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This research aimed to determine the level of participation in the reading involvement and engagement of the teachers, parents, and stakeholders with the learners of a Primary School in the city of Himamaylan, province of Negros Occidental during the school year 2019-2020. The participants of the study were categorized into three: teachers, parents, and stakeholders. For the teachers, there were nine (9) grades four (4) to six (6) teachers at Primary School. This research employed the quantitative descriptive design utilizing the triangulation approach to determine the level of participation in the reading involvement and engagement. The results on the level of participation of the teachers, parents, and stakeholders of Primary School reveals that there is an “often” participation of the nine (9) teachers from Grades 4 to 6 with the Mean of 4.069. However, parents were participated "rarely" with the Mean of 1.858. Twenty parents were having rare reading participation with their children at home. The results reveal that there are so many gaps in the parents' participation in the reading performance of their children. Finally, stakeholders participated in "oftentimes" which have a Mean of 3.704. the results mean that there should be more assistance and programs to do in partnership with the stakeholders.
Reading is the foundation of the learners to effectively perform in academic learning. Learning to read takes an important role in learners' literacy improvement and success in school, at home, in the community, or even in their later life.
The Department of Education on its guidelines on the Revised Philippine Informal Reading Inventory highlights the support for Every Child a Reader Program, which aims to produce every Filipino child a reader using the classroom-based assessment tool to measure and describe the reading performance of the learners in both English and Filipino languages.
Besides, learners' reading performance also depends on the support given by the teachers, parents, and stakeholders. Teachers' role in teaching reading influences their learners' academic performance. Similarly, parent's assistance in teaching reading to their children at home is one of the key thrusts that could help improve learners' reading performance. On the other hand, the impact of the stakeholders through their collective efforts in providing an accessible venue for reading contributes to the reading improvement of the learners. However, it was observed that reading is practiced in school and is not continued at home/community due to some factors hence there are still slow reader children.
Thus, this concept of addressing the gap among learners' reading performance, teachers' and parents' support, and stakeholders' contribution are initiated. This is to bridge the reading practice of the identified slow reader learners from school to home to the community through accessible and collaborative interventions of the involved persons.
This research aimed to determine the level of participation in the reading involvement and engagement of the teachers, parents, and stakeholders with the learners of Primary School in Himamaylan City, Negros Occidental in the school year 2019-2020.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following:
1. What is the demographic profile of the teachers of Primary School when they are classified according to a. grade level; b. length of service; c. highest educational attainment; and d. the number of reading programs attended?
2. What is the demographic profile of the parents of the frustrated reader learners when they are grouped in terms of their: a. socio-economic status; b. highest educational attainment; and c. the number of reading programs attended?
3. What is the demographic profile of the stakeholders at Brgy. Talaban, Himamaylan City when they are classified according to a. position; b. the number of years in service; and c. the number of reading programs implemented or attended?
4. What is the level of participation in the reading involvement and engagement of the teachers, parents, and stakeholders in teaching reading?
Framework and Methodologies
The participants of the study were categorized into three: teachers, parents, and stakeholders. For the teachers, there were nine (9) grades four (4) to six (6) teachers of Primary School. These teachers were chosen since they were in the grade levels that used PHIL-Iri Reading Inventory where the data on the frustrated reader learners were taken. For the parents, these were the twenty (20) parents, whether the mother or the father, of the Grades 4-6 learners. While for the stakeholders, these were the three (3) representatives from the Local Government Unit of Himamaylan City, two (2) representatives from the Parents-Teachers Association, and two (2) retired professionals residing from the said barangay and city. Using purposive sampling, the respondents were chosen.
This research employed the quantitative descriptive design utilizing the triangulation approach to determine the level of participation in the reading involvement and engagement of the teachers, parents, and stakeholders with the learners of Primary School, in Himamaylan City, Negros Occidental in the school year 2019-2020. According to Olsen (n.d.), a triangulation approach is mixed data or methods with different viewpoints on a particular topic. A quantitative descriptive design was used because it describes the present situation at present. According to Loeb et al. (2017), a descriptive analysis describes the present situation by answering questions about who, what, where, when, and to what extent.
