Impact of Home Video on Secondary School Student's Academic Performance in Ijebu-Ode

Bachelor Thesis, 2015

63 Pages



Title Page





Table of Contents

1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Question
1.4 Hypotheses
1.5 Purpose of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 The concept of Mass Media
2.4 Classification of Mass Media
2.5 Function of Mass Media
2.6 The Home Video
2.6.1 Negative Effect of TV Viewing on Nigerian students
2.6.2 Television Effects onAcademic Achievement of student
2.6.3 Empirical Studies on TV Viewing and the Academic Performance
2.6.4 Implications for Excessive TV-Watching
2.6.5 Remedy of Implications for Excessive TV-Watching
2.7 Appraisalof Literature

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Research Population
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Validity of the Instrument
3.7 Reliability
3.8 Method for Data Collection
3.9 Method for Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Demographic Information of Respondents
4.3 Data Analysis
4.4 Discussion of Findings

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendation
5.5 Suggestion for further Studies


Appendix 1

Appendix 2


This research work is dedicated to God almighty; The wisdom and the secret behind my success, the savior of my soul, the keeper of all his promises through my academic years. Also, to my parent, Late Engineer ADELEKE and Mrs. FOLUKE OKELARIN without whose caring, support, assistance in great measure and prayers it would not have been possible.


My profound gratitude goes to Almighty God the creator of mankind for his mercy, favour and faithfulness towards me from the beginning of the academic session to the end, and for a successful project well done.

My gaze of sincere appreciation turns to my honourable project supervisor the person of Dr. J.O PELEYEJU, who despite all the stress and tight schedule make out time to go through my work with all mistakes and errors helped in making necessary corrections and yet never gave up upon me in his own way encourage me to carry on to the end. My sincere prayer for you is that GOD will continue to elevate you in all spheres of life, and he will richly reward you in double fold according to his riches in glory (amen).

My special gratitude goes to my loving and ever caring parent, Late Engineer ADELEKE and MRS. FOLUKE OKELARIN who were there for me due to their love for education all their prayers which brought me this far. I must not but appreciate these wonderful siblings of mine; Mr. & Mrs. Adegbenro and Olubunmi Owodolu, Okelarin Abiola Lawrence, Okelarin Afolashade Oriyomi, Okelarin Kayode Emmanuel, Okelarin Abosede (last born). I say a big thank you for your support, encouragement and assistance. Indeed you are a blessing in your own way.

I cannot forget to appreciate the contribution and input of this family of GOD (TACSFON TASUED) towards my spiritual upbringing and God's permission and privilege to nurture and explore my hidden potentials. If not of his presence in TACSFON TASUED and the effort of the brethren I wouldn't have been what I am today. I sincerely appreciate this wonderful brothers and sisters of God; Bro. Ogundipe Israel, Bro. Famodu Kolawole, Bro. Oladele Abiodun, Bro. Adebiyi Samuel, Bro. Akinwunmi Dare, Bro. Tobi, Bro. Bimbo (Olusho), Bro. Samson, Sis. Fagbade Hannah, Sis. Lawal Funmilola (Mummy G.O), Sis Oluwole Oludayo (Aburo mi), Sis. Yinka, Sis. Padonu Feranmi, and the entire stewards of Builder's regime. Before I drop my pen, I also say a big thank you to the entire seeker's regime executives for their cooperation towards the continuity of the vision in TACSON TASUED .your presence in my life is worthwhile. I love you all.


The study examined the impact of home video on secondary school students' academic performance in Ijebu-Ode. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. A questionnaire on “Home Video and Students' Academic Performance Questionnaire” (HVASPQ) was used to collect the data. The instrument was administered to 150 students from five (5) secondary schools which are randomly selected from the 14 public secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode LGA.The result showed that home video has a positive and dysfunctional influences on the academic performance of the students. Also, the result revealed that there is a significant positive influence of home video on the students' academic performance (r = 0.823, P>0.05). It also revealed that there is a significant dysfunctional influence on the students' academic performance (r = 0.916, P>0.05).Finally, there is a significant difference in the impact of home video on male and female senior secondary school students in Ijebu-Ode (t = 1.976, P>0.05). The study recommends among other things that parent need to monitor their children home video watching habit. This will help them in maintaining balance between the leisure time and study time thereby developing a discipline personality.

Keywords: Academic Performance; Home video; senior secondary school.


1.1 Background to the Study

The desire of most nations of the world today is producing quality education for its citizens. This hopefully would bring about economic and national development, sustenance of cultural norms, believe, sound moral and behavioral upbringing. The reality of this could be said of the developed countries of the world. In the words of Jakayinfa (2007), this seems unrealistic and less achievable in the third world nations as education and its sector which was said to be an instrument of nation building, growth and development is given less attention.

