IEA Seminar on Globalization and Land Use in India

Scientific Essay, 2011

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1 'Land use Present Trend and Future Prospects'

2 'Land Use in Karnataka-A futuristic View'

3 'Sustainability a need of Land Use in Karnataka'

4 'Land Use and Sustainability'

5 Governance and Land Use: 'Urgent need for integrated vision and implementation atthe national, regional and local level'

6 'Public Policies and Land Relationships in Globalizing India-Take Land but Give Life'

7 Industries and Land Use in Karnataka

8 Towards A New 'Earth Shastra' - Rethinking Economics through Integration of Indian Thought and Economics*

9 Land Utilization and Waste Management Challenges in Karnataka-A study

10 'Spatial Technologies and Land Use Management'

11 GIS and Land Use Studies: Land Resources Information Systems for Mysore District

12 Overview

13 Report on recommendations

Dr. K. Narayana Gowda

By : Dr. K.Narayana Gowda

Vice Chancellor

University of Agricultural sciences Bangalore

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Dr. Narayana Gowda hails from a remote village in Kunigal taluk of Tumkur district. He holds a doctorate in Agricultural Extension (1992) with Gold medal from the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. Prior to his appointment as Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Gowda has served with distinction in various positions for 36 years as Dean (Agri), UAS, GKVK campus; Professor & Head, Department of Agricultural Extension; Project Coordinator, Rural Bio-Resource Complex and Extension Coordinator, Extension Education Unit, Bangalore. He had the rare opportunity of serving in all the three fields of Teaching, Research and Extension covering majority of Southern districts of Karnataka.Dr. Gowda has guided 9 Ph.D. and 11 M.Sc. scholars. He has published more than 124 research papers, including books. He has visited USA, UK, France, Spain and Pakistan to participate and present papers in the International Seminars and Conferences. He is continuously serving as Selection Committee Member in various SAUs, ASRB, ICAR Institutes, Nationalized Banks, Commodity Boards and NGOs. Served as Member of the Academic Council of ANGRAU, Andhra Pradesh, Board of Studies, Annamalai University, Chidambaram Tamil Nadu. Serving as Member in the important Committees at the GOI and GOK particularly as Coordinator of RBCs at DBT, Member of Karnataka Knowledge Commission (KKC), respectively and is member in 10 National and International professional bodies. Recently, he was elected as Vice-President of Indian Society of Extension Education New Delhi for the southern zone. His Major contributions include implementation of Whole Village Development Programme, introduction of pure crop of Banana in Malnad area, Introduced Redgram as an intercrop in the Potato belt of Hassan and evolved model for Rural Agricultural Work Experience (RAWE) programme, besides a scale to measure people's participation.

The model evolved under Rural Bio-Resource Complex (RBC) project is being replicated in North Eastern States of the country. Recently the Government of Karnataka is contemplating to replicate the model in 29 KVKs of Karnataka.The Expert Centre established at GKVK under his guidance in collaboration with ISRO is reaching farmers and farmwomen across the State every week through 51 Village Resources Centres and now GOK is planning to replicate in all the 746 Raitha Samparka Kendras in Karnataka. He is responsible for instituting two prestigious awards for farmers and two awards for the extension personnel to recognize best achievers every year in the University and Alumni Association. He is a member of 10 professional bodies and recently elected as Vice-President of ISEE, New Delhi. Considering his useful contributions in all the three fields of teaching, research and extension he was conferred with 10 prestigious awards including recently bestowed Swami Sahajananda Extension Scientists National Award of ICAR-2009. He is constantly endeavouring to develop models to rebuild the confidence of farmers in farming and in fine tuning Agriculture Teaching, Research and Extension.

1. 'Land use Present Trend and Future Prospects'
Key note address

By : Dr. K.Narayana Gowda

Vice Chancellor

University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore


Land being one of the most basic natural scarce resources which is inelastic has always been the subject matter of debate regarding its effective use. There is competing demand on it from different sectors like agriculture and allied activities, non-agriculture sectors like industries, communication systems (roads, railways, air ports, etc) buildings, irrigation and power projects, new townships, mining and so on. There is a need for striking balance between the competing claims of different sectors.

