Outsourcing of social tasks at profit oriented enterprises

Which criteria must enterprises fulfill in order to complete a service contract or performance agreement intended for asylum support?

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2008

170 Pages, Grade: A


Table of Contents




Table of figurs


1 General Introduction
1.1 Contextual
1.2 Background Information
1.3 Target of Project
1.4 Construction of the report
1.5 Method of investigation

2 Definition of important concepts

3 Description of the Investigation or Issue
3.1 Genesis of the Social Enterprise
3.2 Structure, organization Chart and Organization of Social Enterprise
3.3 Structuring of Operations
3.4 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
3.4.1 Personal
3.4.2 Efficiency
3.4.3 Infrastructure of the administration
3.4.4 Infrastructure of support
3.4.5 The Service
3.4.6 The legal bases
3.4.7 The Financing
3.4.8 The service contract or Performance agreement
3.4.9 Public Relations
3.4.10 The Quality management
3.5 The right of political asylum in Switzerland
3.5.1 Swiss asylum policy
3.5.2 Asylum request
3.5.3 Asylum procedure
3.5.4 Asylum decision
3.5.5 The refugee convention
3.5.6 The UNHCR
3.5.7 The Swiss asylum law
3.5.8 The interface to the aliens act: The temporary photo
3.5.9 The asylum law revised by 1.1.2007 in Switzerland
3.5.10 Asylum procedure
3.6 The right of political asylum in England
3.7 The right of political asylum in Germany
3.8 Geneva refugee convention

4 Dynamics of the Anticipated Solution
4.1 Goals and objectives of the Investigation
4.1.1 To show the Outsourcing of tasks are useful
4.1.2 The system model and the old and new control
4.1.3 The refugee convention
4.2 Methodology

5 Analysis and overall Outcomes
5.1 Analysis of the Social enterprise
5.1.1 Stakeholder Analysis
5.1.2 Document Analysis of the Social Enterprise:
5.1.3 Expert interview with a social worker of the customer:
5.1.4 Hypothesis formation:
5.2 Qualitative social reasearches
5.2.1 Choice of the interview method:
5.2.2 Guide interview and the principles of the guide design:
5.2.3 Development of the interview guide:
5.2.4 Choice of the Sample:
5.2.5 Preparation of the inquiry to the municipalities:
5.2.6 Execution of the interviews:
5.2.7 Evaluation method:
5.2.8 The pragmatic evaluation method to Mühlfeld:
5.2.9 The effortful evaluation method after inhabitant of Meuser and Nagel:
5.3 Causality methods – Causal-(Net)Analysis (CNA)
5.4 Causality methods – Sensitivity analysis
5.5 Results

6 General Conclusion
6.1 General Discussion
6.2 Recommendations
6.2.1 Documents analysis and recommendation:
6.2.2 The politicization degree of decision topics
6.2.3 Argument list and recommendation




The Sworn Statement


I thanking the company Social Enterprise and particularly Mrs. K. Levin for the confidence brought contrary to me and the granting of the project order. I address many thanks for the support of my project to Mrs. M Sedaghat, leader marketing and sale.

It was for me without versatile support through my professors Dr. F. Valcin, a successful completion of my project been not possible.

A special gratitude is due to all authorities, the regionally responsible officesities and the persons interviewed which showed great readiness to carry out detailed interviews for the project.

Numerous discussions with the friends and specialist persons have contributed to the emergence of this work.

Last but not least my thanks going to my best partner, my dear family and my gorges friends, who supported me very much and carry me careful in the time of work rich moments.


The project report was from the customer approved on June 03th, 2008.

Statements may not be used without consent the customer in other work or publications from this project report.

This project report contains confidential statements which may not be made to third parties accessibly. Therefore the internal company documents were left out in the report.


After the introduction of the new public management NPM in Western European countries the claim to efficient and effectiveness to social institutions becomes higher. This one these claims cannot such institutions not fulfil to professionalism but by the globalisation and by the increase of the complexity, social problem in the global society was the bounds of the problems also extended are internationalized. Specific know how operates with numbers and key financial data this development asked of social work and its institutions about, what in turn a skilful needs economic principles and knowledge.

For this reason the private enterprises venture to familiarize such homework and to apply for such performance orders. They will buy the social competence and principles, which is required here and install it to this one do justice to advertisings of the performance orders (Contract).

The regionally and national responsible offices for Social tasks look after the applicants for example for political asylum assigned to outsource the asylum tasks with a contract or agreements to external organizations. Social Enterprise as a private company with longstanding experience in the support and accommodation of applicants for political asylum at regional and national level applies for such performance orders. The project could achieve results in the order of Social Enterprise with a qualitative research and work out criteria to that which are decisive for a the regionally responsible offices, that it outsource the asylum tasks to an external enterprise. It lets itself be seen, it helps Social Enterprise for itself that the optimization of the existing connects company strategy, which social and economic principles to secure the confidence to attain the order for giving NGO or NPO as well as its competitiveness. From this knowledge a List which provides arguments for the negotiations with municipalities to the project customer for the receipt of an order was made for Social Enterprise Company.

This project questioned about the needs in three countries England, Germany and Switzerland approx 45 potential customers and analyse them ideas. In turn this became for could it be very useful to national but also international negotiations enterprise as strategic recommendations by a list of action arguments interpreted and the Social.

The results and interpretations of the enquiries became submitted enterprise as strategic recommendations in a list of action argument written down and the Social for national but also international negotiations.

