Table of Contents
Chapter No: 01
Chapter No: 03
Chapter No: 04
This Thesis is dedicated to our dearly loving parents and our respected teachers Mr. Mussarat Hussain Khan On the Account of their Prayers and their hard work as guides at every Step of our Life and their inspiration Encouragement, affection, and loves to make us able to complete such an Interesting work with Great Passion.
First, we would like to thank Almighty ALLAH, the entire Source of all knowledge and wisdom. We also wish to express our sincere Gratitude to Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (peace be upon him), the city of knowledge, who are forever model guidance to mankind to the path of righteousness.
We also want to pay gratitude to our sweetest and dearest Parents Whom Beloved support and prayers always cheered us up in every field of our life. Without their emotional and financial support, we would not be able to do anything in our life.
We are thankful to our supervisor Mussarat Hussain Head of Department of Sociology, University of Sargodha sub-campus Bhakkar, who has a puissant command on the subject and tremendous whole process of research, without his support and encouragement we would not be able to do our research work.
We are full of emotions while expressing our gratitude to Mussarat Hussain the lecturer of the department who is always a source of passion, inspiration, and role model to us. Without his guidance, trust, and support, we would not have been able to contribute to knowledge. We are highly obliged to our respected teacher Mr. Shiraz Ahsan for their constant inspiring leadership and encouragement.
This study focused on an assessment of teacher attitude toward personality development and academic achievement of university students. Teacher’s behavior is the term used for the behavioral manifestation of the act of teaching, done for facilitating the learning by a child or a group of children. This objective is to analyze the pushing factors, which lead toward uplifting academic achievement and personality development of university students. To see the relationship between the teacher’s behavior and academic and personality development of university students. This is a preparatory look at to discover how an assessment of teacher attitude toward personality development and academic achievement of university students'. In this experience, the research will offer instructional perception and versatility in students-teachers relationships beyond the confined \classroom and lecture rooms. The population for this research was Bhakkar City with focus on University of Sargodha Bhakkar Campus students were randomly selected data about an assessment of teacher attitudes towards personality development and academic achievement of university students. The information was gathered through Online Survey Questionnaire from 100 students and was entered into the SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) to analyze the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used i.e. mean, frequency, percentage, Bar Charts and ANOVA was used to find out the effects of teachers’ favoritism on students’ academic learning at university level. The study findings show that while teachers’ positive attitudes have positive effects on students’ performance and personality developments, negative attitudes have a negative effect on both the performance levels and personality development of students.
Keywords: teacher; attitudes; students; character; university students; students; performance
Chapter No: 01
Teacher’s behavior is the term used for the behavioral manifestation of the act of teaching, done for facilitating the learning by a child or a group of children. It therefore encompasses all the verbal and nonverbal attitudes demonstrated by a teacher in an effort to impart education within an academic setting. It is seen that the teaching approach and techniques applied by different teachers, have different results for student performances. The teacher therefore has a key role to play in providing an encouraging learning environment for their students to excel academically. A major portion of the onus for quality learning therefore falls upon the personality and attitude of the teacher. ‘Education’ occurs through the marriage of teaching and learning, therefore learning is half-way important, and has equal, if not greater share in the academic performance of students. Learning tendency and attitude differ from student to student, but since the focus of this study is upon the supply side of the education equation, therefore, we do not go into details of students’ learning attitude, and leave that topic for a different project at this stage. Extensive literature on various aspects of quality education, as well as the central role of teaching within it, exists. In the contemporary nations, there has been an increasing emphasis on industrial, scientific and technological advancements because of the obvious effects of science and technology on today’s world and the future. It is observed that scientific methods influence all human interaction and has a fundamental role in all countries’ national growth, economic and scientific development. Thus, science education has been regarded as being central for knowledge economy and intellectual development especially in emerging societies. Academic achievement represents the understanding of the student about different concepts and skills developed in different subjects. In most of the countries, parents usually desire that their children show high level of academic achievement, which sets a lot of burden on children, teachers, and schools and in general the whole education system. Thus the whole education system revolves round the academic achievement of students so, the schools set a lot of time for helping students to achieve high grades. Academic achievement may be influenced by different factors like intelligence, study habits, and attitudes of students, socio economic status, motivation, opportunities, and different characteristics of their personality. Academic achievement is considered as a core standard to measure students’ total potential and capabilities of learning.
Therefore, it makes sense that a teacher’s personality and teaching style can have a profound impact on chemistry students’ academic achievement, learning ability and general academic development. It is important to note however, that the influence of teacher behavioral traits on teacher's effectiveness and students’ academic performances is not direct (Abbasi et al., 2018). Rather it is moderated or mediated by their effects on the way in which teachers organize their classrooms and operate within them. Therefore, effective teachers must possess the knowledge, skills needed to attain the goals, and must be able to use that knowledge, and those skills appropriately, if these goals are to be achieved (Taştan, et al., 2018). The possession of knowledge and skills fall under the heading teacher competence while the use of knowledge and skills in the classroom is referred to as teacher performance /productivity. Thus, there should be a link between teacher behavioral traits, teacher competence, and teacher productivity and students’ academic performances.