This research utilized researcher-made questionnaires that were set in three and were composed of two parts: Part I focuses on the demographic profile of the participants and Part II reflects on the level of participation of the participants on the reading involvement and engagement with the learners.
To establish the validity of the researcher-made questionnaires, the questionnaires were submitted it to the three jurors who are experts in their respective field and were requested to make corrections, suggestions, and recommendations for the improvement of the said instrument by using the Good and Scates validation form.
In gathering the data, the proponent sought the approval of the Officer-In-Charge of the Schools Division Superintendent of Himamaylan City to conduct the research. Then, a letter of approval was sent to the Public Schools District Supervisor of Primary School through the School Principal presenting the purpose of the research and collecting the necessary data about the teachers and learners. Also, the communication letters were sent to the Barangay Captain for permitting the team to gather the community profile of the barangay stating the specific and necessary data. Finally, the stakeholders of the school were seeking approval to be part of the research. The self-administered questionnaires were personally managed and utilized to the participants by instructing them on how to accomplish the test. The gathered data were retrieved immediately and tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted using the Frequency Count and the Mean.
Moreover, this research was conducted to the participants with the permission of the Officer-In-Charge of the Division of Himamaylan City, Public Schools District Supervisor, school principal, elementary teachers, parents, and stakeholders. This research was taken place in the convenient time of the participants assuring that their confidentiality was taken into consideration without compromising them. Likewise, the data collected from the participants were disposed of properly and kept confidentially after the completion and approval of the research.
Results and Discussion
When teachers are classified according to grade levels, there were three (3) teachers in Grades 3 to 6. Meanwhile, the length of service of the teachers according to grade level differs wherein Grade 4 teachers have been serving for 69 years; Grade 5 teachers have been serving for 57 years, and Grade 6 teachers have been serving for 66 years. All of them were attained a Bachelor's Degree in Education. However, in terms of their reading programs attended, there were eight (8) programs for the Grade 4; six (6) programs for the Grade 5; and only one (1) program for the Grade 6.
While, the demographic profile of the parents whose children were in Grades 4-6 were classified according to economic-status, highest educational attainment, and reading programs attended. Most of the participants were the mothers in which there were eighteen (18) mothers and two (2) fathers.
In terms of their socio-economic status, fourteen (14) parents received the monthly income of 3,000 and below; there were five (5) those who received 3,001 to 6,000; only one (1) received 6,001 to 9,000, and zero received 9,000 and above. Parents with a monthly income of 3,000 and below dominated the survey.
On the other hand, parents who availed highest educational attainment were as follows: three (3) attained elementary level, fifteen (15) attained high school level, while only one (1) was at the college level, and one (1) was in post-graduate studies.
Moreover, only six (6) reading programs attended by the parents. It is said that parents have an important role in their child's reading development especially in nurturing the interest of their child to read. In this situation that parents accompany their child in reading, there are opportunities, recognition, and modeling that the child can learn on (Yip, n.d.).
When there are children's early reading experiences with the parents, children will benefit from formal literacy instruction that influences them positively on their reading skills development like reading achievement, language comprehension and expressive language skills, (Supplee et al. 2004 as cited by Mudzielwana, 2014).
The demographic profile of the stakeholders was classified according to position, years in service, and reading programs implemented/attended. The Local Government Unit is composed of the Brgy. Captain which has been serving for 11 years with 2 reading programs attended or implemented, the Brgy. Kagawad who is the Head for Education Committee has been serving for 1 year and 6 months without any reading program attended and implemented, and the Sangguniang Panlungsod who is the Head for Education Committee has been in service for 5 months with no reading program implemented or attended.
Meanwhile, the Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) is composed of the Chairperson who is in 2 years in service with 2 reading programs implemented and attended, and the Vice-Chairperson who has been serving for one (1) year with no reading program implemented and attended.