The customer of this project wanted to know what need these privately for enterprises to receive such orders. The social competences which are decisive for selections are a clear answer after specialized knowledge and method knowledge.

Table of figurs

Figure 1: the System model into New Public Management

Figure 2: Structure of Social Enterprise

Figure 3: Enterprise Resource Planning (RPE)

Figure 4: Global Trends in UK Applications Received

Figure 5: Person or Nation with temporary permit

Figure 6: Asylumprocess in England

Figure 7: Application for Asylum in the UK and the rest of the EU25

Figure 8: Initial decision. 1997 to 200 (Principal Applicants)

Figure 9: Totally of Asylum seekers request

Figure 10: Development of Asylum seekers in compare from 2002 to 2006

Figure 11: International asylum compare in European country

Figure 12: Possible advantages and disadvantage of the outsourcing

Figure 13: Why outsource

Figure 14: HR Magazine about with(out) Outsourcing

Illustration 15: Internal Stakeholders

Illustration 16: External Stakeholders

Figure 17: Points of view for social work by profit-oriented enterprises

Figure 18: CNA for Social Enterprise

Figure 19: Causal net for figure 18

Figure 20: the sensitivity of the correlation or connection of elements


Social Enterprises arise from an epoch in which the values of the social work are used and exchanged manifold with ruling economic values like use maximization, efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore there is ambivalence between economic behavior or value and social ethic in which social enterprises spectacularly move. Values of the management arose from utilitarian principles. Those of the social work looked historically; they follow up the thoughts of the individual welfare and the public welfare as well as the social ethical principles. These different approaches of the two professions and disciplines are an explanation for these splits.

The new task social enterprises are interested; task of the administration or social work was once, these. A change of paradigm takes place. The one becomes the task of the justice management, once task of the church and theological circles continuously and beneficially the social enterprise. In view of this one middle course must unite those of the economy and the social ethics are found to be able to do justice to two requirements. To be able to manage these new social challenges the emergence backgrounds should the social enterprise and the birth as well as its philosophy are explained and understood.

The globalization which often has to be mentioned with free enterprise and utilitarian interest as an "annihilator" of the Guelph are values and as a founder of the Workfare made an important contribution to this change and to the change in values. The neon liberalist interests and their effect on social economy and social enterprise have been the reason that the social work and its institutions like NPO and NGOs must acquire certain competences. These competences can among others in the tasks planning, organization, directing and leading, coordination, controlling, reporting and managing, be abbreviated.

It does not remain another way out but to complete the economic factual logic with aspects of the justice as well as to manage the socioeconomic rationality between different subjects with scarcity mastering (efficiency aspect) and identification aspects (conflict management) sensibly. These multidimensional thoughts support the question about it, which responsibly are social problems for the increasing one at all. What makes the enterprises be interested in social tasks. On this question Peter Ulrich's integrated economy ethic or the concept of the restoration of the "ethical dimension" of Amartya Sen In my previous book I try to give a answer to the question, what shall "Social management between economic value and ethic of the social work ". I try to give a possible answer. Combine both models, can support the fulfillment and chance of participate in the society as a human and social development. The management becomes and the task of the social management is enterprises in the social one.

1 General Introduction

A couple of years ago, it was not conceivable at all, that the private enterprises could take ones the social tasks over. Forced new public management and the introduction of efficient and effectiveness in the administration, see the administrations on European level himself determined to outsource many topics and tasks.

This development has taken my customer as an enterprise to idea to investigate: what need the potential customers outsource such tasks to enterprises. Who gets such tasks and under which conditions.

In a New Year's Eve conversation in London with one business manager about my duty on university of applied I have created the order for an enterprise, the possibility of expanding around with social tasks in other countries.

Much is thrilling. It is framing in this possibly for EU level legislation much. My customer has ethical ideas as an enterprise and would like to use its resources in the refugee area. This topic has since last years provided in the England into headlines more and more.

This why many Municipalities (as potential customers) are today costumer of enterprise and look after the applicants for political asylum assigned to them or outsource the asylum tasks. This outsourcing works often with an agreement (contract) to external organizations. Social Enterprise as a profit-oriented enterprise with long-standing experience in the support and accommodation of applicants for asylum at government as well as the regionally responsible offices level applies for such performance orders.

My costumer developed with me an Idea, which was relief for an investigation. Both of us was convinced, that this project could achieve results in the order of Social Enterprise with a qualitative research and work out criteria to that which are decisive for a the regionally responsible offices, it outsourcing the asylum tasks to an external enterprise. It lets itself be seen it helps Social Enterprise for itself that the optimization of the existing connects company strategy, which social and economic principles to secure the confidence to attain the order for giving municipalities as well as its competitiveness. Of the won knowledge I have to make a list of criterion, which provides arguments for the negotiations for the receipt of an order for my Costumer Social Enterprise.

1.1 Contextual

Government in a first phase looks after applicants for political asylum. Only in a second phase look municipalities or NGO for them. This project refers to the second phase of the asylum support, the regionally responsible offices level, which could be a duty of NGO, NPO or social enterprise.

Municipalities look after applicants for political asylum or outsource the asylum tasks. To this they award performance orders to mandate holders of the regionally responsible offices associations entrusted with the asylum tasks externally to private persons or private organizations. The support of the applicant for political asylum is financed with regional flat rates.