Land use pattern in any region mainly depends on its physical characteristics besides the institutional and other resources endowments like labour and capital available. In general land use pattern at given point of time mainly reflects degree of economic development. The increase in population dependent on agriculture has resulted in bringing large areas of marginal land under cultivation. On the other hand, demand for firewood, timber and fodder for livestock has resulted in excessive pressure of forest and pasture lands which have progressively affected the grass and tree cover resulting in accelerated land degradation leading to ecological imbalances and environmental problems. The demand for land for non agricultural purposes has enormously increased during the last two decades which has further accentuated the situation.

Need for Land Use Planning

In India, during the last few decades there has been phenomenal Increase In population. India supports Its population with only 2.3 per cent of the world's land area and 1.7 per cent of the world's forest. In India, by mid-nineties, more than 85 per cent of the cultivable area had already been brought under cultivation. India has total land area of approximately 328 million hectares.

Land utilization statistics are available for almost 93 per cent of the entire area that is around 306 million hectares.

Taking into account the total land resources including hills, mountains, lakes, rivers and lands of all description, the availability of land per head in India comes to only 0.58 hectares.

In a country like India, land is not only an important factor of production, but also the basic means of subsistence for majority of people. Competition for land among the different users is becoming acute and conflicts arising out of this competition are more frequent and more complex. The problem arises because of market driven, albeit unplanned diversification as well as urbanization often results in non-sustainable pattern of development. A market driven land use pattern may yield higher returns in the short run, but may pose several unmanageable problems for future generations due to unplanned overexploitation of land, water and other natural resources. Besides there are several policies put into practice by different development departments like agriculture, irrigation, power, forest, environment and so on which are conflicting and confusing.

Under India's federal structure land is state subject and so far there is no National legislation on land use. The National Land Use and Conservation Board (NLCB) has been constituted in Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India to serve as a policy planning, coordinating and monitoring agency at national level for issues concerning the health and scientific management of land resources of the country. State Land Use Boards (SLUB) has been set up in each state to implement the policies and guidelines issued by NLCB. But in most of the States, the Land Use Boards are not active. Let me recall before you the recommendations of National land Use Policy which have been spelt out during the later part of 1980s.

Recommendations of National Land Use Policy -1988

National Land Use Policy 1988 specify following objectives:

1. to meet the consumption needs of a growing population by increasing productivity of integrated land resources in the country;
2. to prevent any further deterioration of land resource by appropriate preventive measures
3. to restore the productivity of the degraded land by an appropriate package practice;
4. to provide the necessary technological and extension support to all the concerned and to the farming community in particular for obtaining the maximum production through increased productivity.
5. to allocate land for different uses based upon land capability, land productivity and national production goals;
6. to install efficient and effective administrative structure for prescribing and regulating land use by all the concerned, including the Government Departments and to revitalize the land use Boards in this behalf.
7. to involve the community for adoption of appropriate land use for increased productivity by ensuring that the land use policy provides adequately for the consumption and energy needs and generally improves their income levels and provide them better quality of life;
8. to create a greater awareness of the advantage of national land use policy at all levels through appropriate educational, extension and training programs;
9. to restructure livestock production program in such a manner that the livestock population is gradually limited to economically productive stock and to prevent degradation of grasslands by promoting measures increasing stall feeding of livestock in rural areas.
10. to provide for optimum use of land which is under agriculture by promoting the concept of mixed farming system in which the production program will include the production of fodder and tree crops also on the marginal and sub-marginal land of farmers.
11. to motivate farmers by organizing input supplies and marketing support for encouraging them to cultivate the appropriate crop or fodder or trees in conformity with land use policy.
12. to take up on priority basis the completion of land and soil surveys and to complete the inventory of land resources on the basis of the prescribed land use classification so that resource allocation is based on the reliable data base.
13. to examine the legal support available for enforcement of land use policy in the form of existing State and central laws and to consider the need for comprehensive legislation to
14. provide some teeth to any machinery entrusted with implementation of national land use policy; to coordinate the formulation and implementation of water resource management policies, forest management policies and urban planning within the overall allocation needs dictated by comprehensive national land use policy; and to prepare a plan of action at all levels covering a time frame relevant to all the objectives specified above and to continuously monitor action taken thereon in an effective fashion.
15. these recommendations continue to be relevant even today and it is high time for us to have retrospection in order to know how many of them we were able to put into action and what are the bottlenecks in accomplishing them. I hope the seminar would spend some time and deliberate on these issues.