1.2 Background of the Study
In our day, a current teacher surpasses this definition as well. The trainer has gone past just coaching class, giving lectures, making checks and giving grades; the trainer takes on the jobs of organizing, dealing with, counseling, gazing and evaluating. The skills and characteristics, which are important with a purpose to be a very good instructor, are also the same elements that define an excellent training. A good instructor has eight basic characteristics, which can be; information of material; selection making; essential though and hassle solving potential; Self-knowledge and self-correction; Reflecting; recognizing students and knowing college students mastering wishes; making use of new locating in training; teaching and communication capability. We can accumulate these homes under two headings (Ari, five -2016).
The trainer who thinks seriously and the self-governing instructor. A trainer who realizes that the character of information and skills directly impacts his/her university students and surroundings takes obligation for his/her own knowledge and skills, creates nice relationships along with his/her university students and may relay those to college students in the greenest way. On this whole system, the impact of the teacher within the persona development and fulfillment of students is a reality that cannot be left out. The trainer, thru either tremendous or negative mind-set in verbal exchange with students and in how he/she reflects this, directs the shape of their lives, has a fantastic or terrible effect at the mind-set shown closer to themselves or the public in general, affecting improvement of the capability to communicate, research and be innovative. The behavior and method of the trainer is at once common and copied by way of college students, which puts notable obligations on the teachers.
Studies accomplished within the cutting-edge day definitely display the impact on college students of mutual interaction in teacher-pupil relationships, teacher’s method regarding students and mainly the notion of this through college students. For an instructor, being able to interact with the student and display high-quality conduct inclusive of asking questions, expertise their mind, showing hobby and appreciation increases the scholars’ motivation and success. Even as working in the direction of supplying students at a sure improvement stage fact, revel in and conduct on a positive subject matter, instructors become function models for college students by means of way in their very own conduct and attitude. Advantageous attitudes result in success at the same time as bad attitudes result in failure and as an end result success can cause fantastic ego attitudes at the same time as failure leads to negative ego attitudes. As an example, if the instructor engages in belittling feedback in the direction of a pupil due to his/her failure, the poor consequences of this could be inevitable (Gecer 2006). In Frymier’s examine regarding the effect of high-quality teacher conduct at the scholar’s motivation stage, the writer has targeting sure behaviors for instructors including giving comments for pupil works, complimenting, looking to concentrate to college students and being involved.
The results of the take a look at show that instructors’ non-verbal moves along with smiling, having an at ease stance, diverse gestures and facial expressions come first in enhancing the mastering revel in for college kids whereas the subject of the class itself comes in 2d. The pupil’s overall performance is not completely the result of their work; performance is suffering from many factors and the primary one is the attitude of the teacher. A high-quality attitude from the teacher affects the scholar’s motivation, mind-set toward college and faculty work, the student’s self-confidence and as a result character improvement. Coaching is tons extra than pronouncing and explaining (Gundogdu, Silman 2017) one of the maximum primary concepts of teaching talents is helping of the scholar via the trainer and for the teacher to put for their wonderful expectancies so as to encourage the scholar to analyze (Yavuzer 2015) even as the effective behavior of the trainer lets in him/her to create a fantastic courting with college students, it also permits for the trainer to delve on the effective behavior of college students rather than the poor, taking up a reinforcing role as properly (Yavuzer 2018). Within the schooling gadget, a circumstance of being an amazing educator knows the verbal exchange system properly.
Teaching involves two distinct sets of skills. The first is speaking ability. The second is interpersonal skills. Such skills allow one to create the sort of warm, close relationships with one’s students that motivate them to work independently. To become an excellent instructor, one must be outstanding in one of these sets of skills and at least competent in the other. It is very important to find the characteristics of teacher’s behavior, attitudes, knowledge, skills and its impact on the academic achievement of the university students in Pakistan. Therefore, at university level teacher’s positive behavior, interaction with students, professional competencies, teaching skills, parental involvement, students own capabilities and university environment, all play critical role for strengthening the potential required for better academic achievement of university students.
So present study was designed to sort out the relationship between teacher’s behavior and academic achievement of university students. The study has significance for both future professional practice and further research for other levels. The results of this study explore information that would enable university administrators and helping the teachers to achieve skills, needed to succeed in universities. University students may use the results to increase their understanding of what types of study habits and organizational skills are important for university academic achievement. This research may provide a pavement for future research studies in the same field. Behavior is a description of observable outcome of teacher and student performance in different activities of institutions. Behavior may be positive or negative and effective or ineffective.