Social Enterprise applies for such performance orders to the regionally responsible offices and is exposed to a competition. Some municipalities do not send Social Enterprise any order despite an extensive evidence of achievement regarding the asylum support at national regional and the regionally responsible offices level. Because of this Social Enterprise presents general social work, a project suggestion, to me as Social Manager. Social Enterprise would like to know to an external organization or a profit-oriented private enterprise which criteria arrange for regionally responsible offices to outsource, the asylum tasks. The question is:

Which key elements and criteria are decisive for regionally and national responsible offices to outsource the tasks of the support and accommodation of applicants for political asylum to an external enterprise?

1.2 Background Information

Asylum in the England is substandard writing a Viennese newspaper.

“London. Dealing of the British authorities with applicants for political asylum is as far below the standards which can be expected from a human and civilized society been marked of an independent commission.”[1]

This could b the reason why many enterprises found a Gap in the Market and looking for new tasks in Asylum tasks in England but even in other countries. After new electronic data Exchange system since 2008 and Joins Switzerland in “Schengen agreements” there is the possibility that the market of out sourcing of social tasks going to be open for European Community.

Applicants for political asylum look into different country in Europe differently. They become in Switzerland on federation or regional level in a first phase, accommodated and looked in a second phase on the regionally responsible offices level. This is built up on a similar basis in the Germany and England. This project refers to the first and second level of the asylum support, the federation or country or commune level.

Communes look after applicants for political asylum or outsource the asylum tasks. To this they award performance orders to mandate holders of the regionally responsible offices associations entrusted with the asylum tasks externally, to entities enterprise or private organizations by name like NGO or NPO. The support of the applicant for political asylum is financed with national, Land government or regional or the regionally responsible offices flat rates.

Social Enterprise applies for such performance orders to the Land governments, regional government, municipalities Europe-wide and is exposed to a competition. Lets order sent to Social Enterprise despite an extensive evidence of achievement regarding the asylum support at all levels national, regional and the regionally responsible offices level none some potential one on carrying giving.

Because of this which one presents the Social Enterprise me in England, a great interest has to international orders, a project. Social Enterprise would like to know, a potential customer arrange for which criteria that outsource, the asylum tasks to an external organization or a profit-oriented private enterprise. The question is:

Which key elements and criteria are decisive the on carrying giving that it outsources the support and accommodation of applicants for political asylum to an external enterprise?

It has to be mentioned here the projects must cost this one about 200000 Euro, be announced European Community far in the context of the European Union (EU). Social Enterprise is of the opinion that the Switzerland special provision also must bilateral negotiations with EU of this accept and must announce the outsourcing International (EU broad) after.

1.3 Target of Project

Project manager places the order, "to include the decisive key elements and criteria for the outsource of the asylum tasks of a the regionally responsible offices to an external organization or an external enterprise systematically, possibly to derive existing gaps in the service offering the Social Enterprise which and to work out one argument list for the specific processing of Costumer" the Social Enterprise with it.

This Social Enterprise shall provide arguments for the outsource of the asylum tasks to a profit-oriented, private enterprise and can desired end product of the customer, called for Argument list, political contain statements. The project leader shall not make any competition analysis; gaps in the market may be named.

Interviews stand for the processing of the project order for the customer with decision makers and decision bearers of the municipalities in first place. The number of municipalities to be worked on is up to the project team, however, at least 10 municipalities per country (Switzerland, Germany, England), shall be considered. Municipalities have priority from Switzerland.

This also is Costumer, which The Social Enterprise a mandate has already assigned, which given it a refusal have or at which ones a decision still queues.

All potential are target group of the project costumer. One straight away target group is the customer. The enterprise knows the key elements after the project processing for the evacuation of the asylum tasks and therefore still can design its offer more passport exact for the needs of the municipalities.

1.4 Construction of the report

The chapter 2 is a composition of the important concepts in the understanding of the work in hand. To remain precise scientifically, we have taken on quotations from the literature directly often.

The chapter 3 serves to manage a summary of the context of the embedding of the project order. On the one hand becomes the social field, namely the asylum tasks the customer shaft introduced on the other hand. The rests with which the project team has dealt in the startup of the project become some considerations represented. These considerations refer to the socio-political dimension of the question.

The chapter 4 follows the course of the project processing and describes the methodical procedure. The eleven qualitative interviews form main emphasis of the project, which has led the project team under the project target with decision makers and decision bearers of the municipalities. All preparation work as well as the evaluation refers to the execution of these interviews.

In the chapter 5 this is presented to Argument list as a result of the evaluation. Show this, which criteria for the regionally responsible offices are decisive, so that it outsource the asylum tasks to an external or profit-oriented organization and which one the wishes formulated by the municipalities are. At every criterion the grounds are represented by the questioned key personalities. The argumentations which the customer can state in the negotiations about the performance orders to the evacuation of the asylum tasks are derived from it.

The chapter 6 is dedicated to an appreciation of the project results and contains the developed conclusions and statement of the project team.

The last chapters have an informative character like the bibliography and the appendix list, the faithful and legal explanation as well as a reference to the source of supply of the report.

1.5 Method of investigation

The project sets the main emphasis on qualitative interviews with municipalities or potential customers who have already dealt with the topic of the evacuation of the asylum tasks and of The Social Enterprise have received once an offer or were contacted by phone, if these do not result, further May potential interviews partner are included.