In Nigeria, the overriding education news is the low quality of education and poor academic performance among the students in all levels of learning. (Arony and Ogbadu, 2010) in a research put forward that some people blame the students for this apparent decline in quality of education and moral value, majority blame the teachers for the woes in our schools while the teachers shifted the blame on the children and parental attitude to their children education. Other scholars such as Jekayinfa (2007) blamed the government for unattractive condition of services and poor physical facilities in some parts of the system. Nevertheless, it is essential to note that apart from the stated factors as the causes of failure among students, the advent of globalization which successfully granted the least expected citizens the access to mass media. Children, students inclusive all over the world come into daily contact with various forms of mass media which have a lot of influence on their academic performance and social behavior. According to Thomas (2000), mass media plays a leading role in promoting education. These include; newspapers, television, radio, magazines, home video and other forms of communications. Home video as a channel of mass media plays a monumental role in the promotion of education. Bell (1988) emphasizes that home video remained an instrument of entertainment, information and education. Bride (2000) reiterates that the media of communication such as home video are cultural instrument which strive to promote or influence attitude, motivate and foster the spread of behavior patterns, thus bringing about social integration.

Home video has taken more than half of the existing entertainment forms which equally compete for time and attention of the average citizen. Onokome (2004), notes that Nigeria video films have transformed into an act, creating their own version of Nollywood that results in the production of over 600 films a year thus making Nigeria one of the largest film producing nations in the world and third most vibrant Nollywood film producing nation of the world after Hollywood and Bollywood.

Oladunjoye (2000) opines that the outburst of these films with their assorted titles in the market and the uncontrolled nature of sales and rentals has resulted into parents and children buying or renting films which may have adverse influence on the behavioural pattern of the entire citizenry. In view of this development; parents, education providers, and other education stakeholders worldwide have expressed reservations about the amount of home video and type of television programmes to which children are been exposed to. Okoye (2003) states that home video is toxic hence, would have both negative and positive influences on Nigeria students depending on the type of film, the time and level of parental control. The dangerous part of home video is the fact that it takes students' time, thereby depriving them of maximum concentration on their school work such as revision of notes, assignment, and domestic duties at home. While at home, general opinion reveals that students would prefer to remain glued to the screen rather than participating actively in home chores. On this background, this study is premised to investigate the impact of home video on academic performance of students' in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun state, Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The disappointing outcome of students' academic performance after effective teaching and learning exercise has taken place has left stakeholders of education in a state of confusion. Investigations has been conducted out of which watching of home video has some sort of contributions to it, but this has not been thoroughly explored. Hence, this study is an attempt to further investigate the advantages and dysfunctional influence of home video on students' academic performance in Ijebu-Ode.

1.3 Research Question

Specifically, this study attempts to answer the following questions;

1. What are the positive influences of home video on secondary school students' academic performance in Ijebu-Ode?
2. What are the dysfunctional effects of home video on secondary school students' academic performance in Ijebu-Ode?
3. Is there any difference in the impact of home video on male and female secondary school students' academic performance?

1.4 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated;

1. Ho1: There is no significant positive influence of home video on secondary school students' academic performance in Ijebu-Ode
3. Ho2: There is no significant negative influence of home video on secondary school students' academic performance in Ijebu-Ode
4. Ho3: There is no significant difference in the impact of home video on male and female secondary school students' academic performance in Ijebu-Ode.

1.5 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the positive and dysfunctional effect of home video in the academic performance of senior secondary school students' in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun state, Nigeria.

1.6 Scope of the Study

Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area has fourteen public senior secondary schools. Therefore, this research covered all the fourteen senior secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode with a total population of 4,048.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The impact of home video on students is very important to the society now that students in their leisure time enjoy watching home movies.

This research work will provide the general public particularly parents with appropriate hint on how to bring up their children in the aspect of good use of home video.

It will also educate school administrators, curriculum developers and teachers on the effective usage of home video in teaching and learning exercise thus, preventing the reoccurrence of mass failure in examinations.

Finally, the research will contribute to existing literature on this subject by presenting a strong basis for future academic research.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Academic Performance: The students' academic outcome or result as measured by continuous assessment and examination.

Home Video: The pre-recorded media on video tape or DVD sold, rented or streamed for home cinema entertainment.

Senior Secondary School: The third tier of the 6-3-3-4 system of Education in Nigeria.



