2. What is communication
2.1 Communication models/ Communication types
2.2 Internal Communication
3.1 Types of Communication
3.2 Theories of Motivation
4. Rules of communication in feedback interviews
4.1 Communicating positive and negative feedback
5. Generating motivation via suitable communication skills
7. Works cited
Communication is omnipresent in our society; we communicate almost constantly and thus pass on information to our environment. It is a field that covers diverse parts of our lives and without communication one could be frustrated, aggressive and feel out of control. In this manner both everyday situations as well as professional situations are made more difficult. Communication can be used to understand someone you are speaking to and to get them to understand their point of view and their concerns. In fact, it is the easiest way to express oneself and describe needs and concerns. Every human being starts at a noticeably young age to communicate with others as communication is something less difficult, at least that is how it is initially perceived. As children and youth, it is easier to express wishes and needs than adults, because the older you get, the more complex communication can be.
Thus an adult has more complex and diverse forms and styles of communication than a child, because apart from the fact that adults are more experienced than children, an adult also has to face certain problems that are much more complex and whose needs gradually increase in complexity. Personal needs and desires are no longer the only concern. Adults are more affected by this complexity than children, especially in stressful situations. Davies states that “when we are stressed or at a low ebb, we tend to adopt a defensive style of communication.”. Hence, communication in stressful situations can be very challenging, especially at workplaces when it comes to questioning the success.
Generally, work and success are very important. Therefore, concerns about work, the work environment and work success can and will also be influenced by communication. Everyone wants to be as successful in their job. The competition in the job market is at the highest level and everyone wants the best job just as companies want to have the best and the most suitable employees. Communication is an essential factor for all these aspects. A wellfunctioning communication i.e. within the company is important for sustainable success and consequently has an impact on many areas. The general objectives are to inform employees, but also to create motivation and feedback.
Communication in general plays a significant role when it comes to the work environment and the working atmosphere (including motivation of employees) and concerning the success that is to be achieved in a profession. It also is an indispensable element in nowadays society which leads to either positive or negative achievements.
In this paper I will have a closer look on the importance of communication skills in business area and will illustrate how motivation in business behaves in connection with communication and to what extent this is conducive to successful business.
Furthermore, I will analyse several communication models and types of motivation to portray my suggestions and arguments.
2. What is communication?
In order to prove that communication is omnipresent and that it is the key to success if it functions well, one must first clarify its term to then examine how the process works. In general, communication is the mutual exchange of information. The way of exchanging information depends on the persons understanding since there are different manners of conveying and handling information.
Communication can be defined as follows: “Communication/ to communicate has Latin origin communis; communicare; communicatio1 which means ‘to share'. It is the sharing of information between different individuals and includes the sharing of ideas, concepts, imaginations, behaviours, and written content. Communication is simply defined as the transfer of information from one place to another. This transfer of information can be conducted in different ways”2
2.1 Communication models/ communication styles
The Organon model (communication model) of Karl Buhler, which can be considered in all areas of communication at least serves as a guiding thread. The basic idea is that every communication consists of two sides, a sender who wants to pass on a message or information and a receiver who receives it. In order to transmit the message, it is encoded by the sender, which sounds complicated, but only means that it is expressed in speech or body language. The receiver, for his part, must be able to understand and decipher this code, i. e. speak the same language or correctly interpret and understand the body's signals. The communication becomes complete when the recipient sends back feedback that he has understood (or misunderstood) the message. According to this communication model, misunderstandings arise when a mistake is made on one of the two sides. Thus, it is important to be clear from the outset what you want to achieve with what you want to communicate or basically your message. It also plays a significant role to think about whether you want to express something or represent something, or even to call out an appeal, in order to achieve the goal that you have set yourself. In all manner of ways, it is important to consider how to do it so that communication works well.3 As previously mentioned, this model serves as a basic concept of communication and could provide a fundamental understanding.
Comprehensible and conducive communication is essential in every workplace. Communication is necessary for all participants or between all participants. This means both communication within the company itself and communication from the company to other persons involved (consumers, business partners, etc.) is essential.
One of the objectives of a company is to reach its consumers as well as possible. It is important to establish this communication efficiently. However, this is only possible if the communication within a company also works well. In the working environment you meet different personalities. Everyone is different in type and everyone wants to achieve the same, namely, to be successful. Regarding my previous statements, communication is a prerequisite for success and reaching success can be stressful.
Each person is different and deals differently with stress and other complicate situations. Communication is very important in dealing with all these aspects and there are different types and styles of communication.
In the following I will first analyse some styles of communication while referring to examples in the field of business. An important example is The Four Stress Communication Styles by Virginia Satir:
Editor's note: This image was removed due to cpyright reasons.
Figure 1 https://medium.com/@amattdavies/four-stress-communication-styles-b804de9f5c6 Virginia Satir discovered four categories of communication, or attitudes, that people adopt when they are under stress. Each of these categories of Satir is characterized by a special posture, a special gesture, accompanying body feelings and a specific syntax (Fig 1). Satir distinguishes between: Blamer, Placater, Super-reasonable and Distractor.4 As “defensive communication styles” they are interpreted as forms that describe how people in communication with others protect their self-esteem when it is threatened.5 The following examples from the business sector referring to communication between an employee and a manager make these styles clearer (the italic font shows the corresponding style):
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Virginia Satir finds the cause of all conflict types (Fig 2) to be low self-esteem. But those who accept themselves, accept others as they are and pay attention to the context, can act appropriately. She summarizes this phenomenon under the term Leveller as “the productive congruent style of communication.” (ibid.) The examples as shown in Figure 2 clarifies the differences and can help someone (especially in the field of business) to find his/her own style. It is helpful for a manager to be concerned about his or her own behaviour. It also helps to think about how this will affect his or her employees. Knowing the different communication styles of the employees in the context of manger's own style could help to lead a successful team and to a more successful cooperation.
2.2 Internal Communication
In business life, communication takes place in a wide variety of ways.
There are two main forms of communication in the field of companies, namely external and internal communication. Depending on who the company wants to communicate with, it is decided which area is eligible. In the following I will introduce the internal communication, because the former is of less relevance for the investigation of this work.
Internal communication is an important area of business communication and it focuses on communication between employees and with management.6
There are different types of internal communication: top to downwards, bottom to upward and horizontal.7 Top to downward and bottom to upward describe basically the communication between managers and employees. Different to horizontal communication, which shows the informal type of communication between employee to employee.8 Effective internal communication is critical for success in companies because it affects the ability of strategic managers to involve employees and achieve goals.
In order to establish effective internal communication, one should carefully analyse their functions. These functions, also called concepts, consist of information, dialogue, and motivation.
3 Ant, M. (2013). Effiziente Kommunikation:Theorie und Praxis am Beispiel "Die 12 Geschworenen". Retrieved July 12, 2020, from https://books.google.de/books?hl=de
7 https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-principlesofmanagement/chapter/reading-barriers-to-effective- communication/