Which one a literature research and the analysis of privately accessible documents also includes The Social Enterprise, the project team formulates hypotheses from which the guide shall be developed for the interviews out with the acquired knowledge by a materials analysis.

The materials analysis refers to the model, the documentation of the enterprise, offers regarding the received documents The Social Enterprise to municipalities, the Social Enterprise internal analysis of the finished municipalities, mails with municipalities, the quality management as well as information about the asylum tasks like asylum law and expiry of the asylum procedure. The guide interviews are evaluated by Mühlfeld with the qualitative method. Based on this evaluation the project leader makes the Argument list.

2 Definition of important concepts

This chapter gives a survey of the definitions of the most important concepts which are used in this work.

Argument list:

Argument: Argument, evidence.

Argumentarium or can be said Argumentation: Swiss word for the composition of arguments. (Duden 2004)


Asylum is for Parker a refugee or sanctuary.” (Barker 1999, p. 34)

Switzerland grants refugees asylum because of petition; this law is authoritative.

Persons 2nd asylum covers the protection and the legal position; these are granted due to their refugee status in Switzerland. It closed the right to presence in Switzerland. (Duden. 2 refugee rules)

Asylum tasks:

The asylum tasks deals with the support of applicants for political asylum, recognized refugees and temporary taken. There is office or organization, which granted asylum (Asylee) (Barker 1999, p. 33).

The applicants for political asylum may not work and get welfare aid in the first time which contains lodging, board, Health Insurance Company and medical supply. After expiry of the admission phase the applicants for political asylum may take part or look for work at job creation schemes (cf. Carigiet 2003, p. 41).

"For the group of the recognized refugees the government takes on the integration and welfare aid costs within the first 5 years of their stay. To that the regional are responsible for them. The government (op. cit. finances integration and job creation schemes which shall make the access to the labor market easier and supports regionally language courses as well as individual contributions for the promotion of the professional Integration." (ibid.)

For persons taken for the time being job creation schemes are also offered for the better integration into the labor market. Much is impliedly and partly or quite financially independent (cf. op. cit. ibid.) taken for the time being.


The concept developed the 1980 it when more and more people were looking for protection in European countries and always less legally when middle refugees were appreciated (cf. Carigiet 2003, p. 40) years.

"Applicants for political asylum (legal term) are described as applicants for political asylum in Switzerland primarily whose application for asylum is checked of the responsible authorities - sometimes during methods lasting for years of some months. Persons who belongs to other stay categories (temporary photo, temporary protection) as well as applicants for political asylum rejected, is mentioned., also seeking protection are " (op. cit. ibid.)


A written, oral, or implied agreement between two or more Person and Organization, as to the goals, methods, timetables, and mutual obligations to be fulfilled during the intervention process. (cf. Barker 1999, p. 103)

Contracting out:

See out sourcing.


Barker mentioned is need, physical, psychological, economic, cultural, and social requirements for survival, well-being, and fulfillment. Types of needs include normative needs, perceived needs, expressed needs, and alternative needs. (Barker 1999, p. 323)

Need is understood as a need whose identification is appreciated and for which financial remedies are provided." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 32)

"Need is this defines our behavior for reaching as a deprivation, absence from something, stimulated for the fulfillment." (Fehlman 1987, p. 402)

"The satisfaction of needs must be brought into harmony the single and whole groups with the needs of the natural and social environment." (op. cit. ibid)


"Support is said in the social sector after, to look for people after interests who completely or partly cannot take it on due to their emotional, physical, intellectual or spiritual as well as social situation for their nature." (Carigiet 2003, p. 55)

The support of the applicant for political asylum who immediately starts after the entry into the Switzerland contains the accommodation and the supply of courses to language and way of life in Switzerland (cf. op. cit., p. 41).


“One who seeks safety or protection from previously experienced dangers, such as immigrants…who have south to escape religious, ethnic, or political persecution in their native lands. Such people often become the clients of social workers, and the resources to help in their protection.” (Barker 1999, P. 405)

In the sociological meaning a person who has left his place of residence involuntarily to look for place protection at a different one (cf. Carigiet 2003, p. 113) is understood by a refugee.

The asylum law defines in the legal meaning: "Refugees are persons who are exposed to grave disadvantages or are well-founded afraid in their country of origin or in the country in which they lived last because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a certain social group or because of their political opinions to be exposed to such disadvantages. The endangering the body, the life or the liberty as well as measures which cause an unbearable emotional pressure are by name regarded as grave disadvantages. It is for the woman a specific escape reasons to take into account." (Article. 3, refugee rules)

Refugee resettlement programs

“Organizations and agencies, both governmental and private, to assist refugees make the transition to healthy, productive lives in the new country. “ (Barker 1999, p. 405)

Refugees with permanently permit to stay:

The recognized refugees are applicant for political asylum whose refugee statuses were appreciated (cf. Carigiet 2003, p. 41).

The regionally responsible offices:

"The regionally responsible offices are corporation under public law which is equipped with sovereign force over a restricted area. The unity closest to the citizens and the undermost step of the public administration is the political the regionally responsible offices in the three-step state construction of Switzerland." (Historical dictionary of Switzerland; without pages. and without. publishing Years)


It is an indicator or a touchstone or different feature. (Duden 1996)

Performance order, service contract or performance agreement:

The performance order is an instrument for the control of the services to be rendered for the public hand. It describes the legal bases and legal frameworks and is most for a longer contractual period interpreted (cf. Carigiet 2003, p. 190).