Trends in land Use

The collection of land use data in India begins at the village level. The land utilization or land use statistics formed part of the agricultural statistics and the source for these data is Ministry of Agriculture. The Technical Committee on Co-ordination of Agricultural Statistics, set up in 1948 by the Ministry of Food & Agriculture, recommended a nine-fold land-use classification and also recommended standard concepts and definitions for all the states to follow for better comparability and comprehension. The nine-fold land-use classification adopted are;

1. Forests, (2) Area not available for cultivation {(a) Areas under non agricultural uses, and (b) Barren and uncultivable land)}(3) Other uncultivated land excluding fallow land {(a) Permanent pastures and other grazing lands, (b) Miscellaneous tree crops and groves, and (Cultivable wasteland)},
2. Fallow lands other than current fallows and b) Current fallows
3. Areas sown more than once
4. Net sown area

Table : Land Classification in India (Million hectares)

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Note : Figures in parentheses indicate percentage to reported area; Source

Agricultural Research Data Book2009, IASRI, New Delhi.

Land use trend in India during the period 1950-51 to 2005-06 indicate that out of the total geographical area of 328 million hectares, the land use statistics were available for roughly 284 million hectares in 1950-51; however, in 2005-06 the reporting area is around 306 million hectares. The area, for which data on the land use classification are available ; is known as the reporting area. Area under forests includes all lands classed as forest under any legal enactment dealing with forests or administered as forest, whether state-owned or private, and whether wooded or maintained as potential forest land. There has been perceptible increase in the forest area up to the year 2005-06. It increased from 40.48 million hectares in 1950-51 to 69.79 million hectares in 2005-06. In percentage terms, the area under forest, which constituted 14.2 percent of the reporting area, increased to 22.9 percent in 2005-06. It is apparently indicative of a healthy land-use management. However, literature indicates that this is not suggestive of a real increase of area under forest but is due to incremental increase of reporting area under forest (Chadha et. el., 2004).

Area under non-agricultural use includes all lands occupied by buildings, roads, railways or under water, e.g. rivers and canals and other put to uses other than agriculture. Land put to non-agricultural uses increased by 15.67 million hectares during the reference period. The increase may be attributed to rise in human population as well as launching of development programmes/projects for boosting the economy of the country and urbanization as well.

The area under 'Barren and uncultivable land' has substantially decreased by 20.68 million hectares during reference period. It came down to 17.48 million hectares in 2005-06 from 38.million hectares in 1950-51. The decline in barren and unculivalbe land can essentially be attributed to the increase in area under non-agricultural use.

Fallow land other than current fallows includes all lands, which were taken up for cultivation but are temporarily out of cultivation for a period of not less than one year and not more than five years.

The reasons for keeping such lands fallow may be one or more of the following reasons like poverty of the cultivators, inadequate supply of water, climate, silting of canals and rivers and un-remunerative nature of farming.

It witnessed a decrease of 6.94 million hectares from 1950-51 to 2005-06, which is a sign of better utilization of land in the form of bringing it into cultivation.

A reverse trend is observed in case of 'current fallows', which represents cropped areas, which are kept fallow during the current year. The trend of current fallow has been fluctuating; during the fifties to nineties the overall increase is less than one per cent only i.e. 2.99 million hectares. It is discouraging to note that in spite of massive efforts made by the Government to increase agricultural production, the area under 'current fallows', instead of decreasing, has slightly increased.