Finally, the results on the level of participation of the teachers, parents, and stakeholders of Primary School reveals that there is an “often” participation of the nine (9) teachers from Grades 4 to 6 with the Mean of 4.069. The result is supported by Mudzielwana (2014) that teachers provide reading skills activities for the learner’s progress. The results mean that there is still a gap in teaching reading to the learners which is affected by other factors. Among the items in the survey-questionnaire, it reveals that the teachers as a whole send their learners once a week to the school library, assign reading activities as homework for their learners, allow their learners to watch film versions of children’s books or stories, and do a play or dramatization about what their learners have read. According to Cazdin (2001) as cited in Lapp et al. (2013), in the classroom context, the characteristics of interactions of teachers affected the learning of the students. Likewise, the act of teaching teachers increased their effectiveness.
However, parents were participated "rarely" with the Mean of 1.858. Twenty parents were having rare reading participation with their children at home. The results reveal that there are so many gaps in the parents' participation in the reading performance of their children. Based on the survey-statements, parents have poor participation especially in guiding their children to build a strong reading foundation in the early years of development due to lack of books at home, follow-up of their children's school task or activities, formulation of authentic reading materials, and others. Patall (2008) as cited by Mudzielwana, 2014) shares that parental involvement in children's academic endeavors is clearly stated on a growing body of researchers that it improves and affects positively the achievement of the children from behavior to attendance and even school performance as a whole.
Finally, stakeholders participated in "oftentimes" which have a Mean of 3.704. the results mean that there should be more assistance and programs to do in partnership with the stakeholders. The Ministry of Education (2010) as cited in LDAOeng (2016) shares that there are improved and successful learning outcomes for the students when there is parent-teacher engagement. Moreover, it is desirable to have an agreement between teachers and parents that there is a positive, supportive, and open relationship between them and between home and school.
Also, Mudzielwana (2014), schools are not the only responsible in addressing concerns in terms of parent involvement to their children’s reading skill development but also it the responsibility of the Non-Government Organizations, Civil Structures, Department of Education, Civil Society Structures, and other stakeholders to assist the children in managing challenges encountered.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The results of the research reveal that parents, teachers, and stakeholders have different levels of participation in children's reading development. The result for the teachers shows that their highest educational attainment contributes to their learners' reading skill development. Therefore, teachers should provide additional reading programs whether online or offline to engage their learners in various learning platforms.
On the other hand, the Bachelor's Degree program attainment of the teachers could not affect their performance in improving their learners' literacy rate. However, their number of reading programs attended should be strengthened in order to fill their teaching gaps.
Likewise, there number of years in teaching justify could not satisfy its best I performing effectively in teaching reading maybe because of the insufficient training that they have undergone.
On the other hand, parents reveal that most of them have not undergone reading training or have not attended the reading program that could help them also improve themselves and could make them effective in teaching reading to their children. But some factors may be considered in terms of their capacity to teach reading such as their educational attainment and the monthly income that could affect their involvement and performance to their respective children. The result of the research reveals that it is better to have parental involvement in their children's reading performance in school and most especially at home.
Meanwhile, it is recommended to the stakeholders to actively participate in the reading and literacy programs of the school and community. Likewise, there is a need to revisit the existing policies, ordinances, and mandates of the DepEd, LGU, school, and particular organizations in nation-building and reading skills development of the children.
Lapp, D., Flood, J., Brock, C. H., Fisher, D., Flood, J., Brock, C. H., & Fisher, D. (2013). Teaching Reading to Every Child. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203821 275
LDAOeng. (2016, July 6). Effective Parent-Teacher Partnerships: Considerations for Educators. Retrieved November 29, 2019, from LD@school website: https://www.ldatschool.ca/effective-parent-teacher-partnerships/
Loeb, S., Dynarski, S., McFarland, D., Morris, P., Reardon, S., & Reber, S. (2017). Descriptive Analysis in Education: A Guide for Researchers. NCEE 2017-4023. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Mudzielwana, N. P. (2014). The Role of Parents in Developing Reading Skills of Their Children in the Foundation Phase. Journal of Social Sciences, 41 (2), 253–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2014.11893361
Olsen, W. (n.d.). Triangulation in Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Can Really Be Mixed. 30.
Yip, V. W. Y. (n.d.). Parent-child reading: Voyage between home and school. 20.
- Quote paper
- Kenneth Bacala (Author), 2022, The Level of Multistakeholders' Participation on Learners' Reading Performance in Primary School in Himamaylan City, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1195494