"A service contract or performance agreement is a definite agreement on a way, size, quality, and state performances to be produced costs and evaluation." The concept contract is (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 3), which one about the legal meaning to identity card, understood in an extended meaning. For example also political regulations or inner organizational specifications are meant (cf. op. cit.).

The performance agreement also becomes contract mentioned (cf. Carigiet 2003, p. 191). In this project will be used these concepts synonymously.

Must criterion:

This must describe a compulsion, a necessity (cf. Duden 1996). A must criterion can therefore be described as a feature which must be fulfilled necessarily.

New public management:

"The NPM also is called effect oriented administration leadership WOV in Switzerland." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 7)

Public hand or public cost units:

Protagonists (politics and administration) who are active for the state (cf. Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 4) are the public hand.


Outsourcing Employing individuals from outside the organization’s permanent work force to accomplish specific tasks for a set fee. In contrast to permanent employees, these temporary employees usually do not receive benefits. Outsourcing is also known as contracting out.” (Barker 1999, p. 342)

"The outsourcing is different from the bare placing of orders by the fact that it usually is enterprise activities which were produced themselves before." (Brooding s 2002, p. 10)

Another enterprise is engaged to be aware independently of services which are rendered till now or new (cf. Swiss bank commission February 1999).


"With the concept 'Private' both single persons and private organizations are meant." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 4)

Private organization:

"Profit oriented Klein and major part enterprises (e.g. enterprises, co-operative societies, individual and collective companies, public limited companies or societies with a limited liability) are described as private organizations. Oriented non-profit oriented organizations (e.g. organizations, associations or foundations) are not regarded as well as private organizations on profit maximization." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 4)


"The shift of certain till now state activities is understood by privatization in the narrower meaning to the private sector of the national economy." There are three different variants. (Carigiet 2003, p. 236):

The state capital privatization describes the disposal of state enterprises.

With the task privatization public tasks are taken over in the monopoly area of profit economic straps and offered into competition to the public hand.

The organization privatization describes strategy of economy, which concern the public services in the narrower meaning and network cores of state activity. Business management norms and private-sector employee-employer relationships are ", introduced without him at the questions of ownership of property a little change." (op. cit. ibid.)


An Individual or Organization who qualifies for membership in a specific profession and uses its practices, knowledge and skills to provide services to client systems, and in so doing, always adheres to its values and code of ethics. (cf. Barker 1999, p. 379)


“The degree to ethic am individual possesses and uses the knowledge, skills, and qualifications of a professions and adheres to its values and ethics when serving the client.” (Barker 1999, p. 380)

Professionalism orientates itself at the system of the discipline like the profession both. "Professional knowledge shares the permanent decision pressure and the criterion of the 'adequacy' with the practical action knowledge; it shares the increased grounds compulsion and the criterion of the 'truth' with the systematic science knowledge of systems." (von Spiegel 2004, p. 256) These two systems are completed by a reflexive professionalism: With it the everyday practical behavior is interpreted scientifically (cf. op. cit.).

It is "professionally" then behavior in the social work if antinomy in its double mandate which for example expresses itself is:

1. As a task aware the arrangement between this one for it of individual and society constitutive, in the lifestyle aim sets the independent development of its clients if himself both
2. Cardinal supports and it enables the clients as persons and
3. in this improves its outer situation in life this aim it pursue (sic!) as be, if ' so
4. So is structured methodically if it:" (a) resource oriented, (b) much dimensional, (c) much perspective. As a fifth feature Heine at the same time also names as the demanding and for it indispensable the "Reflexivity". (Utz 2005, o. p.)

Professional social work:

Under professional social work is to understand the help for people organized socially into difficulties (. Von Spiegel, 2004, p. 50).


Quality is not an absolute stamp of quality to be traded again and again out of services and products. (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 114).

"To the better understanding quality becomes (since Donabedian 1980) analytically divided into three parts:

- 1st structural quality: Quality of the framework conditions, material and immaterial resources, (for example infrastructure, education staff, and reputation in public).
- 2nd process quality: Quality of the work processes which are with regard to a performance deliver, producing and after stored. A process is a combination of activity and resources by which a defined request is taken to a result. As a rule, processes are/lined up inside upon this one.
- 3rd result quality: Quality the short-term results/(output) as well as the means/longer-term results/effects (Outcome) which have been aroused by the delivery." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 115)

Quality management:

"Quality management means the management of quality. The task of the planning, putting into action, control, analysis, communication and information about the quality of the delivery to be done continuously is meant with that." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 114)

Quality management system (QMS.):

"A quality management system is, a system of instruments and procedures with this one the quality of an organization (enterprise, administration, organization etc.) shall be managed." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 114) Systems are the ISO 9001:2000 as well as the quality requirements of the Federal Office of national insurances BSV-IV 2000 to which Social enterprise works acquaintance.