Effective behavior produces the requisite results. Behavior is an action, which is different at different time. There are three types of behavior, thinking, feeling and doing. Mostly behavior is also known as cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Cognitive behavior involves the learner in thinking process, remembering, evaluating and problem solving. Affective behavior values the learner’s feelings and attitudes. Psychomotor behaviors are those involving the learner, in some kind of muscular activity. The way in which the teacher allocates time to spend on academic content affects student achievement. Good classroom management is a skill that can lead to high student achievement. It involves planning effectively, establishing rules that are reasonable and not excessive in number, and arranging the classroom so that instruction goes smoothly. Skills that are necessary for maintaining a well-managed classroom include group alerting, wittiness, overlapping, using the principle of least intervention, and creating smooth transitions.
A good teacher is expected to be committed to his work, would have the ability to take the initiative. Teacher’s personality in the attitudinal sense is a significant factor in teacher’s behavior and it has great impact on student’s achievement. The teachers as a professional must know the art of communication, understanding others and ability to learn from the experiences. They should be able to facilitate learning effectively. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of teacher’s behavior on the academic achievement of university students. Education is now universally recognized to be prime key of moral, cultural, political and socio-economic development of a nation.
The nations, which have been taken major initiatives, made revolutionary advances and performed miracles in the last two decades. No doubt, this great achievement is based on their effective educational system (Ahmad 2009). It is stated, “Educational system of any country can provide the guarantee of success and prosperity for their nations”. The achievement of a comprehensive and effective educational system is necessary for the survival of nation (Saeed 2009). Govt. of Punjab research study concluded that the educational system particularly, teachers bring the qualitative change and raise the standards of education, which ensures the welfare, progress and prosperity of the nation. For this purpose, teachers are prepared professionally and develop these competencies in teacher training institutions.
No system of education is better than his personnel and no system of education above the standard of its teacher. It means, the quality of any system depends upon the standard of its personnel. If the personnel are well qualified, well trained and have effective behavior, the organization will achieve its objectives successfully. Particularly the leader of the institution can improve the quality of their teachers and students with his effective behavior (Anwar 2009) Hayton says that the teachers who possess professional and interpersonal skills are more effective in their classrooms in terms of student’s behavior, attitude and achievement. Every individual has a variety of attitudes, which might be positive or negative and can vary according to their favorability and unaffordability for various attitudinal objects. Lathan’s says that professional attitude serves in many valuable ways and knowing these attitudes can serve a lot. Behavior is a response, which an individual show to his environment at different times. Various authors have defined it in different words:
Taneja stated, “The meaning of behavior is conduct or carry oneself or behavior is what we do, especially in response to outside stimuli”.
UNESCO documented that “anything that an organism does that involves action and response to stimulation”.
Joyce also defined that “behavior is lawful and subject to variables in the environment”. He further defined that “behavior is an observable, identifiable phenomenon”.
The pedagogical cycle describes the interaction between the teacher and students. The four steps of the cycle are (a) structure, (b) question, (c) respond (d) react. The structure must give students a clear understanding of what they are expected to learn. Both higher- order and lower -the teacher should ask order questions. Teachers need to remember to wait 3 to 5 second after asking a question (wait time 1) and before reacting to a student answer (wait time 2). Teachers also need to be thoughtful in the way in which they react to student comments. Generally, teachers react by using praise, acceptance, remediation, or criticism in responding to the student (Derk).
1.3 Significant of the study
It is very important to find the characteristics of teacher’s behavior, attitudes, knowledge, skills and its impact on the academic achievement of the university students in Pakistan. Therefore, at university level teacher’s positive behavior, interaction with students, professional competencies, teaching skills, parental involvement, students own capabilities and university environment, all play critical role for strengthening the potential required for better academic achievement of university students. So present study was designed to sort out the relationship between teacher’s behavior and academic achievement of university students. The study has significance for both future professional practice and further research for other levels. The results of this study explore information that would enable university administrators and helping the teachers to achieve skills, needed to succeed in universities. University students may use the results to increase their understanding of what types of study habits and organizational skills are important for university academic achievement. This research may provide a pavement for future research studies in the same field.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
Many researchers have carried out the issues of poor students’ performance in public examinations in University students but the results are inconclusive. Teachers have adjudged many factors as the causes of poor students’ academic performance, which are related to teachers’ professional attitudes, chief among which are: teachers’ poor communication attitudes, poor classroom management attitudes, poor pedagogical attitudes and poor mastery of subject matter. It is based on the problems that this study was carried out. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between the teachers’ attitude and students’ learning/performance. With the aid of appropriate research methodologies and statistical analysis, the following questions were addressed: What are the teachers’ attitudes as perceived by the Undergraduate and master students in University of Sargodha Sub Campus Bhakkar? What is the effect of teachers’ attitudes of Undergraduate and master students in University of Sargodha Sub Campus Bhakkar? What is the general average of the Undergraduate and master students in University of Sargodha Sub Campus Bhakkar? In addition, is there significant difference of the effect of teacher’s attitudes on the student’s learning when the data are grouped according to section? Teachers - they can reflect on their attitudes, where negative attitudes could be reinforced and improved the performance of the students; Parents – they can cane develop awareness of the negative attitude teachers possessed so that they can approach such teachers the finest way possible to avoid conflict between parents and teachers; Students - they can realize the consequences of attitudes towards their learning situation and be guided to deal with their teachers; and the Researchers can use the results of this study as their related literature in their future research.