The literature will be reviewed under the following headings;

- Theoretical Framework
- Conceptual Framework
- The concept of mass media
- Classification of mass media
- Function of mass media
- The home video
- Summary of the literature review

2.1 Theoretical Framework

2.1.1 Observational Learning and Imitation Behavior Theory

Folarin [2002:82] asserts that both theories assume that people, especially children, tend to learn from the mass media and to model their behavior on that of the Dramatis personae. The process is similar to that by which children imitate the behavior of adults around them. While, Bandura's studies in the 1960's provided evidence that modeled behavior [aggression] is spontaneously imitated by children and adolescents. According to Bandura, “the best and most effective way to teach children novel ways of acting is to show them the behavior you want them to display. This theory has proved that how people behave in a society depends on what they see and perceive others behave.

Decades of studies have linked childhood hours in front of the TV with aggressive behavior to earlier sexual activity, smoking, obesity, and poor school performance. The research has lead the American Academy of Pediatrics to suggest children watch no more than 2 hours of TV per day and that children under 2years old watch none at all. But results from studies on cognitive abilities and TV watching have been mixed. Some researchers have found that high quality; educational TV programmes are a boon for learning. Others have shown that the negative effects of hours in front of the TV disappear when confounding factors- such as IQ or socioeconomic status is included. In essence, which conforms that too much time in front of the TV reduces children's learning abilities, academic achievement, and even the likelihood of their graduating from university

2.2 Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework is a hypothesized model identifying the variables under study and their relationships, that is, dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables under investigation are academic performance, while the independent variable is home video. This is examined and illustrated graphically in the conceptual framework below. If these areas are addressed with proper intervention and preventive measures put in place, the situation would surely be salvaged.

Figure 1

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Conceptual Framework on the impact of home video on academic performance of secondary school student examines the relationship between dependent variables; academic performance, and the independent variable; home video. We also have intervening variables, the independent variable, and the dependent variables. Intervening variables included other forms of mass media like the radio, newspapers environment and peer influence. The implication of the independent variable (home video) on the dependent variable (academic performance) is that it either cause academic excellence or academic failure. As a matter of fact, the effects of watching home video are both positive and negative in nature.

2.3 The Concept of Mass Media

Mass Media can also be defined as “messages communicated through a mass medium to a large number of people” (Bittner, 1980, p.10). Thus, the study of Mass Communication is the scientific study of the mass media (machines), the messages they carry (information, ideas, attitudes), and the audiences (people) they transmit these messages. A medium is called a mass medium if it meets two basic requirements: It must reach many people simultaneously (same time), and must use a technological device located between source and receiver (Whet more, 1985:p.6-7).

The popular maxim that the mass media is regarded as the fourth estate of the realm as an ideal expression that re-echoes through ages. Nwosu (1992) in his opinion said; they are channels through which communication is addressed to a large heterogeneous and a cross section of the population. Facuconner (1975) quoting Fleur conceives mass media as a computer of stable, repetitive and patterned action that is in part, a manifestation of the psychological orientation of the actors. It is a powerful and respected phenomenon that lubricates the engine of self-rule, human dignity and emancipated polity. Mass media are all those media technology that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. Broadcast media transmit information electronically and comprises of television, radio, and film. Alternatively, print media uses a physical object as a means of sending information through Newspapers, Magazine and bill board. Internet media is able to achieve mass media status in its own right, due to many services as email, websites and blogging. (Retrieved November 9th 2012) www.wikipedia free

2.4 Classification of the Media

A simple way to classify the mass media is to group them under print and electronic media. The print media are such mass media as books, newspaper and magazine, whose basis is the printed word. Electronic media, on the other hand, comprise all the mass media which rely on the electronic power to get their messages to their audience which include radio and television, recordings, movies, internet and the explosion of digital communication technology in the 20th and 21st century (Bittner, 1980 p: 10). In 2000, a classification by (McQuail 1987) called the (7) seven mass media became popular. They are:

1. Print, pamphlet, newspaper(established in the 15th c)
2. Recording - records, magnetic tapes, CD, DVD, gramophone(19th c)
3. Cinema - it started from about 1900
4. Radio - it started from about 1910
5. Television - it started in 1950
6. Internet - it started in 1990
7. Mobile phone - it started in 2000. (Retrieved November 9th 2012)

Each mass media has its own content types, its own creative artist and technicians. Example, internet includes website, blogs and podcasts built on top of the general distribution network. The 6th and 7th are often collectively called “digital media”, the 4th and 5th radio and television as broadcast media and some argued that video games have developed into a distinct mass from media.

However, modern cell phones are no longer a single used device, but are rather equipped with internet access and capable of connecting to the web which itself is a mass medium. According to McQuail (1987), the media have a mediating role between objective social reality and personnel experience. Mass media help in maintaining a form of totalitarianism which does not rely on terror but works through the creation and manipulation of “false needs” for entertainment, relaxation, information and new product for consumption (Sina, 2003, p.62).