Key element:

Key = "explanation, solution, recipe"

Element = a "characteristic, typical feature" (cf. Duden 2004)


Effectiveness (effectiveness, degree this one) Degree of the target achievement, this means the extent to which the performances of the administration (the products - output) obtain the intended effects (Outcome). So it is actions all about the question" us right thing ". Also: Use for the "customer" or the addressee or the general public. ISO 9000:2000: "Extents in which planned activities are made come true and planned results obtained divergently (more inaccurately) formulates." (www.olev.de)


Relationship input to output, the performance to the costs and/or to other disadvantages/victims. "Efficiency" corresponds to the economy in many cases with that. Simplified: "Doing the things correctly" as opposed to the effectiveness ("the right things work"). Efficiency is important but it remains waste to do the wrong things efficiently and the order of the public administration hurts. Effectiveness is therefore strategy more importantly goes in front of efficiency. Example: Larger school classes increase the efficiency (lower costs per lesson per pupil) but not the effectiveness this means the attainment the education aims. Partly used colloquially and in the practice divergently. (www.olev.de)

The system model into New Public Management NPM /new control model NCM

New PUBLIC management is for the basic concept of a modern administration control accepted worldwide. In Germany it is often described as a new control model the system representation is extended by "Outcome" in this model because the function of the public administration can be included correctly first with that. See also keyword efficiency effectiveness.

There is a variant of the system model for the explanation of the new control model which interprets "input" as a "resource input" and completes the representation in a decisive relation: Around "Outcome", this means the results or the effects the output. It often is not this one that it as a rule does not cancel any performances on a market under competition conditions and finances itself through this but renders services because the public administration is end in itself the special one but only remedy for the attainment of the real aim. As a success scale the "sales" therefore do not suffice, it rather requires other, additional and not simple key financial data to judge the success

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: the System model into New Public Management

(cf: http://www.olev.de/)

Social work:

The definition of social work International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) in Montreal in the year 2000: "Social work is a profession, the social change, problem solutions in human relations as well as promotes authorization and liberation of people to improve their well-being. By counting on theories of human behavior as well as social systems as an explanation base, social work intervenes in the intersection point between individual and environment/society. The principles of the human rights and social equity are of fundamental importance for the social work." (Setudegan 2007, p. 31)

"Supported on scientific knowledge about human behavior and social systems social work steps in there where people enter with their environment into interaction. Bases of the social work are the principles of the human rights and the social equity." (Setudegan 2007, p. 40)

Traditional and professional help:

"A help supply in legal social work contains Ressourcenerschliessung, existence safeguarding for a humane existence, advice, control." (Setudegan 2007, p. 19)

“Help is a basic function of the human behavior after dust Bernasconi and Engelke defines it as welfare, the central function of the social work". The opinion of Urban “is that the actions of one's own as help are understood, if also obviously they are about control behavior." (Setudegan 2007, p. 19 pp.).


"An enterprise is an open system with aims of its own and system control of its own." They are "control systems (orders) and action systems (organizations)", they are labeled of "autonomy".

The profit maximizing enterprises: It is its aim to maximize the financial profit of one's own, e.g. private enterprise.

The need covering enterprises: It is its aim to meet certain requirements of the society or single economy subjects. Non-profit organizations or need for profit enterprise, public enterprises, charitable organizations and facilities (p. 66 pp. quotes 1993 to Wöhrle cf. Setudegan 2007).

Asylum seekers with eventually permit to stay:

Persons with eventually permit have not been appreciated as refugees. Since their way instruction is unconscionable, not permitted or possible, they are taken for a short time being. As soon as them country is safe, they have to leave the countries of support. For them is permanently social net is not possible. They often stay in such countries for several years and can follow a gainful employment (cf. Carigiet 2003, p. 41).

Effect orientation:

The state delivery does only not orientate itself at the democracy principle (wanted politically) and at the right state principle (legal anchorage) but wonders with the effect orientation after the results of the state behavior (cf. Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 112).


"The result of an action and an expenditure usage is understood by effect." (Dvorak/Ruflin 2007, p. 113)

Economic action and economic principle for the social work

"As an economic action all scheduled human actions which are carried out considering the economic principles with the purpose are understood to reduce scarcity of the goods passing these, measured against the needs of the people." (Setudegan 2007, p. 24).

“The economic principle for the social work mean: maximize the prosperity of the society at the lowest resource consumption of the society.” (Setudegan 2007, p. 26p)

Wish criterion

This is a feature which is wished.

3 Description of the Investigation or Issue

“Social enterprises are social mission driven organizations which trade in goods or services for a social purpose. The need to deliver on financial, social and environmental performance targets is often referred to as having a triple bottom line.

It could be that the profit (or surplus) from the business is used to support related or unrelated social aims (as in a charity shop), or that the business itself accomplishes the social aim through its operation, say through the employment of people from a disadvantaged community including individuals and existing business who have difficulty in securing investment from banks and mainstream lenders.

Social enterprise is a relatively new term for a type of business that has existed for at least a century. The term social enterprise relates to social entrepreneur, the name originally given to 19th century philanthropic businessmen and industrialists, who had genuine concern for the welfare of their employees. Today, its use varies in different regions. In Britain, the focus is on the use of the surplus as the defining characteristic. In North America, there is less emphasis on generating a surplus and more on the double bottom line nature of the enterprise. European usage tends to add the criterion of social rather than individual ownership.

Social enterprises are generally held to comprise the more businesslike end of the spectrum of organizations that make up the third sector or social economy). A commonly-cited rule of thumb is that at least half their income is derived from trading rather than from subsidy or donations.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_enterprise)

3.1 Genesis of the Social Enterprise

Social Enterprise is an organization for management and special missions, which were set up in London as a safety company in 1992. In same year the support of Refugee was for government big trouble. The government assigns the first tasks to Social Enterprise for the support of applicant for political asylum in the England in few districts with the tasks as reception.