However, it is encouraging that the area under 'cultivable waste land' decreased by 9.82 million hectares during 1950-51 to 2005-06, which by and large, might have ]been brought under cultivation. Land under miscellaneous tree crops and groves witnessed a deep decrease by 16.45 million hectares during the period 1950-51 to 12005-06. It reveals that much of the tree crops and pastures representing common property resources have reduced in significance over time. Common property resources is important in terms of providing fuel supplies, grazing area, employment and income generation options for rural poor as they depend on it for their sustenance.

However, the net area sown in 2005-06 increased to 141.89 million hectares from 118.75 million hectares in 1950-51, witnessing an increase of 23.14 million hectares. In percentage terms, it increased from 41.8 per cent of the 'reporting area' in 1950-51 to 46.5 per cent in 2005-06. Area sown more than once, where more than one crop is grown during the agricultural year, has moved up sharply in the last fifty five years from 13.15 million hectares to 50.90 million hectares.

Economic globalization combined with the looming land scarcity increases the complexity of future pathways of land use change.

The pressure exerted on land and other natural resources in the country has intensified in the post-liberalization phase. The conversion agricultural lands to non-agricultural uses are posing serious threat and creating unrest in the rural areas. The changes in land use over time will have long term implications.

There is a need to initiate studies to understand how far and to what extent loss of agricultural lands could have macro impact on food production. I hope the conference would deliberate on land use policy with reference to acquisition of agricultural land and impact on farm production and livelihood security of the land owners.

The per capita availability of cultivable land in India is meager and with the fast increasing population coupled with the area under non-agricultural uses, the availability of land will further shrink to very low level. The per capita availability of agricultural land in rural areas has declined consistently from 0.638 hectares in 1950-51 to 0.271 hectares in 2000-01 and is expected to decline further due to population growth. The per capita availability of forestland was around 0.113 hectares in 1950s, which has declined consistently over the period to 0.071 hectares in 2000-01. This is extremely low compared to the world standards.

The measures dealing with the quality of land have a partial to significant impact on environmental parameters.

Land tenure and farm size

During pre-independence period agrarian relations in several parts of India were essentially feudal. The response by Union and State Governments was to promulgate legislation designed to abolish intermediaries, secure title and occupancy rights for tenants, control rent paid by tenants, limit holding size and consolidate holdings. The tract record of agrarian legislation varied geographically and legislative intent.

Though there was success in terms of abolition of intermediaries the consolidation of holdings did not register expected level of success. Land-reform measures have had a significant impact on equity and poverty.

Proper land records continue to be a major problem even after five decades of land policy interventions. Though the Government has taken measures for Computerization of land records, this alone may not solve the problem as updating and publication of the Records of Rights have to betaken on warfooting.

The pattern of land distribution has rendered rural landscape of India unfavourable for farming. The precursor for this is the fragmentation of cultivable land into a large number of 'small landholdings'. This attributed to increasing population pressure leading to adverse land-man ratio and increased fragmentation of land holding due to family sub-divisions, often making them non-viable and indivisible for technological use.

The process of marginalization of a vast majority of farmers, nearly 60 percent of holdings are marginal i.e, below one hectare, has posed a severe challenge to the prospects of rural economy and the growth of agriculture in future.

IFSD Models

Probably no issue has received as much analytical scrutiny in the Indian context as the nexus between farm size and land productivity. Based on the farm management studies, a negative relationship between owned area and production per acre of owned area was conclusively documented.

There can be no fixed guidelines formulated for land use planning owing to the varied biophysical conditions and socio-economic set up., Though it sounds difficult but not impossible and if given a fair trial can lead to definite improvement in the economic status of not only the marginal farmers but can generate a handsome surplus for the Nation as well.

University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore has identified several location specific Integrated Farming System Models that can generate reasonable income on sustained basis to support the farming family. University is demonstrating these models in 25,000 farmers' field during the current year with the support of the State Government.