1.5 Research Objective
- To analyze the pushing factors which lead toward uplifting academic achievement and personality development of university students.
- To see the relationship between the teacher’s behavior and academic and personality development of university students.
1.6 Hypothesis of the Study
- Teacher’s positive attitude has positive influence on student’s personality as well as on their life.
- A positive attitude from the teacher affects the student’s attitude towards university, university work, student’s self-confidence and personality development.
Chapter No: 02
2.1 Literature Review
The study was designed to identify, appraise and analyze the impact of teacher’s behavior on the academic achievement of university students. The teacher’s behavior was seen in the light of his role as an effective teacher. Iqbal stated that teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of situation in which there are gaps or obstructions and individual tries to overcome the problem from where he learns. Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and a less mature one. The more mature one is a teacher and less mature is a student and it is designed to further the education of the latter. He further stated that the teaching might be characterized as an activity aimed at the achievement of bearing and practiced in such names as to respect the student's intellectual integrity and capacity for independent judgment. He described the roles and behaviors of a teacher who is mainly responsible for instruction. The teacher is engaged more and more today in the implementation of new educational procedures taking advantage of all the resources of modern educational devices and methods. He is an educator and a counselor who tries to develop his pupils' abilities and interests.
The below mentioned chapter of the study themes explicit historical background of teacher Attitude Toward Personality Development and Academic Achievement of Students and further highlight its effects of teacher’s attitude, personality development and achievement of students. Further, this study put highlight on public knowledge of teacher attitude and student personality development, regarding the university students.
Theme 2.2: Teacher Attitude toward Personality Development and Academic Achievement of Students
Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes (Chetty et al. 2014; Rivkin et al. 2005; Rock off 2004). Therefore, there has been a strong emphasis on improving teacher effectiveness as a means to enhancing student learning. Goe, among others, defined teacher effectiveness in terms of growth in student learning, typically measured by student standardized assessment results. Chetty et al. (2014) found that students taught by highly effective teachers, as defined by the student growth percentile (SGPs) and value-added measures (VAMs), were more likely to attend college, earn more, live in higher-income neighborhoods, save more money for retirement, and were less likely to have children during their teenage years.
This potential of a highly effective teacher to significantly enhance the lives of their students makes it essential that researchers and policymakers properly understand the factors that contribute to a teacher’s effectiveness. However, as we will discuss in more detail later in this report, studies have found mixed results regarding the relationships between specific teacher characteristics and student achievement (Wayne and Youngs). In this chapter, we explore these findings, focusing on the three main categories of teacher effectiveness identified and examined in the research literature: namely, teacher experience, teacher knowledge, and teacher behavior. Here we emphasize that much of the existing body of research is based on studies from the United States, and so the applicability of such national research to other contexts remains open to discussion.
2.3 Teacher Experience
Teacher experience refers to the number of years that a teacher has worked as a classroom teacher. Many studies show a positive relationship between teacher experiences and student achievement (Wayne and Youngs). For example, using data from 4000 teachers in North Carolina, researchers found that teacher experience was positively related to student achievement in both reading and mathematics (Clotfelter et al). Attitude is internal belief that influences personal actions, which are learned through one’s experience. This has to do with a disposition to act or react in a particular way as the individual responds to a situation. Thus, the students’ perceptions of the teachers’ disposition could influence their attitude and thinking toward chemistry (Igwe, 2017). The teaching profession is constantly undergoing scrutiny and is the focus of continuous change. Teachers are regularly challenged in their teaching roles to review their beliefs, attitude and practices in order to implement imposed educational change while continuing to deliver quality education to their students. Rice found that the relationship between teacher experience and student achievement was most pronounced for students at the secondary level. In the first few years of a teacher’s career, accruing more years of experience seems to be more strongly related to student achievement (Rice 2003). Rockoff (2004) found that, when comparing teacher effectiveness (understood as value-added) to student test scores in reading and mathematics, teacher experience was positively related to student mathematics achievement; however, such positive relationships leveled off after teachers had gained two years of teaching experience.