As of the year 1997 Social Enterprise takes the first assignments for coverage at the regionally responsible offices level.

Social Enterprise is aware of the first the regionally responsible office mandates in London in 1998. Social Enterprise is engaged by the government for war refugees from former Yugoslavia to the leadership of emergency accommodations at the same time. In the order of the government Social Enterprise in 2001 takes on the support of applicants for political asylum at other places like airport.

Social Enterprise was selected by the London and others cities as an enterprise who offers a high output in the first phase accommodation in a tendering procedure and got the first order to the leadership of a gateway centre. Social Enterprise is the only party of the contract of the London in the area of the support of the applicant for political asylum and refugees next to the asylum organization on municipal area.

The other City engages Social Enterprises to do the leadership of small NGO in 2004 for the first time.

As of January 1st, 2006 Social Enterprise looks after another applicants for political asylum in the different country in European Community with a final negative decision. This Decision was for the Social Enterprise very important and tries to find out, what it needs to get in another country the same tasks.

Social Enterprise takes on the support of the applicant for political asylum in many different accommodations of London as well as education and job creation schemes on July 1st, 2007.

Social Enterprise is engaged full extensively to do the support of the applicant for political asylum in the other cities as of January 1st, 2008.

3.2 Structure, organization Chart and Organization of Social Enterprise

The company Social Enterprise is a private, profit-oriented service provider, specializes in the asylum area. Social Enterprise is working in the different district in London and England. The legal form of the businessman is the public limited company.

The organization chart of Social Enterprise shows the structures of the enterprise. The organizational form of Organization is adapted to tasks and functions of the enterprise professionally.

The organization chart of Social Enterprise is subdivided according to customer group (the regionally responsible offices and government mandates). Moreover, the municipalities are divided up regionally. The strategy of the enterprise is fixed by the administrative board. Director (CEO) is elected by the administrative board and cares about the operational business primarily. It also has an additional function as a quality manager.

Every department has a primarily responsible one with a different management spread. It varies depending on number of the applicant for political asylum looked after. The three staff positions "marketing and sale", "administration" and "IT" (computer science and technology), are subordinated to the director directly.

The department federal mandates take the management of the reception and transit centers. The department of the regionally responsible offices mandates has to coordinate the function, individual accommodations at the municipalities. The departments’ district mandate conducts collective accommodations at the regional level and the department of occupation and education.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2: Structure of Social Enterprise

3.3 Structuring of Operations

The process flows [[2] ] of the enterprise satisfy the criteria of the standard ISO 9001:2000 as well as those of the Federal Office of national insurances BSV-IV 2000.

The process descriptions contain target [[3] ], scope, the beginning and end of the process, definition of single process steps, responsibility for some steps, action and behavior request, process-related documents and combinations to other processes.

The processes are subdivided into three parts: In leadership processes, delivery processes and support processes.

The process descriptions are for the delivery processes on the level national (reception and method centers, transit centers, transport of minors) for the part support of the applicant for political asylum for the admission for the support and the day for the medical basic support for catering, administration and payment, the leaving, the transfer and the medical support provided.

For collaborating the process descriptions are internet page of Social Enterprise for the delivery processes at the regionally responsible offices level for the mandate support for the accommodation for the admission, the support of the applicant for political asylum, for the financial support and for the medical basic support the internal to take into account. There then are processes in the administration. These refer to leaving and communication and individual accommodation. Another process contains internal business processes for the take-over of the regionally responsible offices mandates, team coordination, safety and handing in of the regionally responsible offices mandates.

As Mr. Sedaghat has us informed this defines quality management system (QMS) the structuring of operations of Social Enterprise. New one receive a recessed insight into it for QMS during a standardized introductory program and get to know the different, relevant for it processes collaborating. The uniform processes permit to render on schedule and geographically independently superior services within shortest time.

Entire QMS is available in the intranet for every collaborating any time. Lead complicated be dropped of folders and replacing sheets since new processes are available with the override in the Internet of inside shortest time for all persons concerned.

At undisciplined behavior of single applicants for political asylum every attendant has detailed instructions in such cases. The procedure is held tight in processes and instructions.

Due to the information of the ladder sale and marketing, Mr. Sedaghat has the collaborating frame for Social Enterprise opposite of the police in the legal one a cooperation duty.

3.4 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

Enterprise Resource Planning systems attempt to integrate several data sources and processes of an organization into a unified system. A typical ERP system will use multiple components of computer software and hardware to achieve the integration. A key ingredient of most ERP systems is the use of a unified database to store data for the various system modules.

The two key components of an ERP system are a common database and a modular software design. A common database is the system that allows every department of a company to store and retrieve information in real-time. Using a common database allows information to be more reliable, accessible, and easily shared. Furthermore, a modular software design is a variety of programs that can be added on an individual basis to improve the efficiency of the business. This improves the business by adding functionality, mixing and matching programs from different vendors, and allowing the company to choose which modules to implement. These modular software designs link into the common database, so that all of the information between the departments is accessible and real-time.[4]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 3: Enterprise Resource Planning (RPE)[5]

Manufacturating Resource Planning or MRP2 Around 1980, over frequent changes in sales forecasts, entailing continual readjustments in production, as well as the unsuitability of the parameters fixed by the system, led MRP (Material Requirements Planning) to evolve into a new concept : Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRPII or MRP2)

Source: "CIM: Principles of Computer Integrated Manufacturing", Jean-Baptiste Waldner, John Wiley & Sons, 1992. Reproduced with author's authorization

3.4.1 Personal

Social Enterprise employs 250 collaborating. The enterprise is politically and denominationally neutral. It looks after over 3500 applicants for political asylum at, all level daily and has a broad, 17-year experience in the leadership of asylum and refugee facilities.