2.5 Function of Mass Media

The following are the functions of the mass media. They include;

1. Inform - they inform us of what is happening within and outside our immediate environment.
2. Educate - they educate us on how to live in our environment and the epidermis that surrounds us.
3. Entertain - they entertain us by bringing to our reach different activities such as music, games and movies through television, radio and internet.
4. Surveillance - they serve as watch dog of the society.
5. They keep us connected to the outside world. (Retrieved November 10th 2012) free

2.6 Home Video

In the first three decades of Nigerian Independence, the home video was not popularly celebrated as we have it today. Then, the common thing was to find people reading the indigenous novels like D.O Fagunwa's collections Ogboju Ode Ninu Igbo Irunmale, Igbo Olodumare etc.,(the former was translated to English by Nobel laureate Professor Wole Soyinka as A forest of Thousand Demons In addition to this, photo plays with the indigenous title Atoka, pioneered by the likes of Hubert Ogunde (the doyen of Nigerian Theatre) emerged and filled the leisure of men and women in the youth and young adulthood. According to Haynes (1979) Video production started in the late 80s out of a desperate desire by producers to remain in the motion picture business The home video came on board in Nigeria, not only in reaction to and rejection of alien cultural domination but also to reinstate Nigeria's own cultural heritage and re-orientate her own people suffering from colonial mentality (Haynes, 1979; pg. 13).

The film industry is currently the most popular means of entertainment in Nigeria with the home made video taking the lead. This is because most housewives tend to watch home-video during their leisure period. Watching home video has also been seen as a way of meeting the insatiable appetite of fun lovers who are either too impoverished to go to the cinema or simply fagged out, after a hectic day's work.

2.6.1 Negative Effect of TV Viewing on Nigerian students

Studies using different perspectives have argued that T.V exerts a significant alienating impact or influence on the indigenous culture and self­perception of an individual. The accumulative effect of which is the depreciating of the Nigerian self-image or cultural identity and an identification with the constructed self. A process referred to by social and clinical psychologist as self-hatred (Hatchen 1987).

Hancox (1987), in their study of the impact of American TV in the Philippines shows that frequent showing of foreign culture on Philippines has led to the depreciating of the Philippines self-image and corresponding appreciation and the desire to behave like them when projected by the Americans and Western Europeans.

Many criticisms have also been leveled against the films shown in African TV today. The Senegalese film maker Ousmene (1977) has observed that movies in Africa are playing a negative role. The majorities of the movies shown on African TV are products of cultural alienation. He also noted that many Nigerians have complained of the poison content of films shown on the screens in Nigeria.

The effect of TV on Nigerian youths cannot be over emphasized. Lovas (1973) in his study on the effect of TV, concluded that watching aggressive programmes serve to arouse children's aggressive impulse to some degree. Bandura and Rose (1973), in their own study found that people who watch aggressive programmes are likely to be more aggressive. Skornia (1985), reports that in March 1964, Michael lee Camrilb a nineteen year-old America marine on leave, says that after watching a horror movie on TV, something came over him which caused him to kill his father, mother and sister with a matchet.

McBride (1981) consequently, the Nigeria media audience especially the youth is caught in a mesh of confusion of values. This is exemplified in their mode of dressing, speech mannerison, socio-cultural Life. It has also wrought no little damage to how our youths perceive our culture and environment. Increase number in violent acts, HIV infection, immoral acts and such other vices by the youths has been traced to exposure to pornography in the foreign media.

Through films, powerful advertisement, fashion and Musical shows the western has tried to sell to the developing world the notion that their goods, cultures of being depended on.

The western media content offerings made auditable through the New Communication Technologies (NCT) also carries cultural values which also tend to conflict or harm the local cultures, belied and norms. The negative aspect of the accessibility the NCT is that, it has stunted the growth and development of the Nigeria media. What is obtainable in Nigeria media landscape is the dependency syndrome where they rely heavily on the offerings made available by the foreign media in augmenting their local sources in news content, entertainment, music and programming. The distressing fact is that they become models that display the various wares of their owners without any opportunity to refuse or choose Mattelart (1999).


Excerpt out of 63 pages


Impact of Home Video on Secondary School Student's Academic Performance in Ijebu-Ode
Tai Solarin University of Education
Catalog Number
Tasued, Lasu, eloping an academic performance, home video, senior secondary school
Quote paper
Samson Okelarin (Author), 2015, Impact of Home Video on Secondary School Student's Academic Performance in Ijebu-Ode, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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