2.4 Teacher Professional Knowledge
A teacher’s professional knowledge refers to their subject-matter knowledge, curricular knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge (Collinson 1999). This professional knowledge is influenced by the undergraduate degrees earned by a teacher, the college attended, graduate studies undertaken, and opportunities to engage with on-the job training, commonly referred to as professional development (Collinson 1999; Rice 2003; Wayne and Youngs 2003). After undertaking in-depth quantitative analyses of the United States’ 1993–1994 Schools, Staffing Survey (SASS), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data sets, Darling-Hammond (2000) argued that measures of teacher preparation and certification were by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, after controlling for student poverty levels and language status.
2.5 Undergraduate Education
In their meta-analysis of teacher effectiveness, Wayne and Youngs (2003) found three studies that showed some relationship between the qualities of the undergraduate institution that a teacher attended and their future students’ success in standardized tests. In a thorough review of the research on teacher effectiveness attributes, Rice (2003) found that the selectivity of undergraduate institution and the teacher preparation program might be related to student achievement for students at the high school level and for high-poverty students. In terms of teacher preparation programs, Boyd et al. (2009) found that overall these programs varied in their effectiveness. In their study of 31 teacher preparation programs designed to prepare teachers for the New York City School District, Boyd et al. (2009) drew from data based on document analyses, interviews, surveys of teacher preparation instructors, surveys of participants and graduates, and student value-added scores. They also found that teacher preparation programs that focused on the practice of teaching and the classroom, and provided opportunities for teachers to study classroom practices, tended to prepare teachers that are more effective. Finally, they found that programs that included some final project element (such as a personal research paper, or portfolio presentation) tended to prepare teachers that are more effective.
2.6 Graduate Education
In a review of 14 studies, Wilson and Floden (2003) were unable to identify consistent relationships between a teacher’s level of education and their students’ achievement. Similarly, in their review of data from 4000 teachers in North Carolina, Clotfelter et al. (2006) found that teachers who held a master’s degree were associated with lower student achievement. However, specifically in terms of mathematics instruction, teachers with higher degrees and who undertook more coursework during their education seem to be positively related to their students’ mathematics achievement (Goe 2007). Likewise, Harris and Sass (2011) found that there was a positive relationship between teachers who had obtained an advanced degree during their teaching career and their students’ achievement in middle school mathematics.
2.7 Certification Status
Another possible indicator of teacher effectiveness could be whether a teacher holds a teaching certificate. Much of this research has focused on the United States, which uses a variety of certification approaches, with lower grades usually having multi-subject general certifications and higher grades requiring certification in specific subjects. Wayne and Youngs (2003) found no clear relationship between US teachers’ certification status and their students’ achievement, with the exception of the subject area of mathematics, where students tended have higher test scores when their teachers had a standard mathematics certification. Rice (2003) also found that US teacher certification was related to high school mathematics achievement, and found that there was some evidence of a relationship between certification status and student achievement in lower grades. Meanwhile, in their study of grade one students, Palardy and Rumberger (2008) also found evidence that students made greater gains in reading ability when taught by fully certified teachers.
2.8 Professional Development
Although work by Desimone et al. (2002, 2013) suggested that professional development may influence the quality of instruction, most researchers found that teachers’ professional development experiences showed only limited associations with their effectiveness, although middle- and high-school mathematics teachers who undertook more content-focused training may be the exception (Blomeke et al. 2016; Harris and Sass 2011). In their meta-analysis of the effects of professional development on student achievement, Blank and De Las Alas (2009) found that 16 studies reported significant and positive relationships between professional development and student achievement. For mathematics, the average effect size of studies using a pre-post assessment design was 0.21 standard deviations.
Analyzing the data from six data sets, two from the Beginning Teacher Preparation Survey conducted in Connecticut and Tennessee, and four from the United States National Center for Education Statistics’ National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Wallace (2009) used structural equation modeling to find that professional development had a very small, but occasionally statistically significant effect on student achievement. She found, for example, that for NAEP mathematics data from the year 2000, 1.2 additional hours of professional development per year were related to an increase in average student scores of 0.62 points, and for reading, an additional 1.1 h of professional development were related to an average increase in student scores of 0.24 points. Overall, Wallace (2009) identified professional development had moderate effects on teacher practice and some small effects on student achievement when mediated by teacher practice.
2.9 Teacher Content Knowledge
Of course, characteristics like experience and education may be imperfect proxies for teacher content knowledge; unfortunately, content knowledge is difficult to assess directly. However, there is a growing body of work suggesting that teacher content knowledge may associated with student learning. It should be noted that there is an important distinction between general content knowledge about a subject (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) specifically related to teaching that subject, each of which may be independently related to student outcomes (Baumert et al. 2010). Studies from the United States (see for example, Chingos and Peterson 2011; Clotfelter et al. 2006; Constantine et al. 2009; Hill et al. 2005; Shuls and Trivitt 2015) have found some evidence that higher teacher cognitive skills in mathematics are associated with higher student scores. Positive associations between teacher content knowledge and student outcomes were also found in studies based in Germany (Baumert et al. 2010) and Peru (Metzler and Woessman 2012), and in a comparative study using Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) data undertaken by Hanushek et al. (2018). These findings are not universal, however, other studies from the United States (Blazar 2015; Garet et al. 2016; Rockoff et al. 2011) failed to find a statistically significant association between teacher content knowledge and student learning. The studies we have discussed all used some direct measure of teacher content knowledge. An alternative method of assessing mathematics teacher content knowledge is self-reported teacher preparation to teach mathematics topics.
