Influences and Attitudes within Consumer Behaviour Process

Essay, 2011

15 Pages, Grade: 1,0


Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Consumer Behaviour Process
2.1 Marketing Mix
2.2 Individual Factors and Environmental Factors
2.2.1 Environmental Factors
2.2.2 Individual Factors

3 Application of Consumer Behaviour Process

4 Conclusion


1 Introduction

Currently, the behaviour of consumers is changing more frequently than it was decades ago. What used to be “in” yesterday is “out” today. Identifying and understanding the subcon- scious triggers that are accountable for particular customer actions and reactions is a key fac- tor for enterprises when establishing efficient solutions. Being unaware to customer behaviour is not feasible. There are various influences on human behaviour. The decision-making proc- ess is affected by cultural and social factors, for example through the individual’s family and friends. The childhood and the human’s development has a crucial impact on personal deci- sion making process. Furthermore, it is affected by individual characteristics, e.g. age and lifestyle, as well as psychological factors, e.g. motivation, beliefs and attitudes.

Examining complex relations of a variety of aspects, present at diverse stages, from arousal to decision, as well as from purchase to post-purchase experiences is vital in order to understand purchasing behaviour.

For that reason, this essay intends to give a general overview on consumer behaviour and to point out the development and changes of consumer attitude over time. Concerning this mat- ter, the consumer behaviour process with its general main stages will be discussed at first. As major power of influence within the purchasing process the environmental and personal fac- tors as well as the marketing mix will be highlighted especially. For clarifying the importance of further discussed theoretical models as well as illustrating its ubiquity an practical example of a day-to-day purchasing decision will be discussed. As a rounding up for the reader a con- clusion will follow.

“Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups or organizations in obtaining, using and disposing of products and services, including the decision processes that precede and follow these behaviors.”( Gibler, K. M./ Nelson, S. L; 2003)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: The Consumer Behaviour Process

Source: Own creation based on Gibler, K. M./ Nelson, S. L; 2003

When consumers receive an incentive, e.g. information from companies, the decision and evaluation process starts. (Zerres, M.; 2000, p.56 et sqq.) The complex interaction between individual factors (Personal and Psychological factors), environmental factors (Cultural and Social factors), and the marketing mix are the basis for consumer’s evaluation of the stimuli. Subsequently to this process, the consumers have made a decision about the product or ser- vice. (Zerres, M.; 2001) But also when the decision is of positive nature, it does not necessar- ily mean that the product or service will be purchased. (Smith, R.; 1993 , p. 579.)

2.1 Marketing Mix

The marketing mix is the set of marketing tools, the so-called 4Ps: Product, Price, Place and Promotion, a company uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. (Kotler, P./ Armstrong, G.; 2010. p. 76) Contrary, in the consumer’s perspective there are the 4Cs: Customer needs and wants, Cost to the customer, Convenience and Communication. Meeting the 4Cs is essential for the survival and the success of a company. (Dibb, S.; 1994)

A variety of features influence the consumer behaviour process, whereby some of them can- not be manipulated by marketers. Consequently, marketing researchers, companies and others especially emphasize on factors that can be affected. The most important aspect one can use to influence is perception. (Howard, J., A.; 1994, p. 110) The incentive created by provided information initiates the process aiming at consumer’s decision. Therefore the message within the information has to be formulated optimal. In the following paragraphs Kotler’ model of factors influencing the behaviour will be discussed. (Kotler, P./ Bliemel, F.; 1995 p. 280 et sqq.)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2: Factors Influencing Behaviour

Source: Bliemel, F., Kotler, P., Marketing-Management

2.2.1 Environmental Factors

Cultural Factors

The most important influences on consumer behaviour are based on cultural background; cul- ture, subculture and social class are of enormous importance. (Thogersen, J./ Ölander, F.; 1995)

The fundamental determinant of consumer’s needs and behaviour is culture. While growing up one acquires values, perception, preferences and behaviours by looking, listening and learning from family, school, friends and so forth. (Meffert, H.; 1998, p. 122 et sqq.)

Subcultures provide a more specific identification and socialisation for its members. Exam- ples are nationalities, religions, racial groups and geographic regions. The subculture identifi- cations influence food preferences, recreation, career aspirations and more.


Excerpt out of 15 pages


Influences and Attitudes within Consumer Behaviour Process
University of Gdansk
Consumer Behaviour
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ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
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684 KB
Marketing Mix;, Marketing Management;, Individual purchasing factors;, Environmental influences;, Tripartite Theory of Attitudes;, Consumer Behaviour, Influences of consuming decision
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Olga Sokolowski (Author), 2011, Influences and Attitudes within Consumer Behaviour Process, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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