and Oldham assume a general job satisfaction and do not distinguish between individual aspects of it.

In the following chapter, the model of Agnes Bruggemann will be presented. It takes into account that different attitudes and situations can lead to different forms of job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction.

3.3 The model of Bruggemann

Agnes Bruggemann does not assume a general form of job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction, but various possible forms. According to Bruggemann, job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction results from the difference in the worker's perception resulting from his experiences and expectations (target state) and the actual situation (actual state).45 It therefore understands the development of job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction as a process. Bruggemann's argument that there are various forms of satisfaction is quite understandable. There can hardly be a generalized form of job satisfaction, as satisfaction develops from many different influences, expectations and impressions, which are also constantly changing and can be adapted over time.46 Agnes Bruggemann takes these changes into account in her model. She distinguishes six different forms of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. These forms are derived from three different processes:47

1. Satisfaction or non-satisfaction of a current expectation
2. Maintaining or lowering the level of demands on work due to satisfaction or non-satisfaction
3. In the case of non-satisfaction, there is either problem solving, problem suppression or problem fixation.

In the following, the various states of satisfaction or dissatisfaction according to Bruggemann are described in more detail (see also figure in the appendix):

Stabilizing job satisfaction:

It is achieved when the expectations of the working man are met, i.e. when the target state becomes the actual state. The worker now sees his expectations fulfilled and is thus psychologically relieved.48 From the stabilizing job satisfaction, two further forms of job satisfaction can be derived:

- Progressive job satisfaction:

Stabilizing job satisfaction can develop into this form of job satisfaction by increasing the level of entitlement. This in turn leads to a "creative job dissatisfaction".49 This means that due to the high level of demand, the actual target state is no longer balanced. The current state no longer meets the expectations of the worker, as his goals have changed over time.50

- Stabilized job satisfaction:

Here, in contrast to progressive job satisfaction, there is a constant level of ambition. This occurs when the person shifts his or her demands not only to work, but also to other areas of life, and thus his expectations of work no longer change.51


1 cf. Nerdinger, Friedemann W. u. a.: Arbeitsmotivation und Arbeitszufriedenheit, in: Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie , 2. Auflage, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg: 2011, P. 395

2 Fischer, Lorenz: Strukturen der Arbeitszufriedenheit. Zur Analyse individuelle Bezugssysteme, Verlag für Psychologie – Dr.C. J. Hogrefe, Göttingen: 1989, p. 23, quoted from: Hoppock, R. , Job Satisfaction , Harper & Row, New York: 1935

3 Bruggemann, Agnes u. a.: Arbeitszufriedenheit, Hans Huber, Bern: (2006), p. 132.

4 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 23

5 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 23

6 cf. By Rosenstiel, Lutz: Grundlagen der Organisationspsychologie, 6th edition, Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart: (2018), p. 241.

7 From Rosenstiel, L.: (FN 9), P. 242

8 Cf. von Rosenstiel, L.: (FN 9), P. 242

9 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 28

10 Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 33

11 cf. From Rosenstiel, L.: (FN 9), P. 88

12 cf. Bruggemann, A. et al.: (FN 6), P.33

13 cf. Bruggemann, A. et al..: (FN 6), P. 33

14 cf. Bruggemann, A. et al..: (FN 6), P. 33

15 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 34

16 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 34

17 cf. Lieber, Bernd: Personalführung…leicht verständlich!, 2nd edition, UTB, Munich: (2018), p. 32.

18 cf. Bruggemann, A. et al.: (FN 6), P. 34

19 Cf. von Rosenstiel, L.: (FN 9), p. 89 f.

20 Cf. von Rosenstiel, L.: (FN 9), P. 90

21 cf. Bruggemann, A. inter alia.: (FN 6), P. 33

22 Cf. von Rosenstiel, L.: (FN 9) P. 89

23 cf. Nerdinger, Friedemann W. u. a.: Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg: (2008), P. 430.

24 cf. Schmidt, Klaus-H. inter alia.: Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS German version), in: Handbuch psychologischer Arbeitsanalyseverfahren, Hrsg.: Dunckel, Heiner, vdf Hochschulverlag AG, Zürich: 1999, P. 206.

25 cf. Schmidt, K. et al.: (FN 27), P. 206

26 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 41

27 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 41

28 cf. Weibler, Jürgen: Personalführung, 2nd edition, Vahlen, Munich: 2012, P. 204

29 cf. Weibler, J.: (FN 31), P. 204

30 cf. Weibler, J.: (FN 31), P. 204

31 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 41

32 cf. Ridder, Hans-Gerd: Personalwirtschaftslehre, 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart: (2015), P. 226.

33 cf. Weibler, J.: (FN 31), P. 204

34 cf. Ridder, H.: (FN 35), P. 226

35 cf. Weibler, J.: (FN 31), P. 204

36 cf. Nerdinger, Friedemann W.: Grundlagen des Verhaltens in Organisationen, ed.: von der Oelsnitz, Dietrich et al., 2nd edition, W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart: (2008), P. 192.

37 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 42

38 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 41

39 Cf. von Rosenstiel, L.: (FN 9), P. 100

40 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 41

41 cf. Nerdinger, F.: (FN 39), P. 193

42 cf. Ulich, Eberhard: Arbeitspsychologie, 7th edition, Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart: 2011, P. 108

43 cf. Nerdinger, F.: (FN 39), P. 193

44 cf. Ulich, E.: (FN 45), P. 109

45 cf. Kirchler, Erich: Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 2nd edition, UtB GmbH, Vienna: (2008), P. 250.

46 cf. Fischer L.: (FN 5), P. 53

47 cf. Bruggemann, A. et al..: (FN 6), P. 132

48 cf. Bruggemann, A. et al..: (FN 6), P. 132

49 cf. Fischer, L.: (FN 5), P. 54

50 cf. Genkova, Petia u.a.: Work-Life-Balance macht uns glücklich? – Psychologische Aspekte von Work-Life-Balance, Gesundheit und Lebenszufriedenheit, in: Praxis der Wirtschaftspsychologie II – Themen und Fallbeispiele für Studium und Anwendung, Hrsg.: Thielsch, Meinald u. a., MV-Wissenschaft, Brandenburg: 2012, P. 73

51 cf. Bruggemann, A. et al.: (FN 6), P. 133

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Employee satisfaction. Influencing factors and effects on employees and companies
University of Applied Sciences Kempten
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employee, influencing
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Isolde Menig (Author), 2013, Employee satisfaction. Influencing factors and effects on employees and companies, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1185082


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