2.1O Teacher Behaviors and Opportunity to Learn
Although the impact of teacher characteristics (experience, education, and preparedness to teach) on student outcomes remains an open question, there is much a much more consistent relationship between student achievement and teacher behaviors (instructional time and instructional content), especially behaviors related instructional content. Analyzing TIMSS, Schmidt et al. (2001) found an association between classroom opportunities to learn (OTL), interpreted narrowly as student exposure to instructional content, and student achievement. In a later study using student-level PISA data, Schmidt et al. (2015) identified a robust relationship between OTL and mathematics literacy across 62 different educational systems. The importance of instructional content has been recognized by national policymakers, and has helped motivate standards-based reform in an effort to improve student achievement, such as the Common Core in the United States (Common Core Standards Initiative 2018). However, we found that there was little research on whether teacher instructional content that aligned with national standards had improved student learning; the only study that we were able to identify found that such alignment had only very weak associations with student mathematics scores (Polikoff and Porter 2014).
2.11 Theme of the study Teachers’ Professional Attitudes and Students’ Academic Performance
A formal beginning to explore the determinants of academic achievement as made with Binet’s attempts to predict children’s academic achievement from their intelligence scores. There is overwhelming evidence establishing intelligence as the most significant predictor of academic achievement (Karnes et al., 1984). Thorndike (1963) pointed out, an exact correspondence between intelligence and achievement. Some studies have been done to relate cognitive style with academic achievement. Field independent subjects were found to be higher on achievement, than field dependent subjects (Holper and Helen, 1986) were. Generalized expectancies developed by students also play a crucial role in their achievement. Internality (belief in Internal Control) is positively related with academic achievement (Tesiny et al., 1980). The teacher’s personality and style of interaction with the students has been reported to be a very crucial variable in student’s achievement.
Teachers are the main driver of quality outputs in secondary schools. The professional attitudes displayed by teacher matters a lot in the educational process. This study investigated teachers’ professional attitudes and students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State. The survey research design was found suitable for this study. The population of the study consisted of all the secondary school students in Ilorin Metropolis. Two instruments Teachers’ Professional Attitudes Questionnaire (TPAQ) and Students’ Academic Performance Proforma (SAPP) were developed and used for data collection. Pearson product moment correlation statistic was used to test all the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this study revealed a significant relationship between all the sub-variables of the independent variables and students’ academic performance.
2.12 Attitude of Self Efficacy and Achievement
The attitude that is often used to achieve self-efficacy or how capable people judge themselves to be performs a task successfully. Bandura (1997) provides extensive evidence and documentation for the conclusion that self-efficacy is a key factor in the extent to which people can bring about significant outcomes in their lives. Specifically, there is considerable evidence to support the contention that self-efficacy beliefs contribute to academic achievement by enhancing the motivation to achieve.
2.13 ACADEMIC FAILURE
Academic failure is relative concept. According to Good (1973), “failure pupil implies lack of success on the part of pupil in accomplishment of school work”. Naturally, it differs as the schoolwork varies; curricula change and the standards of assessment stand apart. The meaning of academic failure varies in various countries, stages, media and institutions. A system of ungraded schools is also in vogue where there cannot be any academic failure in its popular sense. So, failures do not form a homogeneous group conceptually.
2.14 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Professional development of teachers is essential for qualitative improvement of any system of higher education. Professional development is concerned with development of knowledge and skill of the teachers. The individual is the main agency for professional development. The teacher can update his/her knowledge and improve his/her skill if he/she is sincere in effort and gets opportunity of development. The individual cannot be able to provide necessary facilities for skill improvement. With the price of books having escalated in recent years, it is beyond the reach of a teacher to have even a few books every month. The institution is in a better position and takes up the responsibility. All good institutions have good libraries. These also run occasional programmes for skill development bodies also work professional development of teachers. The institutions and other agencies undertake professional development activities because of the reasons such as (a) concern to improve the quality, (b) initiative by teachers to do research on teaching, (c) competition among institutions compelling the old to look for alternative and innovative methods of instruction and (d) diversified student population which is not satisfied by the uniform teaching methods and styles. "No teacher who is not a master of the field who is not in touch with the latest developments in his subject and who does not bring to bear upon his duties a free and untrammeled mind will ever succeed in inspiring youth with that love of truth which is the principal object of higher education." The quality of education is directly related to the quality of instruction in the classrooms. The teacher is considered the most crucial factor in implementing all educational reforms at the grassroots level. It is a fact that the academic qualifications, knowledge of the subject matter, competence and skills of teaching and the commitment of the teacher have effective impact on the teaching-learning process:
2.15 ‘Theme on the Professional Attitudes and Students’
In a study carried out by Adu and Olatundun (2007), it was discovered that teachers’ characteristics influences students’ performance in secondary schools. Grieser found out that successful classroom management enhances students questioning and exploration when the learning environment is conducive and suitable for learning. Teachers’ professional classroom management is the methods and strategies used by teachers to bring about healthy environments for teaching and learning. Adesoji and Olatunbosun (2008) asserted in their study that student attitude was related to teacher characteristics.