Monitoring of land Resources and its use

Application of Remote Sensing techniques has played crucial role in understanding the rapid changes occurring in land use pattern overtime. The remote sensing application to develop agro-ecological inventory at a micro level will go long way in evolving scientific land use plans that aims at preventing further degradation of land resources and conserving them.

Challenges Ahead

Land continues to be the primary factor of production in agriculture. Technological options have to be evolved to address the problem of shrinking land resources available for agriculture to sustain the desired level of production of food grains and other agricultural commodities.

It is essential to evolve and implement land reform measures suited to present day context.

Measures are needed to prevent further indiscriminate fragmentation of land and steps may be taken for consolidation through appropriate policy measures. The investment for strengthening land and water resources may be stepped up. Prevention of land degradation and bringing one-third of land under tree cover has to be addressed on war footing which otherwise may pose series of threat to food, livelihood and environment security of the country.

More stringent policy to prevent conversion of agricultural lands to non agricultural purposes may have to be put in to place in the wake of rapid urbanization. More scientific management of urban lands may have to be put in place to prevent horizontal expansion of urban areas.

Ramachandra Gowda, b.Sc., b.e., fie.

Deputy Chairman, State Planning Board

Government of Karnataka, Bangalore.

- Born in a humble agriculturists' family;
- Awarded Fellow of the Institute of Engineers (India);
- Joined the Bharath Seva Dal & RSS during his boyhood, imbibed patriotism;
- Became a front-ranking activist of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
- A two-time corporator of the Bangalore City Corporation since 1970;
- Launched fast-unto-death to force the BCC to bring in the scientifically evolved Self Assessment Scheme (SAS) for collecting property tax and succeeded after nine days of the hunger strike;
- Has been winning the elections to the Karnataka Legislative Council from the Bangalore Graduates constituency - a worthy representative of the proud enlightened voters - for the fourth consecutive term;
- Moved and got it passed a historic private member bill in the council for protection of 46,000 tanks and lakes in the state; many programmes of the state government towards this end stems from his idea;
- The first decision - that was to become historic, eventually - as minister for lottery & small savings, abolished all kinds of lotteries, a social menace; this became a reality in 2007 - this is notwithstanding the life-threat posed by pro-lottery lobby;
- As a planning minister, meticulously evolving programmes to develop border areas in accordance with the Baragur Ramachandrappa committee report.
- Decided to retain and renew small savings agency and helped as many 45,000 agents - majority of them ladies from middle class - from becoming unemployed.
- As Minister for Medical Education, was instrumental in building infrastructure, bringing in professionalism among the teaching and non­teaching personnel in the hospitals attached to medical colleges;
- As Deputy Chairman of the State Planning Board, he assisted the Chief Minister-who is the Chairman - in providing macro and micro details of the state's needs which, in turn, helped the chief minister to prepare and presenta people-friendly budget with long-range vision;
- If his performance in any responsibility has been remarkable, his conduct and behavior has been dignified, humble and modest, which has brought credibility to the party and the government, besides making the cadre proud;

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Inaugural Address 'Land Use in Karnataka a Futuristic View1 By Sri Ramachandra Gowda Deputy Chairman Karnataka State Planning Board on 20th/0ctober/2011 at IEA National Seminar on 'Land Use and Globalization in India' Hosted by Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni Social Science Research Centre, Bangalore

At the outset I appreciate the efforts of Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni Social Science Research centre on organizing this seminar with an important theme. Now, world over, implications of globalization are under study. Considering the impact on land use is very urgent due to sustainability issues.

Globalization has been driven by the falling costs of transport and communication ever since the introduction of steamships, railroads and the telegraph. The engine of globalization has been steady reductions in the cost of moving goods, capital, people and ideas. Recent technology improvements have had huge measurable effects.

The real costs of moving goods between cities dropped by over 90% during the 20th century, when road transportation started to replace water and railway transportation. During the second half of the same century, the cost of air transportation has dropped as well.