According to the internal documentation of Social Enterprise 2007 it as an order wire enterprise attaches a great importance to suitable staff and it regards "as the most valuable good of the enterprise" Social Enterprise "stands out" due to a particularly careful selection of its colleagues for Social Enterprise the model.

For the support of 75 applicants for political asylum are one hundred place per cent scheduled.

The staff of Social Enterprise is polyvalent and disposes about high qualifications in the economic and social area.

For the support of the applicant for political asylum at the regionally responsible offices level are collaborating started with a high professional Social Worker. Most of them have an intercultural background.

The support staff at the regionally responsible offices level consists of flexible, communicative and resilient personalities with professional experience, good PC and knowledge of a foreign language and car of one's own. The car serves the individual and collective accommodations for the 24-hour attainment. Social Enterprise therefore ensures a trouble-free 24-hour support.

The qualifications into operation management round off the profile the collaborating in the administration.

According to the internal documentation of Social Enterprise the recruitment process of the businessman is standardized. Social Enterprise guarantees the equality of man and woman, also pay equity.

3.4.2 Efficiency

To the efficiency topic of Social Enterprise; the council of state of the regional mentions the creation and use of synergies in the areas of staff, social and professional incorporation, administration infrastructures, as well as the increase of the efficiency of the management and bookkeeping of local.

An optimal has Freiburg Social Enterprise according to the official medium communication of the regional, cost use relationship and high flexibility what it makes customer of the national, some regional and municipalities the partner of the public (cf. http://admin.fr.ch/de/data/pdf/dsas/asile_6_7_07_d.pdf).

3.4.3 Infrastructure of the administration

Social Enterprise has a three-storied building in the city of London. Tube is attainable with this in around ten minutes of the central station. The strategic as well as operative management of the enterprise is in this building: Management, marketing and sale, administration, IT and other departments. The meetings of the administrative board are also carried out in the headquarters. The accounting of their own and finance department of the enterprise became outsourced to a trust company.

3.4.4 Infrastructure of support

Social Enterprise does not have any accommodations of its own. The premises for the accommodation as well as job creation schemes, courses and consultations are of the national, made available by the regional or the regionally responsible offices and be taken by Social Enterprise mandatory. If necessary accommodations are, rented by Social Enterprise what one of the services of the enterprise is part of it?

The support staff has a sufficing number of premises in which the applicants for political asylum are greeted at its disposal in all collective, reception and method centers. The premises are equipped with modern technical infrastructure and safes. Collective accommodations provide premises for the night-watch with sleep possibility.

3.4.5 The Service

Social Enterprise is responsible for the guarantee of the accommodation and support of applicants for political asylum to persons. It conducts the six centers of the national and over fifty collective or the regionally responsible offices accommodations.

In the context of the asylum and refugee support Social Enterprise offers the following services:

Intake, support and accommodation of applicants for political asylum, persons taken for the time being and applicants for political asylum rejected on all steps of the asylum area:

- In the reception and method centers of the national, collective accommodations, in the minimal centers and in individual accommodations of the regionally responsible offices;
- Medical support of Social Enterprise for refugee (all applicants for political asylum are insured against illness and accident obligatorily),
- Coating as well as preparation and transfer to the municipalities; Organization and leadership of education and job creation schemes for applicants for political asylum
- Leadership of return advice offices and consultations in the return help for the rejected applicants for political asylum.
- Making of quarter and additional invoice documents, leading of administration and mutation nature;
- Training of staff for the support and accommodation of applicants for political asylum;
- EDP supported services for the asylum tasks;
- Communication and information like meetings with authorities or information exchange with contacts of the municipalities.

(Information source: Homepage of Social Enterprise)

3.4.6 The legal bases

The legal bases for the support and accommodation of the applicant for political asylum form the asylum law, the different Supplementary Benefits Acts and the corresponding regulations. Together they fix the legal frame for the support of the applicant for political asylum.

To compare to Switzerland; only since the asylum law of October 5th, 1979 becomes effective on January 1st, 1981 Switzerland knows a right of political asylum established federal legally. The asylum and aliens acts were revised repeatedly. (Information source: www.admin.ch/ch/d/gg/cr/1979/19790258.html)

Social Enterprise reacts to it quickly the national revised asylum sedately and includes organizational customizations in the services of one's own.


[1] Source: viennese newspaper http://www.wienerzeitung.at/DesktopDefault.aspx?TabID=4103&Alias=wzo&cob=336467

[2] time chronological course of the activities every process has a process aim

[3] The process aim is formulated as a final state, must be checkable and concrete

[4] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_resource_planning

[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MRP2.jpg

Excerpt out of 170 pages


Outsourcing of social tasks at profit oriented enterprises
Which criteria must enterprises fulfill in order to complete a service contract or performance agreement intended for asylum support?
( Atlantic International University )  (Institute of Business Econimic)
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ISBN (Book)
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Social Enterprise, Contract Managemnt, Outsourcing of tasks in a Social field
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Prof. (FH) Dr. Morris Setudegan (Author), 2008, Outsourcing of social tasks at profit oriented enterprises, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/179578


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