In the work of Wirth and Perkins (2013), it was revealed that teacher’s attitude contributed significantly to student attention in classrooms. Mucella, Melis and Ahu (2011) investigated the effects of teachers’ attitudes on students’ personality and performance in Instanbul Turkey. The finding from their study showed that teachers’ positive attitudes have positively influence students’ personality as well as their life performances.
A study on the effects of teacher characteristics and attitudes on student achievement in Kcse economics examination was conducted by Kurgat and Gordon (2014). The findings of their study revealed that teachers have a positive attitude towards the subject thus poor performance could be attributed to other factors than teacher attitudes.
A study on the relationship that exists between teachers’ characteristics as correlates of students’ academic performance among secondary school students in Saki-west local government area of Oyo State was carried out by Fehintola (2014). The findings of the study showed a significant relative contribution between teachers’ characteristics to academic performance of the participants. Ojo (2017) carried out a study on teachers’ instructional communication abilities as correlates of students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State. The findings of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between teachers’ instructional communication abilities and students’ academic performance in secondary schools. The gap identified by the researcher is that earlier studies did not focus altogether on the two variables of this study. Another noticeable gap that warranted this study is that the locale or area of study of this present study differs considerably from the earlier studies.
2.16 Teacher Qualification and Student Academic Achievement
Darling – Hammond (1998) defines well qualified teacher as one who was fully certified and held the equivalent of a major in the field being taught. Although the formal qualification of teachers is an important indicator for their knowledge and competence in teaching, it has only limited utility in analyzing how well prepared teachers are for what they have to teach in schools. More detailed knowledge of the courses they have taken during their training needs to be compared to the actual content and skills required to teach the high school’s curriculum. Ruthland & Bremer (2002) refer to teacher qualification in two ways - traditional and alternative qualification routes. Traditional certification is when an individual completes an undergraduate degree or post graduate program in education. Alternative routes of certification are based on coursework in pedagogy and subject area without a degree in education. Hardy & Smith (2006) cite short term activities such as mentoring, peer evaluations and workshops as ways other than formal qualifications for improving teaching.
2.17 Teacher Experience and Student Academic Achievement
Teacher experience has a significant effect on pupil performance in primary schools and at upper secondary level. Experienced teachers have a richer background of experience to draw from and can contribute insight and ideas to the course of teaching and learning, are open to correction and are less dictatorial in classroom. Teachers’ experience and student achievement was that students taught by more experienced teachers achieve at a higher level, because their teachers have mastered the content and acquired classroom management skills to deal with different types of classroom problems (Gibbons et al., 1997). Furthermore, more experienced teachers are considered to be abler to concentrate on the most appropriate way to teach particular topics to students who differ in their abilities, prior knowledge and backgrounds (Stringfield & Teddlie, 1991). In contrast, a small number of studies suggest that teacher experience effects may be evident for a longer period of time.
2.18 Theoretical Framework
(Hassan Rashid and Uzzaman 2018) The behavior of teachers has an important relationship with Academic performance using eight component indicator analysis, revealed six components (clarity, conversation, pacing, disclosure, speech and rapport) have a highly significant relationship with the academic performance of the students, while there are two components (enthusiasm and organization) No association with dependent variable.. Student watch as teachers their teachers are their source of information, knowledge and experience, especially those with a positive attitude. In a scholarly effort, (Gasser, 2013) sheds light on the negative effects on student performance a teacher who makes fun of or targets the failure of students. Student's academic performance as a dynamic phenomenon there are many different factors that affect a student.
The impact of each of these factors varies from student to student and context to context. There is research on measuring the impact of various factors on student performance. The Challenge of Generalization (Ding and Sherman, 2006). A specific factor that has been received (Ulug, Ozden, & Eryilmaz, 2011) Attention is the teacher's attitude toward the student. Teacher attitudes were measured by quantitative inventory. The teachers' attitudes were indicative of the following components: clarity, enthusiasm, interaction, organization, pacing, disclosure, speech and rapport. Students' learning was measured by current Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of the students. Variables have interactions shown in the following figure.