Most dramatically, with the extremely rapid development of email and the Internet, the costs of communication have fallen. The convergence of technology and events that allowed India, China, and so many other countries to become part of the global supply chain for services and manufacturing, creating an explosion of wealth in the middle classes of the world's two biggest nations and giving them a huge new stake in the success of globalization.

This has expanded the set of consumption opportunities, reduced monopoly power and lowered costs. In some cases, the new technology has fundamentally altered how business is done. Most important, the new ICT technologies have greatly improved the opportunities for exchange and thus made possible a further division of labour and huge improvements in efficiency along the lines discussed by Adam Smith more than two and a quarter centuries ago. Geography creates cost-advantaged relationships between sellers and buyers who are located "close" to one another.

The mobility of ideas and transfer of knowledge has increased enormously with the globalization and digitalization of the economy. This offers parts of India and China genuine opportunities to set up their own firms in order to be creative and productive and ideas can be quite footloose. So it makes more sense to subsidize higher education than to subsidize R&D. There may also be reasons to make cities more attractive to the creative class by having a rich cultural climate. The key insight is that mainly jobs or tasks that are mundane and codifiable are contested by global competition.

In this context, Karnataka is endeavoring to take the opportunities of globalization. The Government of Karnataka drew up a vision for the development of infrastructure in social and economic sectors, Vision 2020.

It is desired that the infrastructure development should happen in a manner that is sustainable environmentally while it catalyses the delivery of inclusive development. The key areas of development identified are: Energy, Information and Communication Technology, Roads (rural and Highways), Railways, Ports, Logistics, Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation etc.

The state is endowed with rich natural resources and but has inadequately developed infrastructure to harness the resources. The State plans to more than double the investment in infrastructure, annually, in the 11th plan period. The State has to partner with private sector in a new relationship- the PPP mode in this huge endeavour.

The State has also to fine tune the configuration of knowledge, technology, managerial, technical and financial architecture for managing infrastructure, the creation of and sustenance of it, to get optimal levels of development. This requires a well orchestrated effort on the part of the State's governance.

The objective of this paper is to develop a Sustainable infrastructure Action Plan for Karnataka; such a task has to be supported by an enabling policy environment, capacities, expertise to conceive and develop projects of great magnitude.

The following key themes are identified for infrastructure Development, Transportation, ICT and health related public utilities.

Road Network: State plans to develop a core road network as stated above and provide impetus to economic activity by connecting locations of agricultural, industrial and tourist importance. This will be in line with existing and potential regional industrial clusters, urban corridors and district development plans. High density stretches are identified for the creation of dedicated corridors, constructed with private participation.

The State is endeavoring to put up at least 4800km of Railway corridors with the help of Railways.

At the same time, the State will develop a logistics architecture consisting of Transportation, Storage and Distribution to meet the needs of just-in-time requirements. This service will have significant employment benefits.

Infrastructure creation for border areas to leverage from growth centres in neighbouring States will also be encouraged. Public- private partnerships (PPP) with a minimum specified period for revenue sharing/ annuity would provide an important mechanism in this endeavour.

The state has planned to develop ports to enhance both inbound and outbound trade.

The state has planned to facilitate construction of gas pipelines to enhance energy security and make clean energy available to all classes of population. Achieving Orderly Industrialization & Urbanization Karnataka is a rapidly urbanizing State having 36% of its population in urban areas. Urbanization offers the ability for better provision of basic services and acts as a centre for growth of industry and services. By facilitating employment in higher productivity sectors, it raises quality of life and disposable incomes. Therefore, if properly managed, faster industrialization and urbanization is desirable.

In Karnataka, however, both these processes are largely concentrated around Bangalore. This has led to proliferation of slums, inadequate infrastructure, glut of unskilled labor, environmental degradation and income disparity.