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Fig. 1. Interaction of variables
2.19 Literature Review Themes Discussion of Findings
The finding of revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between teachers’ attitude and academic achievement of chemistry students. The finding agreed with the finding of Igwe (2017) that the chemistry teachers’ behaviors and attitude to the learners can affect learning either positively or negatively as their behaviors can either promote or hinder learning. Teacher’s attitude and motivation play a pivotal role in the teaching and learning process leading to academic achievement of students in chemistry. They play a significant role in shaping the classroom environment which has an impact on a student's self-efficacy which in turn influences a student's behavior. Also, the finding further agreed with Ogembo et al (2015) that the poor performance of students in chemistry can be attributed to the teacher’s negative perception of their learners’ abilities. Teachers are invariably role models whose behaviors are easily mimicked by students. What teachers feel about their students learning or studies could have significant effect on the student academic achievement in chemistry. It is important to note that the various dispositions that chemistry teachers display at work betrayed their devotion. Just as Abudu & Gbadamosi (2014) also stated that teachers’ effective reactions to work are not as good as they should be in many of the schools yet, chemistry teachers are looked upon as instrument of social engineering, progress and change. This has greatly affected the attitude of students and in particular, the learning of chemistry and hence their poor performance in the subject. However, the findings from hypothesis 2 revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between teachers’ teaching method and academic achievement of chemistry students. The findings were in line with the observation of Ameh & Dantani (2012) that methodology is very vital in any teaching-learning situation and the method adopted by the teacher may promote or hinder learning. A teacher has many options when choosing a style, by which to teach. The teacher may write lesson plan of their own, borrow plans from other teacher, or search online, or within book for lesson plan. When deciding on what method to use, a teacher needs to consider student background, knowledge, environment and learning goals. Teachers are aware that students’ have different way of absorbing information and of demonstrating their knowledge. Teacher should use techniques which can cater for multiple learning style to help students retain information and strength in understanding.
2.20 Conceptual framework and Hypothesis
The control- value theory of achievement emotions is a comprehensive framework for analysis of an assessment of teacher attitude toward personality development and academic achievement of university students. As hypothesized by Pekrun, in this theory, positive emotions influence the students’ achievement indirectly through the mediating role of cognitive, metacognitive, and self-regulating behaviors. Generally speaking, emotions can influence the students’ achievement through two main pathways of cognitive and motivational and four mechanisms. In the cognitive pathway, emotions can influence one’s performance through three mechanisms, including mood dependent memory, and cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies, and the use of cognitive sources. In contrast, positive emotions resulting from the use of deep, flexible, and complex learning strategies and self-regulation facilitate the individuals’ learning, so that the students who experience positive emotions utilize deeper strategies and more metacognitive processing, that, in turn, enhances the students’ achievement. Therefore, the effect of emotions on academic performance can be mediated by the use of metacognitive learning strategies. Based on Pekrun’s control-value theory, cognitive assessment is supposed to be one of the significant antecedents of academic emotions categorized into control assessments (perceived control) and value assessments (perceived value). Control assessments are related to the individuals’ perception of the controllability of achievement activities and their consequences.
These assessments are shown through our expectations and perception of competence, such as self-efficacy. Therefore, academic self-efficacy (as a cognitive assessment) can influence academic emotions. On the other hand, many researchers have investigated the role of self-efficacy in academic achievement since the introduction of the concept of self-efficacy by Bandura. Bandura’s social cognitive theory discusses self-efficacy as the main construct, which affects both performance and motivation. Some researchers believe that a part of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement can be attributed to metacognitive learning strategies. More specifically speaking, evidence shows that students with higher self-efficacy (as an expectancy component) show more endeavor and perseverance when faced with challenging situation. Despite the positive effect of self-efficacy on the amount of attempt, evidence shows that the quality of the efforts of self-efficacious students is different as well; such students use various deeper cognitive and metacognitive processing strategies compared to their peers with lower self-efficacy. This leads to better learning and academic achievement.
On the contrary, students with low self-efficacy seek easier tasks to avoid failure and use superficial strategies while disregarding deep learning. Therefore, as shown in other studies, self-efficacy and metacognitive learning strategies are closely related. As stated by Pintrich, self-efficacy becomes a key determinant of whether learners adopt these strategies or not. According to self-regulated learning theories, apart from being aware of the cognitive and metacognitive strategies, students should be motivated to enthusiastically use these strategies to succeed. In this respect, the general expectancy-value theory of motivation suggests that there are three motivational components that might be associated with the components of self-regulated learning like metacognitive strategies: (a) an affective component, which involves emotional reactions of students to the task (pride, anger, etc.), (b) an expectancy component, including the students’ beliefs about their capability to do a task (self-efficacy), and (c) a value component, including the students’ goals and beliefs about the importance and interest of the task. Prior research reveals that the expectancy, value, and affective components are positively associated with the self-regulated learning components.