Build and sustain Bangalore's global leadership in science, technology and knowledge based industries. Transformation of Infrastructure through Vision Sustainability and acceleration of Karnataka's economic growth critically hinges on the availability of adequate and good quality infrastructure facilities. Though the State's physical infrastructure is fairly extensive, it has failed to keep pace with rapidly rising demand resulting in frequent and acute demand-supply gaps. This calls for a larger, coordinated transformational approach to infrastructure planning and implementation. While the Government's investment for infrastructure development is inescapable, the PPP route also needs to be encouraged. Along with supplementing scarce public resources, it creates a competitive environment and thus improves efficiencies.

The quality and adequacy of infrastructure is the major determinant for improving quality of life and attracting investments. A few infrastructure targets are identified below.

Road Density: 1.07 km per Sq Km (current level), 1.50 km per Sq Km is the Goal for 2020.

Road net work : Though the State has a good road density of 1.05 km per sq km, much of this is single lane and / or un-surfaced- only 10% of Roads are 2 lanes or above, 2% of Roads in the form of National Highways carry 40% of traffic, 50 % of rural roads are un-surfaced.. The State requires a core road network (NH + SH) of around 40,000 km, but has around 24,000 km currently. A 250% increase in vehicle population between 1997-2007, doubling of freight vehicle density and inadequate funds for road maintenance, has led to asset deterioration.

The State continues to have a low rail density of 16km per lOOOsqkm Railways/ Ports/ Energy:; almost half of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu or Kerala and faces a shortfall of capacity to handle projected increases in port, cargo and air traffic, which are also hindered by poor connecting infrastructure.

This will be in line with existing and potential regional industrial clusters, urban corridors and district development plans. High density stretches are identified for the creation of dedicated corridors, constructed with private participation.

Rail Network : The State is endeavoring to put up at least 4800km of Railway corridors with the help of Railways. Logistics Network : At the same time, the State will develop a logistics architecture consisting of Transportation, Storage and Distribution to meet the needs of just-in-time requirements. This service will have significant employment benefits.

Infrastructure creation for border areas to leverage from growth centres in neighbouring States will also be encouraged. Public- private partnerships (PPP) with a minimum specified period for revenue sharing / annuity would provide an important mechanism in this endeavour. The state has planned to develop ports to enhance both inbound and outbound trade.

The State has planned to put up another 10741 MW of power units. This would help in improving the power consumption to 1200 units per capita.

The state has planned to facilitate construction of gas pipelines to enhance energy security and make clean energy available to all classes of population.

Achieving Orderly Industrialization & Urbanization Karnataka is a rapidly urbanising State having 36% of its population in urban areas. Urbanisation offers the ability for better provision of basic services and acts as a centre for growth of industry and services. By facilitating employment in higher productivity sectors, it raises quality of life and disposable incomes.

Therefore, if properly managed, faster industrialisation and urbanisation are desirable. In Karnataka, however, both these processes are largely concentrated around Bangalore. This has led to proliferation of slums, inadequate infrastructure and glut of unskilled labour, environmental degradation and income disparity. The State's policies therefore need to be driven by three broad concerns - improve linkages between the city and its hinterland, make the towns a productive setting for growth and develop a distinctive approach to address issues of urban poverty. To achieve a transformational change, the State has to renew efforts to harness the local natural resources and also to optimize its value addition, following sector specific industrial zones/ corridors will be developed as identified in Industrial Policy '09.

The State will target investment in select urban corridors to make them centres of industrial activity and develop select Tier II / III cities as future growth centres. As part of Suvarna Karnataka Development Corridor (SKDC) Programme, Major Industrial corridors with 8 lane roads will be developed in Bidar-Bangalore via Chitradurga, Tumkur- Honnavar via Shimoga, Chitradurga-Mangalore via Shimoga- Udupi and Bangalore-Belgaum via Davanagere -Hubli. Additional corridors will also be developed to cover Bidar, Bijapur and other potential locations.


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IEA Seminar on Globalization and Land Use in India
MaharaniLakshmi Ammanni Centre for Social Science Research
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Land Use, Globalization, Environment, Economics
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Dr. Rekha Jagannath (Author), 2011, IEA Seminar on Globalization and Land Use in India, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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